Virtual Library

Start Your Search

P. Baas

Moderator of

  • +

    ORAL 14 - Biology 2 (ID 112)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Thymoma, Mesothelioma and Other Thoracic Malignancies
    • Presentations: 8
    • +

      ORAL14.01 - Early Contrast Enhancement as a Non-Invasive Objective Biomarker of Pleural Malignancy (ID 1687)

      16:45 - 18:15  |  Author(s): S. Tsim, D.B. Stobo, G.W. Cowell, R. Woodward, J.E. Foster, K.G. Blyth

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Despite imaging advances, differentiating pleural malignancy (PM) from benign pleural disease (BPD) remains challenging, particularly early-stage Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM), which can look similar to benign asbestos-related pleural effusion (BAPE). We report the diagnostic performance of a novel Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) biomarker of PM - Early Contrast Enhancement (ECE).

      Methods:
      24 patients with suspected PM were recruited prospectively (January 2013-November 2014). All underwent contrast-enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) scanning and Thoracoscopy. 3-T Pleural MRI was performed prior to Thoracoscopy (median 4 (IQR 4–8) days). Imaging methodology was developed using patients 1-6. In 18 patients, T1-weighted 3D-spoiled-gradient-echo sequences were acquired coronally at baseline, 40 and 80 seconds and 4.5, 9 and 13.5 minutes after intravenous Gadobutrol contrast. Mean signal intensity (SI) of parietal pleura at each time-point was derived from 15 regions of interest placed by two respiratory physicians. ECE on the resulting SI/time curve was defined objectively as an early peak (at/before 4.5 minutes) and/or late fall in mean SI (Figure 1). CT and MRI scans were assessed for morphological features of PM by two thoracic radiologists. All analyses were blinded. Diagnostic performance was assessed using contingency tables. Inter- and intra-observer agreement was assessed using Cohen’s kappa statistic. Figure 1



      Results:
      Median patient age was 73 (IQR 70–80) years. 75% (n=18) were asbestos-exposed. ECE was present in 10/11 patients with PM (MPM (10); lung cancer (1)). The false negative case had MPM. 1 MPM case was initially diagnosed with BAPE but reclassified as MPM after developing progressive PM, consistent with their initial MRI result (ECE present). ECE was absent in 6/7 patients with BPD (BAPE (4), fibrothorax (2), TB (1)). The false positive case had TB. Table 1 summarises diagnostic performance.

      Table 1: Diagnostic performance and reproducibility of ECE, CT morphology and MRI morphology in pleural malignancy
      Sensitivity (%) Specificity (%) Negative Predictive Value (%) Positive Predictive Value (%) Inter-observer agreement Intra-observer agreement
      CT Morphology 90 50 80 69 0.753 Not done
      MRI Morphology 91 71 83 83 0.727 Not done
      MRI Early Contrast Enhancement 91 86 86 91 0.766 1.000


      Conclusion:
      ECE appears a sensitive and specific objective biomarker of PM, out-performing subjectively-defined CT and MR morphology. SI/time curves for ECE assessment can be generated reproducibly in patients with minimal pleural thickening, suggesting potential utility as a non-invasive biomarker for the early detection of MPM or low-volume metastatic PM.

      Only Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login, select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout. If you would like to become a member of IASLC, please click here.

      Only Active Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login or select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout.

    • +

      ORAL14.02 - Clinical Significance of Soluble CD26 in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (ID 354)

      16:45 - 18:15  |  Author(s): N. Fujimoto, K. Ohnuma, K. Aoe, O. Hosono, T. Yamada, T. Kishimoto, C. Morimoto

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      There is no established diagnostic marker for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). CD26 is a 110 kDa, multifunctional, membrane-bound glycoprotein on the surface of many cell types that has dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) enzyme activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of soluble CD26 in patients with MPM.

      Methods:
      The study included 80 MPM patients, 79 subjects with past asbestos exposure (SPE), and 134 patients with other benign pleural diseases (OPD) that were included as a control group. Soluble CD26 levels and DPPIV activity in serum and/or pleural fluid were determined using an ELISA kit. To make a comparative review of the usefulness of sCD26, we determined serum and pleural fluid soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRP). SMRP was measured by the chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) based on 2-step sandwich method.

      Results:
      Serum sCD26 levels and DPPIV enzyme activity in patients with MPM were significantly decreased compared with those in the SPE group (P=0.000). The level of serum sCD26 was significantly decreased in patients with advanced stages of MPM compared with those with earlier stages (P=0.047). The median OS of patients with MPM who had higher DPPIV enzyme activity was significantly longer than that of those with lower DPPIV enzyme activity (P=0.032). The sCD26 levels in the pleural fluid of MPM patients with an epithelioid subtype were significantly increased compared with the OPD cohort (P=0.012). Moreover, DPPIV enzyme activity in the pleural fluid of patients with MPM with an epithelioid subtype were significantly increased compared with those in the OPD cohort (P=0.009). Patients with MPM who had lower specific DPPIV activity, determined as DPPIV/sCD26, showed significantly prolonged survival compared with those with higher specific DPPIV activity (P=0.028). Median values of serum and pleural fluid SMRP in MPM patients were 0.43 and 15.37 mmol/l, respectively. Median value of pleural fluid SMRP in epithelioid MPM was 17.28 mmol/l. Median values of serum SMRP in SPE and pleural fluid SMRP in OPD were 0.90 and 0.43 mmol/l, respectively. Pleural fluid SMRP in MPM was significantly higher than in OPD (P=0.000) and serum SMRP in MPM was significantly higher than in SPE (P=0.000).

      Conclusion:
      Serum sCD26 and DPPIV enzyme activity appear to be useful biomarkers for differentiating patients with MPM from SPE. The sCD26 levels or DPPIV enzyme activity in pleural fluid appear to be biomarkers in patients with an epithelioid subtype of MPM. DPPIV activity in serum or pleural fluid appears to be predictive for the prognosis of patients with MPM.

      Only Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login, select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout. If you would like to become a member of IASLC, please click here.

      Only Active Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login or select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout.

    • +

      ORAL14.03 - Integrin Linked Kinase Pathway: A Potential Driver of Tumorigenesis of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (ID 2135)

      16:45 - 18:15  |  Author(s): A. De Rienzo, M.A. Archer, B.Y. Yeap, N. Dao, D. Sciaranghella, A.C. Sideris, A.G. Holman, Y.E. Wang, L. Croft, W.G. Richards, R. Bueno

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Identifying driver mutations assists with understanding molecular aspects of cancer and development of novel drugs. The genetics of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has primarily been to date described in terms of deletions of specific chromosomal regions with CDKN2A and NF2 most commonly mutated, and more recently, evidence for a role of BAP1. The current work suggests that activation of the Integrin Linked Kinase (ILK) pathway may be oncogenic in a subset of MPM.

      Methods:
      Whole-genome sequencing was accomplished for 10 tumor and matched normal genomic DNA samples using a Complete Genomics platform. Tumor and normal genomes were sequenced to at least 30-fold haploid coverage, with corresponding diploid coverage of at least 99.5%. Selected candidates single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were further characterized using PCR and Sanger sequencing to identify tumor-specific single nucleotide mutations. Potential driver genes were investigated in 147 additional MPM cases by targeted resequencing. Levels of transcripts were examined in an available expression data set (Affymetrix® Human Gene 1.1 ST Array). Association of mutation status and gene expression to clinicopathologic variables was explored statistically.

      Results:
      Among 146 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) mapping in amino acid coding regions of annotated exons and generating non-synonymous amino acid changes, 85 were confirmed to be tumor specific. Functional enrichments of genes affected by point mutations were performed utilizing Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to identify clusters of genes annotated in pathways potentially relevant to the biology of MPM. Mutations affecting genes involved in the Integrin Linked Kinase (ILK) pathway were the most significantly (p = 4.9e-5) enriched. Specifically, 5 of 10 sequenced MPM samples showed point mutations in at least one of 6 genes of this pathway (MYH9, MYH6, MYH10, PIK3C2A, RHOA, and TNFRSF1A). Re-sequencing analysis of 147 MPM tumors identified 40 SNVs in these genes among 31 MPM samples (21%). Thirty-five (88%) SNVs were present in both tumor and matching normal DNA samples. In 4 samples, tumor specific mutations were identified, 3 in MYH9 (1.4%) and 2 in RHOA (1.4%) both recently proposed as genes involved in tumorigenesis. Non-epithelioid tumors expressed significantly higher levels of MYH9 (p<0.001), RHOA (p<0.001), and MYH10 (p=0.001) compared to epithelioid tumors. RHOA was more highly expressed in men than women (p=0.001). The highest quartile of MYH9 and of RHOA expression was associated with higher gender-adjusted risk of death (HR=2.23 and HR=1.95, respectively) compared to the lower three quartiles (p<0.001) by multivariate analysis.

      Conclusion:
      Tumor specific mutations in MYH9 or RHOA were found in six of 157 (3.8%) MPM patients. Interestingly, both MYH9 (22q13.1) and RHOA (3p21.3) reside in two chromosomal regions frequently deleted in MPM. Additional analysis is in progress to investigate the role of ILK pathway activation in MPM. These observations suggest that a sub-class of MPM may respond to therapy targeting the ILK pathway.

      Only Active Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login or select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout.

    • +

      ORAL14.04 - Discussant for ORAL14.01, ORAL14.02, ORAL14.03 (ID 3332)

      16:45 - 18:15  |  Author(s): D.S. Schrump

      • Abstract
      • Presentation

      Abstract not provided

      Only Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login, select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout. If you would like to become a member of IASLC, please click here.

    • +

      ORAL14.05 - Intracavitary Cisplatin-Fibrin After Resection of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (ID 1165)

      16:45 - 18:15  |  Author(s): I. Opitz, A. Kostron, O. Lauk, M. Meerang, M. Friess, G. Wuilleret, C. Bommeli, A. Jetter, B. Aeschlimann, D. Günther, R. Stahel, W. Weder

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Local tumor recurrence is very frequent after resection of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Intracavitary chemotherapy has been shown to be a promising approach to improve local tumor control. Here, we present the results of a phase-I-dose-escalation trial with intracavitary application of cisplatin-fibrin after surgical tumor resection.

      Methods:
      Altogether 12 patients (75% IMIG stage III-IV) were treated with 4 different dose levels of cisplatin (11, 22, 33 and 44mg/m[2] body surface area (BSA)). Eight patients of 22, 33 and 44mg/m[2] groups received previous induction treatment with intravenous cisplatin/pemetrexed. Cisplatin-fibrin was sprayed on the surface of chest wall, diaphragm, mediastinum and lung after pleurectomy/decortication (P/D). Blood was taken before surgery and at several time points after the treatment. Tissue sampling was conducted before and at 90 minutes after the administration. Cisplatin levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry.

      Results:
      Serum cisplatin kinetics and AUC0-120 are depicted in figure 1. Induction intravenous chemotherapy contributed to >50% of total serum cisplatin levels compared to cisplatin-fibrin (figure 1B). The median AUC0-24 of the 3 patients in the highest dose level (44mg/m[2]BSA) including predoses from induction chemotherapy reached 23h*µg/g, which is still below the suggested renal toxicity risk level, 25h*µg/g (Royer 2008). Our serum cisplatin AUC levels stayed far below levels reported after intrapleural perfusion (approx. 89h*µg/g (Ried 2013)). Local cisplatin concentration in tissues varied from 12-133 (median: 36.5µg/g) and did not seem to be dose dependent. No dose limiting toxicity due to cisplatin was observed. Major morbidity was observed in 4 patients (33%). 30day- and 90day-mortality was 0%. The median follow up after surgery was 11 months (range: 5-28 months). In 8 patients receiving 11, 22, 33 mg/m[2]BSA, relapse was detected after a median freedom from recurrence (FFR) of 8 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 1-14 months). In three patients with early IMIG stage (I and II), no sign of relapse was observed at 28, 8 and 6 months after the treatment (11, 44, 44 mg/m[2]BSA, respectively). The last patient (44mg/m[2]BSA) with IMIG stage III tumor currently shows no sign of recurrence at 5 months after surgery. Figure 1



      Conclusion:
      The administration of intracavitary cisplatin-fibrin as high as 44mg/m[2]BSA is safe after P/D, also in combination with induction chemotherapy. Tissue cisplatin concentration was high whereas no dose limiting toxicity due to systemic distribution was detected. A confirmation of the safety and efficacy of the highest dosage, 44 mg/m[2]BSA, in a phase II trial is warranted.

      Only Active Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login or select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout.

    • +

      ORAL14.06 - MesobanK - an International Mesothelioma Tissue Bioresource - Now Open for Tissue Requests (ID 988)

      16:45 - 18:15  |  Author(s): R.C. Rintoul, D.M. Rassl, J. Gittins, J. Edwards, D.A. Fennell, R. Booton, N. Maskell, A. Chauhan, V. Hughes, S. Marciniak

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Availability of quality assured, fully annotated mesothelioma tissue collected to rigorous standard operating procedures (SOPs) to facilitate basic and translational research is very limited. MesobanK, funded by the British Lung Foundation and the Mick Knighton Mesothelioma Research Fund, is a UK based bioresource to collect fresh tissue, blood, pleural fluid and anonymised linked clinical data to strict SOPs from patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

      Methods:
      1) To construct a tissue microarray (TMA) from 1000 cases of formalin fixed paraffin embedded pleural mesothelioma tissue linked to a clinical data set. Each case will have several cores taken to allow for tumour heterogeneity. 2) To collect 300 cases of fresh pleural mesothelioma tissue (5 samples per case), blood (whole blood, serum, plasma and buffy coat) and pleural fluid (supernatant and cell pellet) linked to a clinical data set. Longer term follow up and survival data will be provided by the UK National Cancer Registration Service. 3) To develop at least 20 new fully characterised and annotated mesothelioma cell lines. Governance MesobanK abides by all relevant UK and EU legislation regarding the collection of tissue and data. Mesobank is a member of the UK Confederation of Cancer Biobanks. Prioritisation for access to samples will be based solely on scientific merit. The project is managed by a dedicated project manager and overseen by a Steering Committee; an independent Scientific Advisory Board reviews anonymised applications for samples.

      Results:
      All required ethical permissions have been obtained. A secure, web-based multi-user database has been constructed for data collection. As of April 2015, 730 of the 1000 cases for the TMA have been acquired from UK pathology departments and the first part of the TMA construction is underway at the Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute. In the first year of operation, 100 prospective cases have been banked and quality control to assess tumour percentage and necrosis in each sample is underway. Figure 1 shows weight of sample versus tumour percentage from the QC of the first 144 samples. Twenty six new cell lines have been developed and are currently being characterised. Figure 1



      Conclusion:
      Procurement of formalin fixed tissue for the TMA and fresh biospecimens is progressing well and MesobanK is now open for investigators to apply for tissue samples. Enquiries about tissue availability should be directed to mesobankadmin@papworth.nhs.uk. An application form is available at www.mesobank.com. A cost contribution model has been developed to support on-going funding of MesobanK.

      Only Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login, select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout. If you would like to become a member of IASLC, please click here.

      Only Active Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login or select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout.

    • +

      ORAL14.07 - Preclinical Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Nintedanib in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (ID 2655)

      16:45 - 18:15  |  Author(s): V. Laszlo, J. Ozsvar, M.A. Hoda, T. Klikovits, D. Lakatos, T. Garay, W. Berger, M. Grusch, W. Klepetko, F. Hilberg, B. Dome, B. Hegedus

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a devastating malignancy with still rising incidence worldwide. Its aggressive biological behavior and therapy resistance result in a median overall survival (OS) of 9 to 17 months only. Currently, platinum-based chemotherapy in combination with antifolate agents is the standard front-line therapy for MPM and to date no molecularly targeted therapeutic approaches have been approved in the clinics. Nintedanib is an indolinone derivative that has been demonstrated to efficiently inhibit the activity of VEGFR, PDGFR and FGFR tyrosine kinase isoforms and thus to be capable to suppress angiogenesis and tumor growth. Here, we report the antitumor activity of nintedanib in MPM.

      Methods:
      21 MPM cell lines were treated with nintedanib and SRB assays were performed to determine the IC50 values for each cell line. 4 sensitive cell models were selected for further in vitro analysis: BrdU, TUNEL and clonogenic assays were performed to investigate the impact of the drug on the proliferation, apoptosis and colony formation capacity of MPM cells, respectively. The migratory activity of MPM cells was analyzed with 2D videomicroscopy. The downstream signaling of the target receptors was investigated by Western blot analysis. Drug interactions with cisplatin were assessed in the p31 MPM cell line and in its cisplatin-resistant subline (p31cis) by using the CalcuSyn software. The in vivo anti-MPM activity of nintedanib was studied in an orthotopic human MPM xenograft model in SCID mice. Tumor-bearing animals were treated with 50 mg/kg nintedanib daily, per os (PO) or intraperitoneally (IP) and followed for survival.

      Results:
      Nintedanib exerted a growth inhibitory effect on MPM cell lines in both short- and long-term viability assays. The inhibition of proliferation was observed in all MPM cell models analyzed, whereas significant apoptosis induction was only found in half of them. Migratory activity strongly decreased upon nintedanib treatment. Down-regulation of Erk1/2 phosphorylation was evident within 10 min of treatment and was present even after 24h. Nintedanib, however, had no inhibitory effect on the activation of Akt or S6. Additive, but no synergistic effect on cell viability was detected in the p31 and p31cis MPM cells when nintedanib was combined with cisplatin. In vivo, survival of PO-treated animals showed favorable trend (vs. PO control, log-rank test, p=0.059). Nintedanib significantly prolonged the survival of mice when it was administered IP (vs. IP control, log-rank test, p=0.0008).

      Conclusion:
      Our data suggest that nintedanib exerts antitumor activity in MPM both in vitro and in vivo and thus may represent a promising novel therapeutic option in this malignancy.

      Only Active Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login or select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout.

    • +

      ORAL14.08 - Discussant for ORAL14.05, ORAL14.06, ORAL14.07 (ID 3331)

      16:45 - 18:15  |  Author(s): H.L. Kindler

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Abstract not provided

      Only Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login, select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout. If you would like to become a member of IASLC, please click here.

      Only Active Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login or select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout.



Author of

  • +

    GR 02 - Difficult Mesothelioma Cases (ID 15)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Grand Rounds
    • Track: Thymoma, Mesothelioma and Other Thoracic Malignancies
    • Presentations: 1
    • +

      GR02.02 - Case 2: A 65 Year Old with an Uncytoreduceable MPM (ID 1833)

      14:15 - 15:45  |  Author(s): P. Baas

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Abstract:
      Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A patient with unresectable disease It is generally accepted that only a minority of patient are candidates for combined modality treatment. Surgery or radiation alone is not able to achieve a complete pathological control of the tumor. Therefore most patients have to be considered for a systemic treatment. Since the nineties of last century only a slow progress has been achieved with the advent of chemotherapy. Single agents were tried but failed to achieve durable responses and did not achieve response rates over 20%. It was until the beginning of the current century that a standard therapy was defined using platin and an anti-folate. The response rate was 30-35% and the median survival increased from 9 to 13 months. Unfortunately 80% of the patients succumbed to the disease in the 2 years after chemotherapy. The new approaches that are currently available can be grossly divided into a maintenance; immunological and signal-pathway approach. For the case presented to our tumor board it is the challenge to decide which treatment is the most successful with acceptable toxicity. The choice of treatment strongly depends on the patients’ characteristics since cure is not very realistic. The standard of treatment consists of the administration of 4-6 courses of (cis)platin with pemetrexed given every 3 weeks. MPM is well known to respond slowly to chemotherapy and ongoing responses can be seen even after 6 courses of therapy. This has lead to the idea of maintenance therapy. In line with the results in NSCLC one can choose to continue with single agent pemetrexed but to date no randomized study has addressed this issue. Switch maintenance is currently under study with different drugs. The most mature phase III study is with bevacizumab (MAPS study), which showed an improvement in survival in the combination arm. This randomized study showed a very high survival in the control arm of 16 months. The addition of bevacizumab increased the OS to 18.8 months with statistical significance. The full data have not yet been presented and selection of the very best patients might account for this success. An ongoing randomized phase II study with defactinib tests the effect in a maintenance setting. The drug inhibits the Focal Adhesion Kinase pathway, rendering cells susceptible for apoptosis and it reduces the stem cells after chemotherapy. The results are expected in 2016. Since the disease recurs within 1 year, often second line therapy is offered. In table 1 a summary of different approaches is presented. Besides different chemotherapy regimens, inhibition of signal transduction pathways or immunotherapy has been tested. Until now no chemotherapeutic agent or oral TKI has been identified as promising agent. Immunotherapy however, is now one of the new and perhaps most promising developments of this decade. In this particular anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies and antibody drug conjugates have shown interesting results in phase I setting. There are a few issues to be resolved in the near future: How to select the best drug for each patient. How to compare study results in patients with different pathology/biological characteristics With a relatively small number of patients per year we must not embark blindly in to large phase 3 studies. We must try to personalize the treatment by increasing our TR efforts. Pre- and post-treatment biopsies can help to identify promising drugs at an early stage. Pre-treatment cell cultures can help to improve the selection of patients who might be good responders to certain chemical compounds. And finally we must improve our collaboration between centers to offer optimal service to our patients. Table 1

      Agent group line Recommended Agents LoE Remark
      Chemotherapy 1 cis/pem I Standard since 2003 (1)
      2 pem; vin II pem showed improved PFS (2)
      Maintenance 1 bev I Reported at ASCO 2015 (3)
      TKI 2 none - Many tested; no conclusive results
      Immunotherapy 2 Immunotoxins III Phase I study of pseudomonas toxin (4)
      a-CTL4; a-PD1 III Trametinib now tested in maintenance setting in phase III; pembrolizumab showed promising results in phase I (5)
      cis: cisplatin; pem: pemetrexed; vin: vinorelbine; bev: bevacizumab; a-CTL4: anti cytotoxic lymphocyte 4; a-PD1: anti-programmed death; LoE: level of evidence; PFS: progression free survival Selected references 1.Vogelzang NJ, Rusthoven JJ, Symanowski J, et al. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:2636–44 2, Jassem J, Ramlau R, Santoro A, et al. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:1698-1704 3. Zalcman et al. pASCO 2015 4. Hassan R, Miller AC, Sharon E et al. Sci Transl Medicine. 2013;5(208):208ra147. 5. Alley E et al. pAACR 2015

      Only Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login, select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout. If you would like to become a member of IASLC, please click here.

      Only Active Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login or select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout.

  • +

    MINI 24 - Epidemiology, Early Detection, Biology (ID 140)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Thymoma, Mesothelioma and Other Thoracic Malignancies
    • Presentations: 1
    • +

      MINI24.11 - Expression of PD-1 and Its Ligands in Human Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (ID 1676)

      16:45 - 18:15  |  Author(s): P. Baas

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      The discovery of immune checkpoint receptors as cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and more recently programmed death-1 (PD-1) introduced a new era in cancer immunotherapy. Immune checkpoints are responsible for controlling and inactivating the immune system in order to avoid autoimmunity and prevent tissue damage. PD-1 is expressed primarily on activated effector T lymphocytes. Its natural ligands are programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and programmed death ligand-2 (PD-L2). Expression of PD-L1/PD-L2 on tumor cells or in stroma impairs effector T lymphocyte activity within the tumor microenvironment. Trials with antibodies that block the ligand-immune checkpoint interaction have shown promising results in several cancer types.Data on few mesothelioma patients suggest that blocking immune checkpoints could offer new opportunities for treatment of this very aggressive tumor.. We investigated PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in MPM. Furthermore the effect of interferon-gamma (IFNg), an important cytokine for immune-mediated tumor control, on their expression pattern was analyzed.

      Methods:
      Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used for the expression of PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 on human primary MPM and T cells and on MPM cell lines that cover the three major histological subtypes of of MPM, i.e. epitheloid (M28, H2795, H2818), sarcomatoid (VAMT-1, H2731, H-Meso-1) and mixed (NKI04, MSTO-211H) mesothelioma cells. The effect of stimulation with IFNg on expression of PD-1 and its ligands was measured.

      Results:
      PD-1 surface expression was found on T cells and not on MPM tumor cells, corresponding to literature showing that PD-1 is only expressed on T cells, B cells and macrophages. Different expression patterns were observed regarding PD-L1 and PD-L2. Flow cytometry showed significant PD-L1 expression on all the epitheloid and sarcomatoid mesothelioma cell lines. Two out of three cell lines tested positive for PD-L2, both for the epitheloid and the sarcomatoid subtype. The mixed cell lines were negative for PD-1 and its ligands. Following IFNg stimulation, PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression was induced or upregulated on all cell lines. Primary MPM cells showed variable expression of PD-L1. IHC data for PD-1 and PD-L1 expression correspond to the flow cytometry results.

      Conclusion:
      Taken together, these data on PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression on human MPM cells and T cells support further investigation of the expression profile of the immune checkpoint PD-1 and its ligands in MPM patients samples. We are currently performing this using multicolor flow cytometry and IHC.

      Only Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login, select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout. If you would like to become a member of IASLC, please click here.

      Only Active Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login or select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout.

  • +

    MINI 38 - Biology and Prognosis (ID 167)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Thymoma, Mesothelioma and Other Thoracic Malignancies
    • Presentations: 1
    • +

      MINI38.01 - FAK Inhibitor VS-6063 Targets Mesothelioma Cancer Stem Cells: Rationale for Maintenance Therapy after Conventional Chemotherapy (ID 2710)

      18:30 - 20:00  |  Author(s): P. Baas

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor in the pleural lining of the lung and peritoneum with median overall survival with standard of care (SOC) chemotherapy only 12 months from diagnosis. This poor prognosis may be attributed at least in part to cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are resistant to chemotherapy and can mediate cancer recurrence and progression. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays an essential role in the survival, self-renewal and tumor-initiating capability of CSCs. The FAK inhibitor VS-6063 (defactinib) is currently being tested in patients with MPM following disease control on standard pemetrexed/platinum chemotherapy (COMMAND, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01870609).

      Methods:
      An Aldefluor assay, previously validated as a CSC assay (Shapiro et al., 2014), was used to assess the effects of chemotherapy or VS-6063 on CSCs in vitro. Tumor initiating potential of MPM cells after treatment with SOC agents, and VS-6063 alone or in combination with pemetrexed was measured in vivo. CSC marker expression in MPM patient tumor samples was measured by IHC, Q-PCR and RNASeq analysis. Novel CSC markers were validated in an in vivo limiting dilution assay.

      Results:
      Treatment of a human MPM cell line with pemetrexed or cisplatin, the SOC therapy for mesothelioma, resulted in a 6-fold enrichment of ALDH-positive CSCs. In direct contrast, the FAK inhibitor VS-6063 markedly reduced the proportion of CSCs. Control and pemetrexed-treated MPM cells showed robust tumor initiation in vivo, while cells treated with VS-6063 alone or VS-6063 plus pemetrexed had decreased tumor initiating capacity. FAK inhibitor was found to selectively induce apoptosis in CSCs, indicating that the mechanism of their elimination is cell death. In addition to ALDH, several new mesothelioma CSC markers were validated in in vivo limiting dilution assay and their clinical utility was assessed. An increase in CSC markers, including ALDH1, CD133 and CXCR2, was observed in tumor samples from 11 patients following first line pemetrexed-cisplatin chemotherapy. In tumor biopsies from MPM patients treated for 12 days with VS-6063, tumor pFAK (Y397) and expression of CSC markers was reduced. Interestingly, gene expression analysis of these samples revealed an inhibition of CSC pathways after VS-6063 administration. VS-6063 maintained the effect of chemotherapy in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse model. Treatment with pemetrexed/cisplatin resulted in tumor growth inhibition followed by rapid tumor re-growth upon cessation of the treatment. Tumor re-growth was substantially delayed when FAK inhibitor was administered after chemotherapy.

      Conclusion:
      These data provide a strong rationale for the current clinical testing of VS-6063 following treatment with pemetrexed plus platinum to potentially prolong time to progression in patients with mesothelioma.

      Only Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login, select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout. If you would like to become a member of IASLC, please click here.

      Only Active Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login or select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout.

  • +

    ORAL 02 - PD1 Axis Immunotherapy 2 (ID 87)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
    • +

      ORAL02.01 - Phase 3, Randomized Trial (CheckMate 017) of Nivolumab (NIVO) vs Docetaxel in Advanced Squamous (SQ) Cell Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) (ID 736)

      10:45 - 12:15  |  Author(s): P. Baas

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Treatment options for patients with advanced SQ NSCLC who fail platinum-based doublet chemotherapy (PT-DC) are limited. NIVO, a fully human IgG4 programmed death-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor, demonstrates activity across NSCLC histologies and is approved in the US for treatment of metastatic SQ NSCLC with progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy. We report results from a randomized, open-label, global phase 3 study (CheckMate 017; NCT01642004) comparing NIVO vs docetaxel in patients with previously treated SQ NSCLC and disease progression during/after one prior PT-DC regimen.

      Methods:
      Patients (N=272) were randomized 1:1 to receive either NIVO 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks (Q2W; n=135) or docetaxel 75 mg/m[2] Q3W (n=137) until disease progression or discontinuation due to toxicity or other reasons. For NIVO patients, treatment after initial progression was permitted at the investigator’s discretion, per protocol criteria. The primary objective was overall survival (OS). Secondary objectives included investigator-assessed objective response rate (ORR; per RECIST v1.1), progression-free survival (PFS), efficacy by PD-L1 expression (PD-L1 testing not required for enrollment), patient-reported outcomes (PRO), and safety. PRO analyses are presented in a separate abstract.

      Results:
      Treatment with NIVO led to 41% reduction in risk of death (hazard ratio [HR]=0.59; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.79; P=0.00025) and improved ORR (20% vs 9%; P=0.0083) and PFS (HR=0.62; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.81; P=0.0004) vs docetaxel (Table). Twenty-eight patients were treated with NIVO beyond initial progression, nine of whom demonstrated a non-conventional pattern of benefit (ie, reduction in target lesions with simultaneous appearance of new lesions, initial progression followed by tumor reduction, or no further progression for ≥2 tumor assessments). Across pre-specified cut-points (1%, 5%, and 10%), PD-L1 expression was neither prognostic nor predictive of benefit. OS HRs favored NIVO across most predefined patient subgroups. Grade 3–4 drug-related adverse events (AEs) were reported in 7% (9/131) of NIVO and 55% (71/129) of docetaxel patients. Grade 3–4 drug-related select AEs are shown below (Table). No deaths were related to NIVO vs 3 docetaxel-related deaths. Figure 1



      Conclusion:
      CheckMate 017 achieved its primary objective, demonstrating clinically superior and statistically significant OS with NIVO vs docetaxel in patients with advanced, previously treated SQ NSCLC. Benefit was seen regardless of PD-L1 status. The safety profile of NIVO 3 mg/kg Q2W is favorable vs docetaxel and consistent with prior studies. AEs were manageable with established guidelines. NIVO represents a new standard of care in this patient population. Updated OS and safety data will be presented.

      Only Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login, select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout. If you would like to become a member of IASLC, please click here.

      Only Active Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login or select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout.

  • +

    ORAL 37 - Novel Targets (ID 146)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 1
    • +

      ORAL37.05 - Prevalence and Clinical Association of MET Gene Amplification in Patients with NSCLC: Results from the ETOP Lungscape Project (ID 444)

      16:45 - 18:15  |  Author(s): P. Baas

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      The reported prevalence of MET gene amplification in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) varies from 0-21% and clinical correlations are emerging slowly. In a well-defined NSCLC cohort of the ETOP Lungscape program, we explore the epidemiology, the natural history of MET amplification and its association with MET overexpression, overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS) and time to relapse (TTR).

      Methods:
      Resected stage I-III NSCLC, identified based on the quality of clinical data and FFPE tissue availability, were assessed for MET gene copy number (GCN) and expression analysis using silver in-situ hybridization (SISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively, on TMAs (MET and centromere-specific probes; anti total c-MET antibody, clone SP44; Ventana immunostainer). MET amplification was defined as MET/centromere ratio ≥2 with average MET GCN ≥4, high MET GCN at two levels as ≥median CGN and ≥5 (irrespective of amplification) and MET IHC+ as 2+ or 3+ intensity in ≥50% of tumor cells. Sensitivity analysis to define the amplification’s thresholds was also performed. All cases were analysed at participating pathology laboratories using the same protocol, after successful completion of an external quality assurance (EQA) program.

      Results:
      Currently 2709 patients are included in the Lungscape iBiobank (median follow-up 4.8 years, 53.3% still alive). So far, 1547 (57%) have available results for MET GCN with amplification detected in 72 (4.7%; 95%CI: 3.6%, 5.7%) and high MET GCN (≥5) in 65 (4.2%; 95%CI: 3.2%, 5.2%). The median value of average MET GCN per cell is 2.3. IHC MET expression is available for 1515 (98%) of these cases, 350 (23%) of which are MET IHC positive [170 cases (49%) 3+, 180 (51%) 2+]. The median age, for the cohort of 1547 patients, is 66.2 years, with 32.8% women, and 13.5%, 29.7%, 54% never, current, former smokers, respectively. Stage distribution is: IA 23.6%, IB 24.6%, IIA 17%, IIB 12.1%, IIIA 20.9%, IIIB 1.8%, while 52.7%, are of adenocarcinoma and 40.0% of squamous histology. MET amplification and high MET GCN (≥5) are not significantly associated with any histological tumor characteristics or stage (multiplicity adjusted alpha: 0.005). High MET GCN (≥2.3) is less frequent in current smokers (38.3% vs. 55.6% for former or non-smokers, p<0.001). MET amplification and high MET GCN are significantly associated with IHC MET positivity (p<0.001 in all cases). MET amplification is present in 9.7% of IHC MET+ vs 3.1% of IHC MET- patients and high MET GCN (≥5) in 8.6% of IHC MET+ vs 2.8% of IHC MET- patients. MET amplification ranges from 0 to 16% between centers, while high MET GCN (≥5) and (≥2.3) from 0% to 12%, and 11.8% to 98.9%, respectively. MET amplification and both levels of high MET GCN are not associated with OS, RFS or TTR.

      Conclusion:
      The preliminary results for this large, predominantly European, multicenter cohort demonstrate that MET amplification assessed by SISH prevails in 4.7% of NSCLC, is associated with strong MET expression, and has no influence on prognosis. The large inter-laboratory variability in GCN despite EQA efforts may highlight a critical challenge of MET SISH analysis in routine practice.

      Only Active Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login or select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout.

  • +

    P3.04 - Poster Session/ Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing (ID 235)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Poster
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 1
    • +

      P3.04-009 - Evaluation of RT-PCR Methodology for ALK Assessment in Patients with NSCLC in Europe: Results from the ETOP Lungscape Project (ID 1506)

      09:30 - 17:00  |  Author(s): P. Baas

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      ALK rearrangement is documented in 2%-7% of NSCLC, depending on the population studied and detection method used. Although the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was the first used and published method, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become the primary standard diagnostic method. Recently, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has also proven to be a reproducible, faster and sensitive technique. This is one of the first studies concurrently comparing all three techniques in resected lung adenocarcinomas from the large ETOP Lungscape cohort.

      Methods:
      95 cases from the ETOP Lungscape iBiobank, selected based on any degree of IHC staining (clone 5A4 antibody, Novocastra, UK), were examined by ALK FISH (Abbott Molecular, Inc.; Blackhall, JCO 2014) and central RT-PCR. For the latter, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) unstained slides were collected from participating centers. Slides were de-paraffinized, Toluidine Blue stained, and tumors macro-dissected. Tissue digestion and RNA extraction were performed (Qiagen RNeasy FFPE Kit). Using primers described in the literature covering most of ALK known translocations, RT-PCR (Superscript One-Step RT-PCR with Platinum Taq – 40 loops) was performed, followed by capillary electrophoresis in two separate mixes. Co-amplification of B-actin was done to validate the procedure and RNA quality. All tests were duplicated.

      Results:
      76 of 95 RT-PCR had adequate RNA quality (B-actin co-amplification present). Among these, 18 were FISH positive, 16 were RT-PCR positive, including EML4-ALK V3a/b in 7, V1 in 5, V2 in one, and undetermined variants in 3 cases. 53 of 54 FISH negative cases were also RT-PCR negative (98%). 15 of 18 FISH positives harbored a translocation by RT-PCR (83%). Among the 4 discrepant cases, 2 FISH+/RT-PCR- cases had IHC H-scores of 180 and 260, and 98.3% and 95% of rearranged cells by FISH, probably corresponding to variants not covered by the RT-PCR. One had an IHC H-score of 5, and 16% cells rearranged on FISH, most probably corresponding to a FISH false positive case. The last had an IHC H-score of 200, 13% rearranged cells by FISH, and, thus is defined as a false negative FISH result. Provided IHC is defined as positive by an H-score above 120, all but one case (H-Score 20, FISH and RT-PCR positive) gave concordant results by a combination of FISH and RT-PCR. Overall, using as true negative or true positive the concordant result of two of the methods, the third method is characterized by high specificity and sensitivity with corresponding values of 100/98/100% and 94/94/89% for IHC/FISH/RT-PCR, respectively.

      Conclusion:
      RT-PCR is a very good tool for sorting discordant IHC/FISH cases, however, we do not recommend using this technique as single method due to the lower sensitivity of RT-PCR, as not all variants are covered, and also due to the limitations with RNA preservation.

      Only Active Members that have purchased this event or have registered via an access code will be able to view this content. To view this presentation, please login or select "Add to Cart" and proceed to checkout.

  • +

    P3.08 - Poster Session/ Thymoma, Mesothelioma and Other Thoracic Malignancies (ID 226)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Poster
    • Track: Thymoma, Mesothelioma and Other Thoracic Malignancies
    • Presentations: 1
    • +

      P3.08-014 - COMMAND: A Phase 2 Randomized, Double-Blind, Study of Defactinib (VS-6063) as Maintenance Therapy in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (ID 2847)

      09:30 - 17:00  |  Author(s): P. Baas

      • Abstract

      Background:
      Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor in the pleural lining of the lung. Median OS with frontline chemotherapy of pemetrexed/cisplatin (pem/cis) is ~12 months. There is no established second line therapy. Pem/cis has been shown to enrich cancer stem cells (CSCs) in tumors. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitors have been found to decrease CSCs in mesothelioma models. The use of a FAK inhibitor in a maintenance setting after frontline chemotherapy may therefore extend survival of MPM patients. Furthermore, approximately 40% of MPM tumors exhibit disruption of the NF2 tumor suppressor gene by mutation and/or deletion resulting in lack of expression of functional merlin protein. Mesothelioma cell lines that lack merlin are more sensitive to FAK inhibitors than those with wild type merlin. This Phase 2 study will determine if defactinib (VS-6063), an oral inhibitor of FAK, provides superior clinical benefit compared with placebo as maintenance treatment in patients with MPM following frontline pem/platinum therapy.

      Methods:
      COMMAND is a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Approximately 370 patients with PR or SD following ≥4 cycles of frontline pem/platinum therapy will be enrolled. Patients will receive defactinib 400 mg BID or matched placebo. Randomization will be stratified by merlin status, as determined by immunohistochemistry. Primary endpoints include OS and PFS. An adaptive enrichment design at the interim analysis (projected to occur in Q2 2015) may restrict patients to those with low merlin protein expression if greater benefit is observed among this subpopulation. Secondary endpoints include patient-reported outcomes, objective response and safety and tolerability. The study is currently enrolling across 15 countries. Clinical trial: NCT01870609.

      Results:
      Not applicable

      Conclusion:
      Not applicable