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Hiroki Sato

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    P1.14 - Targeted Therapy (ID 182)

    • Event: WCLC 2019
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track: Targeted Therapy
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/08/2019, 09:45 - 18:00, Exhibit Hall
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      P1.14-12 - A Novel Activating MAP2K1 In-Frame Deletion Mediates Acquired Resistance to ROS1 TKIs in a Patient with ROS1 Fusion-Positive NSCLC (ID 2450)

      09:45 - 18:00  |  Presenting Author(s): Hiroki Sato

      • Abstract


      ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as crizotinib, entrectinib and lorlatinib provide significant benefit in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with ROS1 fusions. As observed with all targeted therapies however, resistance arises. With the widespread adoption of large panel next generation sequencing (NGS) at the time of acquired resistance (AR), our appreciation of novel off-target mechanisms continues to grow. Detecting additional mechanisms of acquired resistance (AR) is crucial to find novel therapies and improve patient outcomes.


      We reviewed targeted large-panel sequencing data (using the MSK-IMPACT assay) of paired pre-treatment and post-progression samples from patients treated with ROS1 TKIs. Genetic alterations hypothesized to confer AR were modeled in a patient-derived cell line (LUAD-0003, expressing EZR/ROS1) as well as isogenic human (HBEC) and murine (NIH-3T3) cell lines. ROS1 fusions were expressed in these cells either by cDNA overexpression (CD74/ROS1, SLC34A2/ROS1) or CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genomic engineering (EZR/ROS1). Using these cell line models, alterations in drug sensitivity and downstream signal pathways were examined. We also explored possible therapeutic strategies to overcome the drug resistance caused by the novel AR mechanisms examined in this study.


      We identified a patient with NSCLC harboring a MAP2K1 (MEK1) variant encoding an in-frame deletion of amino acids E41-L54 (MEK1del) in a sample taken at the time of resistance to lorlatinib (after 9 months’ treatment). This mutation was not detected in the pre-TKI sample. Induction of ROS1 fusions in HBEC and NIH-3T3 cells increased the sensitivity of these cells to ROS1 TKIs and stimulated activation of MEK/ERK signaling in comparison with AKT signaling, suggesting the importance of the RAS-MAPK pathway in driving ROS1 fusion-positive cancers. Underscoring the importance of the RAS-MAPK pathway in ROS1-mediated tumorigenesis, we identified three patients (pancreatic, salivary, and breast cancer) with a ROS1 fusion and NF1 loss-of-function mutation concurrently, in TKI-naïve samples. Expression of MEK1del in HBEC and NIH-3T3 cells harboring ROS1 fusions, and knockdown of NF1 in LUAD-0003, activated ERK signaling and conferred resistance to ROS1 TKIs. Combined targeting of ROS1 (crizotinib, lorlatinib) and MEK (selumetinib, trametinib) inhibited growth of cells expressing both ROS1 fusion and MEK1del.


      Our results suggest that the activation of the RAS-MAPK pathway plays a critical role in tumorigenesis mediated by ROS1 fusions, and that activating mutations in this pathway can drive AR to ROS1 TKIs. Combined inhibition of ROS1 and MEK is a potential therapeutic strategy that should be explored clinically.