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Hirotsugu Kenmotsu



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    MA03 - Clinomics and Genomics (ID 119)

    • Event: WCLC 2019
    • Type: Mini Oral Session
    • Track: Advanced NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
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      MA03.11 - Chemotherapy After PD-1 Inhibitors Versus Chemotherapy Alone in Patients with Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer (WJOG10217L) (Now Available) (ID 409)

      10:30 - 12:00  |  Presenting Author(s): Hirotsugu Kenmotsu

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background

      Studies have suggested that chemotherapy after immune checkpoint inhibitors may confer an improved response in patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, potential selection bias in such studies has not been addressed. We therefore applied propensity score analysis to investigate the efficacy of subsequent chemotherapy after PD-1 inhibitors (CAP) compared with chemotherapy alone.

      Method

      We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study for patients with advanced or recurrent NSCLC who were treated at 47 institutions across Japan between 1 April 2014 and 31 July 2017 with chemotherapy (docetaxel with or without ramucirumab; S-1; or pemetrexed) either after PD-1 inhibitor therapy (CAP cohort) or alone (control cohort). The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR). Inverse probability weighting (IPW) was applied to adjust for potential confounding factors, including age, sex, smoking status, performance status, histology, EGFR or ALK genetic alterations, brain metastasis, and recurrence after curative radiotherapy.

      Result

      A total of 1439 patients (243 and 1196 in the CAP and control cohorts, respectively) was available for unadjusted analysis. Several baseline characteristics—including age, histology, EGFR or ALK alterations, and brain metastasis—differed significantly between the two cohorts. After adjustment for patient characteristics with the IPW method, ORR was 18.9% for the CAP cohort and 10.8% for the control cohort (ORR ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25–2.45; P = .001). Median PFS was 3.5 and 2.6 months for the CAP and control cohorts, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.862; 95% CI, 0.743–0.998; P = .048). The PFS rate at 3, 6, and 12 months was 53.3%, 28.5%, and 4.6%, respectively, for the CAP cohort, and 44.3%, 19.7%, and 6.1% for the control cohort. Median OS was 9.8 months for the CAP cohort and 10.3 months for the control cohort (HR, 0.979; 95% CI, 0.813–1.179; P = .822).

      Conclusion

      After adjustment for selection bias using propensity score–weighted analysis, CAP showed a significantly higher ORR and longer PFS compared with chemotherapy alone, with the primary end point of ORR being achieved. However, these results did not translate into an OS advantage, and no PFS benefit was apparent at 12 months despite the improvement observed at 3 and 6 months. Our findings suggest that prior administration of PD-1 inhibitors may result in a synergistic antitumor effect with subsequent chemotherapy, but that such an effect is transient. CAP therefore does not appear to achieve durable tumor control or confer a lasting survival benefit.

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    P1.01 - Advanced NSCLC (ID 158)

    • Event: WCLC 2019
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track: Advanced NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/08/2019, 09:45 - 18:00, Exhibit Hall
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      P1.01-04 - A Phase II Trial of Weekly Nab-Paclitaxel in the Salvage Setting for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results of NICE Salvage Study   (ID 1534)

      09:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Hirotsugu Kenmotsu

      • Abstract

      Background

      The optimal treatment in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after failing second- or third-line chemotherapy, i.e. NSCLC in salvage setting, has yet to be established. A small study reported that solvent-based paclitaxel (sb-P) monotherapy was safe and efficacious and could be a treatment option for NSCLC in salvage setting (Anticancer Res 2005).  Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-P) showed a higher overall response rate (ORR) and better tolerability than sb-P when combined with carboplatin (CBDCA) as a first-line chemotherapy (J Clin Oncol 2012). These results suggest that nab-P monotherapy could be better therapeutic option than sb-P monotherapy for NSCLC in salvage setting. We therefore planned NICE Salvage study aiming to assess the efficacy and safety of nab-P monotherapy for NSCLC patients in salvage setting. 

      Method

      NICE Salvage study was a multicenter single arm phase II study. Eligibility criteria included patients aged >= 20 years, with PS 0-2 and adequate organ function, and who have failed two or three prior lines of chemotherapy including at least a platinum-containing regimen for pathologically-proven advanced NSCLC. Patients who had treatment history with sb-P or nab-P, or had tumors harboring EGFR mutation or ALK fusion gene were excluded. Nab-P was administered at a dose of 80 mg/m2 on days 1,8 and 15 of a 28-days cycle and repeated until progressive disease, unacceptable toxicity, or patient’s refusal. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), ORR, disease control rate (DCR), efficacy according to prior use of docetaxel, quality of life, and safety. The study is powered to detect a 1.5-month improvement in median PFS in the investigational arm beyond the 2.0-month median PFS estimated from historical data. Assuming a one-sided 0.10 level of Type I error and 80% power, target sample size is calculated at 35.  (UMIN000016173).

      Result

      Thirty-eight patients were enrolled and a patient was excluded from efficacy and safety analysis. Patient’s characteristics (n = 38) were as follows: median age = 68 years, male/female = 31/7, adenocarcinoma/squamous cell carcinoma /others = 20/15/3. Median PFS and OS was 3.5 month (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7-3.8), and 13.4 month (95%CI, 9.1-25.1), respectively. ORR and DCR were 10.8% (95%CI, 2.9-24.8 ) and 56.8% (95%CI, 38.3-71.3 ), respectively. Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events were neutropenia (10.8%), anemia (2.7%), hepatotoxicity (2.7%) and diarrhea (2.7%). One treatment-related death (pulmonary infection) was observed.

      Conclusion

      This study failed to meet predefined primary endpoint. However the results showed that nab-P monotherapy was moderately efficacious and well-tolerated, suggesting the need for further investigation for NSCLC in salvage setting.

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    P2.04 - Immuno-oncology (ID 167)

    • Event: WCLC 2019
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track: Immuno-oncology
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/09/2019, 10:15 - 18:15, Exhibit Hall
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      P2.04-41 - Clinical and Immunological Factors Associated with Mutation Burden in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (ID 1313)

      10:15 - 18:15  |  Author(s): Hirotsugu Kenmotsu

      • Abstract

      Background

      It is unclear whether factors including clinical and immune microenvironment (IME) are associated with tumor mutation burden (TMB) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to develop a prediction model to identify the association between these factors and TMB in patients with NSCLC.

      Method

      We assessed somatic mutation burden in surgical tumor specimens with whole exome sequencing (WES) using an ion torrent proton platform (Thermo Fisher Scientific). The IME profiles including PD-L1 tumor proportion score (TPS), stromal CD8 tumor infiltrating T cell (TIL) density, and stromal Foxp3 TIL were quantified by digital pathology using a machine learning algorithm. To detect factors associated with TMB, factors including clinical and IME were assessed using a multipul regression model. Two hundred NSCLC patients, for whom both WES and clinical data from Project HOPE (High-Tech-Omics-based Patient Evaluation) were available, excluding those with low tumor purity (less than 20%), were assessed in this study.

      Result

      Out of 250 NSCLC patients with tumors surgically resected between September 2014 and September 2015, we analyzed tumors from 200 patients. Patient background: median age (range) 70 (39-87), male 37.5%, smoker 27.5%, pathological stage (p-stage) (I/ II/ III) 63.5/22.5/14.0% respectively, histological type (Ad/Sq) 77.0/23.0%, primary tumor location (upper/lower) 58.5/41.5%, median standardized uptake value (SUV) 7.5 (0.86-29.8), median serum CEA level (range) 3.4 ng/ml (0.5-144.3), median serum CYFRA 21-1 level 1.2 ng/ml (1.0-38.0), median TMB 2.19/ Mb (0.12-64.38), median PD-L1 TPS 15.1% (0.09-77.4), median stromal CD8 TIL 582.1/mm2 (120.0-4967.6), and median stromal Foxp3 TIL 183.7/mm2 (6.3-544.0).

      In simple regression analysis, gender (male/female), smoking status (yes/no), p-stage (I/II,III,IV), age (< 70, ≥70), primary tumor location (lower/upper), serum CEA level (low [< 5.0ng/ml], high [≥ 5.0 ng/ml]), serum CYFRA level (low [< 3.5ng/ml], high [≥3.5 ng/ml]), and actionable mutation status (Mt+/Mt-) were favorable prognostic factors (p < .0001, p = .0001, p = .072, p = .027, p = .045, p = .002, p = .009, and p = .069 respectively).

      Multiple regression analysis identified five factors [smoking status: smoker, age: less than 70, primary tumor location: lower, serum CEA level (greater than 5ng/ml), and serum CYFRA level (greater than 3.5ng/ml)] associated with higher TMB (p = .002, p = .045, p = .03, p = .046 and p = .016 respectively).

      Conclusion

      IME factors did not associate with tumor mutation burden. However, along with smoking, lower primary location, elevated CEA and CYFRA level may be independent predictors of high TMB.

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    PL02 - Presidential Symposium including Top 7 Rated Abstracts (ID 89)

    • Event: WCLC 2019
    • Type: Plenary Session
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
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      PL02.08 - Registrational Results of LIBRETTO-001: A Phase 1/2 Trial of LOXO-292 in Patients with RET Fusion-Positive Lung Cancers (Now Available) (ID 964)

      08:00 - 10:15  |  Author(s): Hirotsugu Kenmotsu

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background

      No targeted therapy is currently approved for patients with RET fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). LOXO-292 is a highly selective RET inhibitor with activity against diverse RET fusions, activating RET mutations and brain metastases. Based on initial data from LIBRETTO-001, LOXO-292 received FDA Breakthrough Designation for the treatment of RET fusion-positive NSCLC in August 2018.

      Method

      This global phase 1/2 study (87 sites, 16 countries) enrolled patients with advanced RET-altered solid tumors including RET fusion-positive NSCLC (NCT03157128). LOXO-292 was dosed orally in 28-day cycles. The phase 1 portion established the MTD/RP2D (160 mg BID). The phase 2 portion enrolled patients to one of six cohorts based on tumor type, RET alteration, and prior therapies. The primary endpoint was ORR (RECIST 1.1). Secondary endpoints included DoR, CNS ORR, CNS DoR, PFS, OS, safety and PK.

      Result

      As of 17-June 2019, 253 RET fusion-positive NSCLC patients were treated. The primary analysis set (PAS) for LOXO-292 registration, as defined with the US FDA, consists of the first 105 consecutively enrolled RET fusion-positive NSCLC patients who received prior platinum-based chemotherapy; 58 patients (55%) also received prior anti PD-1/PD-L1 agents. The majority of PAS responders have been followed for ≥6 months from first response. Of the remaining 148 patients, 79 had previously been treated with platinum-based chemotherapy, 55 did not receive prior platinum-based chemotherapy and 14 did not have measurable disease at baseline.

      Among PAS patients, the investigator-assessed ORR was 68% (95% CI 58-76%, n=71/105, 2 PRs pending confirmation). Responses did not differ by fusion partner or the type or number of prior therapies, including chemotherapy, anti PD-1/PD-L1 agents and multikinase inhibitors with anti-RET activity. The median DoR was 20.3 months (95% CI 13.8-24.0) with a median follow-up of 8 months; as evidenced by the wide confidence interval, this DoR estimate is not statistically stable due to a low number of events (16 of 69 confirmed responders). The intracranial ORR was 91% (n=10/11: 2 confirmed CRs, 8 confirmed PRs) for patients with measurable brain metastases at baseline.

      The ORR in efficacy evaluable treatment naïve RET fusion-positive NSCLC patients was 85% (95% CI 69-95%, n=29/34, 7 PRs pending confirmation). In the safety data set of all 531 patients, 5 treatment-related AEs occurred in ≥15% of patients: dry mouth, diarrhea, hypertension, increased AST and increased ALT. Most AEs were grade 1-2. Only 9 of 531 (1.7%) patients discontinued LOXO-292 for treatment-related AEs.

      Conclusion

      LOXO-292 had marked antitumor activity in RET fusion-positive NSCLC patients and was well tolerated. These data will form the basis of an FDA NDA submission later this year.

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