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Mark M. Awad



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    MA04 - Novel Approaches with IO (ID 900)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Mini Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Immunooncology
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/24/2018, 13:30 - 15:00, Room 107
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      MA04.05 - Outcomes in NSCLC Patients Treated with First-Line Pembrolizumab and a PD-L1 TPS of 50-74% vs 75-100% or 50-89% vs 90-100% (ID 14358)

      14:00 - 14:05  |  Presenting Author(s): Mark M. Awad

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background

      Among patients with NSCLC and a PD-L1 tumor proportion score (TPS) ≥50%, the response rate to the PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab is ~45%. Whether certain subsets of patients with a PD-L1 TPS ≥50% are more likely to benefit from treatment with a PD-1 inhibitor is currently unknown. We compared outcomes among NSCLC patients treated with first-line pembrolizumab and different PD-L1 TPS groupings: 50-74% vs 75-100% or 50-89% vs 90-100%.

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      We retrospectively analyzed patients who received commercial pembrolizumab as first-line treatment for NSCLC with a PD-L1 TPS of ≥50% from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and Massachusetts General Hospital. Clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared among patients with a PD-L1 TPS of 50-74% vs 75-100% or 50-89% vs 90-100%. Event-time distributions were estimated using Kaplan-Meier and compared with the log-rank test.

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      172 patients were identified for inclusion in this study. In the entire cohort, the overall response rate (ORR) to pembrolizumab was 33.9%, median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 4.8 months, and median overall survival (mOS) was 20.6 months. Compared to patients with TPS 50-74% (N=68, 39.5%), patients with TPS 75-100% (N=104, 60.5%) had a significantly higher ORR (45.2% vs 20.6%, P=0.001), a significantly longer mPFS (5.3 vs 2.5 mo, HR=0.61 [95% CI: 0.41-0.90], P=0.008), and a trend towards improved mOS (33.6 vs 20.6 mo, HR=0.60 [95% CI: 0.34-1.04], P=0.056). Compared to patients with TPS 50-89% (N=99, 57.6%), patients with TPS 90-100% (N=73, 42.4%) had a significantly higher ORR (50.7% vs 24.2%, P<0.001), a significantly longer mPFS (6.4 vs 2.8 mo, HR=0.52 [95% CI: 0.36-0.76], P<0.001), and a significantly longer mOS (33.6 vs 18.0 mo, HR=0.46 [95% CI: 0.27-0.79], P=0.008). There were no significant differences in smoking history, histology, sex, and age between patients in each TPS cutoff group.

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      Among NSCLCs with a PD-L1 TPS ≥50% treated with first-line pembrolizumab, higher PD-L1 TPS levels above 75% and 90% are associated with improved clinical outcomes compared to NSCLCs with lower PD-L1 levels.

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    MA11 - Biomarkers of IO Response (ID 912)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Mini Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Immunooncology
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/25/2018, 10:30 - 12:00, Room 203 BD
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      MA11.10 - Identification of Mismatch Repair Deficient Lung Adenocarcinomas Using Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing (ID 12439)

      11:35 - 11:40  |  Author(s): Mark M. Awad

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background

      Mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency/microsatellite instability (MSI) results from the inactivation of DNA mismatch repair proteins. Due to the defect in DNA repair, MMR-deficient (D) tumors display an elevated tumor mutation burden (TMB) and a characteristic increase in small insertions/deletions within homopolymer tracts (“homopolymer indels”), a signature that can be detected using next generation sequencing methods. MMR-D/MSI predicts response to immune oncology (IO) agents (Le et al., 2017) and is an approved biomarker for pembrolizumab therapy in the relapse setting irrespective of histologic diagnosis. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed a large cohort of non-small cell lung carcinomas using targeted next generation sequencing to examine the prevalence and clinicopathologic associations of MMR-D in this tumor type.

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      TMB and MSI status was derived from a 309-447 gene targeted next generation sequencing panel (OncoPanel) using an internally validated method (Nowak et al., 2017), that relies on an empirically defined homopolymer indel cutoff of >=1.52/Mb to identify candidate MMR-D tumors. MMR/MSI status was confirmed using MSI PCR (5 marker panel) and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC) for MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6. When indicated, MLH1 promoter methylation status was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR.

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      2242 lung tumors, including 1835 non-squamous non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC), were interrogated. A total of three lung tumors (all adenocarcinoma) with confirmed MSI/MMR-D by orthogonal methods were identified, for a prevalence of 0.1% of all lung tumors and 0.2% of non-squamous NSCLC. The TMB of these tumors averaged 42.5 mutations/Mb with 7-10 homopolymer indels /Mb. All three tumors showed loss of MLH1 and PMS2 staining by IHC; two cases had somatic loss-of-function MLH1 variants and one showed MLH1 promoter methylation. All were from female patients whose mean age was 68 years (range: 53-83). All showed a poorly-differentiated histology with moderate to brisk lymphoid infiltrates. One patient was a never-smoker; her tumor had a concomitant EML4-ALK rearrangement. The other two patients had moderate/heavy smoking histories (12.5-80 pack-years) both showed RASA1 and NF1 inactivating mutations. One tumor evolved in the context of usual interstitial pneumonia.

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      MMR-D is very rare in lung tumors, where it appears to arise as somatic event and is enriched in adenocarcinoma. MMR-D may coexist with other relatively uncommon driver alterations, including those not traditionally associated with IO response. Additional investigation is needed to determine if MMR-D confers sensitivity to IO in lung carcinomas.

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    MA19 - Genomic Markers of IO Response (ID 922)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Mini Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Immunooncology
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/25/2018, 15:15 - 16:45, Room 201 BD
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      MA19.01 - Efficacy and Genomic Correlates of Response to Anti-PD1/PD-L1 Blockade in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers Harboring Targetable Oncogenes (ID 12921)

      15:15 - 15:20  |  Author(s): Mark M. Awad

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background

      Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are associated with improved outcomes in a subset of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLCs with targetable oncogenes are thought to be less responsive to ICI therapy, possibly due to association with never smoking status and reduced tumor mutational burden (TMB), but this has not been comprehensively characterized. We evaluated the responsiveness of NSCLCs with targetable oncogenes to ICIs, and if mutation type or TMB influence response.

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      Clinicopathologic, radiographic response, and sequencing data for patients with advanced NSCLC treated with ICI therapy was acquired from two separate cohorts (DFCI Oncopanel, n=296; MSKCC MSK-IMPACT, n=202). Durable clinical benefit (DCB) was defined as responsive/stable disease > 6 months. Samples with activating mutations in EGFR, ALK, ROS, BRAF, MET, and RET were identified. TMB was calculated as the sum of nonsynonymous mutations divided by the coding region captured in each panel. Objective response rates (ORR), DCB, and TMB were compared in targetable oncogene positive (TOP) vs oncogene negative (TON) patients. TMB was considered within each cohort to avoid confounding for differences in NGS panel technique.

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      Targetable oncogenes were identified in 16% (82/498) of patients; 44(9%) EGFR, 15(3%) MET exon 14 splice site mutated, 8(2%) BRAF V600E, 6(1%) ROS1 rearranged, 5(1%) ALK rearranged, and 4(1%) RET re-arranged. Response to ICIs was similar in TOP vs TON patients, with ORR of 18% and 20%, and median PFS of 2.7 vs 2.8 months in TOP vs TON patients respectively. Among TOP patients, response rates differed by mutation type; ORR rate was 11%(5/44) in EGFR mutated, 40%(6/15) in MET mutated, 25%(2/8) in BRAF mutated, 33%(2/6) in ROS1 rearranged, and 0% in RET and ALK rearranged cancers (0/4, 0/5 respectively). Compared to WT, TMB was lower in TOP tumors (OncoPanel median 9vs11, p=0.0064; IMPACT median 4vs8, p=2.25e-06). TMB did not correlate with objective response or DCB in TOP tumors when considered collectively or by mutation type (OncoPanel median TMB 10vs8 in DCB vs NDB, p=0.52; IMPACT median TMB 3vs5 in DCB vs NDB, p=0.31)(Mann-Whitney U for all).

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      Despite lower TMB in oncogene positive NSCLC, these patients still derive clinical benefit from ICIs. ICI responsiveness is likely mutation specific, and is most pronounced in MET and BRAF mutated cancers. Among targetable oncogene positive NSCLC, TMB did not distinguish benefit. Taken together, low TMB in the presence of oncogenic driver mutations should not preclude ICI therapy.

      6f8b794f3246b0c1e1780bb4d4d5dc53

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    OA12 - Novel Therapies in MET, RET and BRAF (ID 921)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Targeted Therapy
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/25/2018, 15:15 - 16:45, Room 106
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      OA12.04 - Discussant - OA 12.01, OA 12.02, OA 12.03 (ID 14568)

      15:45 - 16:00  |  Presenting Author(s): Mark M. Awad

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Abstract not provided

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    P1.01 - Advanced NSCLC (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 933)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/24/2018, 16:45 - 18:00, Exhibit Hall
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      P1.01-35 - Tumor Volume Analysis In ALK-Rearranged NSCLC Treated with Crizotinib: Identifying an Early Marker for Clinical Outcome (ID 11720)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Mark M. Awad

      • Abstract

      Background

      Targeted inhibition of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has been widely used for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with ALK-rearrangement. We performed tumor volume analysis of ALK-rearranged advanced NSCLC treated with crizotinib to identify an early imaging marker that can predict clinical outcome.

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      Forty-two patients with advanced NSCLC harboring ALK-rearrangement (15 men, 27 women; median age: 55.7 years) treated with crizotinib as their first ALK-directed therapy at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between November 2008 and June 2016. All patients had a follow-up chest CT scan at 8 +/- 3 weeks of therapy and had a dominant measurable lesion in the lung (≥1 cm) on baseline CT. Tumor volume of the dominant lung lesion was measured on baseline CT and follow-up CT at 8 +/- 3 weeks of therapy, using the previously validated technique on the volume analysis software (Vitrea ; Vital Images, Minnetonka, MN). The relationships between the 8-week volume change (%) and overall survival (OS) measured from the 8-week scan date were studied.

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      The 8-week tumor volume change ranged from -99.3% to 117.5% (median: -57.7%). Using the 25 percentile of the 8-week volume change of -74%, 11 patients with >74% volume decrease at 8 weeks had a significantly longer OS compared to 31 patients with ≤74% decrease (Median OS: 92.0 months vs. 22.8 months, log-rank p=0.0048). In multivariable analyses using Cox proportional hazards models, the 8-week volume decrease of >74% remained as a significant factor associated with prolonged OS (HR=0.14, 95%CI: 0.03-0.59; Cox p=0.008) after adjusting for other significant variables including tumor stage at presentation (stage IV vs. others, HR=5.6, 95%CI: 1.29-24.3; p=0.02). Of the 31 patients with ≤74% decrease on the 8-week scan, best overall response by RECIST was partial response (PR) in 21 (68%), stable disease in 9 (29%), and progressive disease (PD) in one (3%). None of the 42 patients experienced RECIST-PD prior to the 8-week scan.

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      The 8-week tumor volume decrease of >74% on CT is significantly associated with longer OS in patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC treated with crizotinib. The 8-week tumor volume analysis helps to identify patients who may benefit from alternative therapy in the early course of crizotinib therapy.

      6f8b794f3246b0c1e1780bb4d4d5dc53

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    P2.01 - Advanced NSCLC (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 950)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/25/2018, 16:45 - 18:00, Exhibit Hall
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      P2.01-33 - Open-Label, Biomarker-Directed Platform Study in NSCLC Patients Who Progressed on an Anti-PD-(L)1 Containing Therapy (HUDSON) (ID 13743)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Mark M. Awad

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background

      Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-containing regimens have significantly improved survival outcomes in first- and second-line NSCLC. However, the majority of patients do not respond or have non-durable responses to anti-programmed cell death-1/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (anti-PD-1/PD-L1) containing therapy (primary resistance) or progress during anti-PD-1/PD-L1 containing therapy (acquired resistance). HUDSON addresses the urgent need to identify treatments and understand ICI resistance for this emerging ICI-resistant population.

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      HUDSON is a multi-centre, international multi-arm umbrella study that will 1) evaluate therapies to reverse ICI resistance and 2) define mechanisms of ICI resistance in NSCLC patients who have progressed following standard-of-care platinum and ICI-based therapies. HUDSON is a platform study that consists of two groups; a biomarker matched and a biomarker non-matched group. Within the biomarker matched group, different cohorts will test 1) homologous recombination repair (HRR) defects and 2) LKB1 aberration for response to durvalumab and olaparib (PARP inhibitor), 3) ATM deficiency for response to durvalumab and AZD6738 (ATR inhibitor) and 4) RICTOR amplification for response to durvalumab and vistusertib (mTORC1/2 inhibitor). In the biomarker non-matched group, cohorts will test durvalumab in combination with either i) olaparib, ii) AZD9150 (STAT3 inhibitor) or iii) AZD6738, in patients with primary and acquired resistance to a prior ICI. Allocation to a cohort is informed by the tumour molecular profile according to a pre-specified assignment algorithm. New cohorts will be added as new translational hypotheses are established. Translational research will be performed on serial peripheral blood samples (including ctDNA) and tumour biopsies. HUDSON enrols ICI-resistant patients in a signal searching manner. Biomarker matched and non-matched groups will be opened simultaneously, and all eligible patients can be allocated a treatment option irrespective of their tumour profile. Enrolment is ongoing, clinical trial information: NCT03334617.

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      Section not applicable

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      Section not applicable

      6f8b794f3246b0c1e1780bb4d4d5dc53

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    P2.16 - Treatment of Early Stage/Localized Disease (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 965)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/25/2018, 16:45 - 18:00, Exhibit Hall
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      P2.16-03 - CheckMate 816: A Phase 3 Trial of Neoadjuvant Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab or Chemotherapy vs Chemotherapy in Early-Stage NSCLC (ID 12599)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Mark M. Awad

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background

      Approximately 20–25% of patients with NSCLC are diagnosed with early or localized disease, which has a relapse rate of 30–80% with surgery. Although neoadjuvant chemotherapy can reduce the risk of relapse, it only provides a pathological complete response (pCR; no viable tumor cells) rate of 4%. The neoadjuvant setting presents abundant tumor-associated neoantigens derived from the primary tumor that may allow immunotherapy to prime a long-lasting immune response. Clinical trial results support the use of immuno-oncology agents as neoadjuvant treatment for early-stage NSCLC. In a pilot study in patients with untreated, surgically resectable early-stage (stage I–IIIA) NSCLC, nivolumab (a fully human PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody) administered as neoadjuvant treatment (3 mg/kg for 2 cycles during the 4 weeks prior to surgery) induced a pCR in 10% of patients and a major pathological response (MPR; ≤10% residual viable tumor cells in resected primary tumor) in 45% of patients, did not delay surgery, and was associated with an acceptable safety profile. Combining immuno-oncology agents with distinct mechanisms of action, such as PD-1 and CTLA-4 inhibitors, offers the possibility of a synergistic response and may improve antitumor activity compared with either agent alone. The combination of an immuno-oncology agent and chemotherapy may also offer synergistic activity, given that chemotherapy results in tumor cell death and subsequent antigen release that can activate an immune response. Promising results have been noted with nivolumab plus ipilimumab (a CTLA-4 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody) and nivolumab plus chemotherapy in patients with treatment-naïve stage IIIB/IV NSCLC in the multicohort phase 1 CheckMate 012 study. CheckMate 816 (NCT02998528) is a phase 3 study evaluating nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab plus platinum-doublet chemotherapy, and platinum-doublet chemotherapy as neoadjuvant treatment for early-stage NSCLC.

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      Approximately 642 patients aged ≥18 years with early-stage (stages IB–IIIA) resectable NSCLC, ECOG performance status 0–1, pulmonary function capable of tolerating lung resection, and available lung tumor tissue will be enrolled in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Patients are ineligible if they have active autoimmune disease or had received prior treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Patients will be randomized (1:1:1) to receive neoadjuvant nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab plus platinum-doublet chemotherapy, or platinum-doublet chemotherapy. Primary endpoints are event-free survival and pCR. Key secondary endpoints are overall survival and MPR (<10% residual tumor in lung and lymph nodes). The start date was January 2017. The estimated primary completion date is May 2023.

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      Section not applicable

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      Section not applicable

      6f8b794f3246b0c1e1780bb4d4d5dc53

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    P3.04 - Immunooncology (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 970)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/26/2018, 12:00 - 13:30, Exhibit Hall
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      P3.04-02 - Early Plasma ctDNA Response Anticipates Clinical Response to First-Line Immunotherapy in Advanced NSCLC (ID 14240)

      12:00 - 13:30  |  Presenting Author(s): Mark M. Awad

      • Abstract

      Background

      Shedding of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) into plasma can be an independent prognostic indicator in lung cancer, and changes in plasma ctDNA levels correlate with response to targeted therapy. We hypothesized that serial assessment of plasma ctDNA by next generation sequencing (NGS) would enable early detection of response to immunotherapy in NSCLC.

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      Patients with advanced NSCLC who received first-line treatment with pembrolizumab alone or in combination with platinum doublet chemotherapy at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute were enrolled in this study. Plasma collected from patients prior to starting therapy and again at 3 and 3 weeks after starting therapy was analyzed by NGS using enhanced tagged-amplicon sequencing of hotspots and coding regions from 36 genes (InVisionSeq). The trends of the ctDNA allele frequency were correlated with radiographic responses to therapy.

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      Serial plasma samples were collected on 21 patients with the following characteristics: 67% female, median age 62, 90% adenocarcinoma, 10% squamous cell carcinoma. Pembrolizumab was administered as monotherapy to 18 (86%) patients and in combination with platinum/pemetrexed in 3 (14%) patients for a median of 6 cycles. Among the 8 (38%) patients with no detectable ctDNA at baseline, 5 patients who maintained no detectable ctDNA during serial analyses responded to treatment, and 3 patients with emergence of ctDNA within the first 6 weeks of treatment initiation experienced progressive disease. In the 13 (62%) patients with detectable ctDNA at baseline, radiographic responses were preceded by earlier changes in ctDNA allele frequency. Six of 7 patients with >50% decreases in ctDNA allele fraction responded to treatment while 4 of 6 patients with progressive disease had increases in ctDNA within 6 weeks.

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      In advanced NSCLC treated with first-line immunotherapy, rapid decreases and clearance of ctDNA correlated with clinical benefit, while increasing or newly detectable ctDNA was a harbinger of progressive disease. These results suggest a potential role for ctDNA as an early pharmacodynamic biomarker of response or resistance to immunotherapies.

      6f8b794f3246b0c1e1780bb4d4d5dc53