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Luis Paz-Ares



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    MA10 - Considerations in Immunotherapy / Real World (ID 911)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Mini Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Advanced NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/25/2018, 10:30 - 12:00, Room 105
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      MA10.08 - Choice of Taxane and Outcomes in the KEYNOTE-407 Study of Pembrolizumab Plus Chemotherapy for Metastatic Squamous NSCLC (Now Available) (ID 14698)

      11:25 - 11:30  |  Author(s): Luis Paz-Ares

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background

      In the randomized, double-blind, phase 3 KEYNOTE-407 study (NCT02775435), pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel or nab-paclitaxel significantly prolonged OS (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.49-0.85, P=0.0008) and PFS (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.45-0.70, P<0.0001) compared with placebo plus chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated, metastatic squamous NSCLC. The benefit of pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy was observed irrespective of PD-L1 TPS. Pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy also had a manageable safety profile. We performed an exploratory analysis of outcomes by investigator’s choice of paclitaxel or nab-paclitaxel, which was a randomization stratification factor.

      Method

      559 eligible patients were randomized 1:1 to pembrolizumab 200 mg or placebo Q3W for up to 35 cycles plus 4 cycles of carboplatin AUC 6 mg/mL/min Q3W and investigator’s choice of paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 Q3W or nab-paclitaxel 100 mg/m2 QW. Primary end points were OS and PFS; ORR and safety were secondary.

      Result

      Paclitaxel was the chosen taxane in 60% of patients. The addition of pembrolizumab to chemotherapy improved OS, PFS, and ORR regardless of choice of carboplatin and paclitaxel or carboplatin and nab-paclitaxel (Table). Incidence of grade 3-5 AEs in the pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy arm vs placebo plus chemotherapy arm was 63.9% vs 59.3% in paclitaxel recipients and 78.9% vs 81.4% in nab-paclitaxel recipients. AEs led to discontinuation of all treatment in 13.6% vs 8.4% of paclitaxel recipients and 12.8% vs 3.5% of nab-paclitaxel recipients and led to discontinuation of any treatment in 19.5% vs 13.2% and 29.4% vs 9.7%, respectively. Immune-mediated AEs occurred in 29.6% vs 9.6% of paclitaxel recipients and 27.5% vs 7.1% of nab-paclitaxel recipients.

      Conclusion

      Adding pembrolizumab to chemotherapy with carboplatin and a taxane improved efficacy and was generally tolerable compared with chemotherapy alone as first-line therapy in patients with metastatic squamous NSCLC regardless of whether paclitaxel or nab-paclitaxel was the chosen taxane.

      Carboplatin plus Paclitaxel Carboplatin plus Nab-Paclitaxel

      Pembrolizumab + Chemotherapy

      N = 169

      Placebo + Chemotherapy

      N = 167

      Pembrolizumab + Chemotherapy

      N = 109

      Placebo + Chemotherapy

      N = 114

      OS, median

      (95% CI), mo

      14.0 (12.6-16.6) 10.3 (8.2-14.8) NR (NE-NE) 12.6 (9.6-NE)
      HR (95% CI)a 0.67 (0.48-0.93) 0.59 (0.36-0.98)

      PFS, median

      (95% CI), mo

      6.4 (6.0-8.3) 4.4 (4.2-5.1) 6.5 (6.2-8.5) 5.9 (4.4-6.9)
      HR (95% CI)a 0.52 (0.40-0.68) 0.65 (0.45-0.94)
      ORR, % (95% CI) 57.4 (49.6-65.0) 37.7 (30.4-45.5) 58.7 (48.9-68.1) 39.5 (30.4-49.1)
      aBased on a Cox regression model with treatment as a covariate.

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    MA25 - Oligometastasis: Defining, Treating, and Evaluating (ID 929)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Mini Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Oligometastatic NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/26/2018, 13:30 - 15:00, Room 203 BD
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      MA25.02 - Searching for a Definition of Synchronous Oligometastatic (sOMD)-NSCLC: A Consensus from Thoracic Oncology Experts (Now Available) (ID 13452)

      13:40 - 13:45  |  Author(s): Luis Paz-Ares

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background

      Recent prospective single centre studies reported improved outcomes in patients with sOMD-NSCLC who were treated with radical intent. Since then sOMD has been perceived as a separate disease entity. However, a clear definition of sOMD-NSCLC is lacking. We aimed to develop a definition and diagnostic criteria of sOMD-NSCLC following a consensus process.

      Method

      A European multidisciplinary consensus group was established with representatives from different scientific societies. Consensus questions were extracted from a survey, case series and a systematic review. The questions were discussed, and the statement formulated during a consensus meeting in Dublin (23.01.18).

      Result

      Summary of consensus statement

      Defining sOMD-NSCLC

      Definition of sOMD is relevant for patients in whom a radical treatment is technically feasible with acceptable toxicity, taking into account all sites, that may modify the course of the disease leading to a long-term disease control.

      All sites must be technically and safely treatable.

      The maximum number of metastases/organs meeting the criteria involved will depend on the possibility of offering a treatment strategy with radical intent, taking into account local control and toxicity. Based on the systematic review, a maximum of 5 metastases and 3 organs is proposed.

      Diffuse serosal metastases and bone marrow involvement are excluded.

      Mediastinal lymph node (MLN) involvement should be considered as locoregional disease in the definition of sOMD-NSCLC.

      MLN involvement is of importance in determining if a radical local treatment of the primary tumour may be applied and the MLN will not be counted as a metastatic site.

      Staging of sOMD-NSCLC

      PET-CT and brain imaging are considered mandatory.

      In case of a solitary liver metastasis a dedicated MRI of the liver and for a solitary pleural metastasis, thoracoscopy and biopsies of distant ipsilateral pleural sites are advised.

      Staging of the mediastinum requires a minimum of a FDG-PET scan, with pathological confirmation preferred if this influences the treatment strategy.

      Pathological proof is required unless the MDT decides that the risk outweighs the benefit. Pathology proof is advised for single metastatic location and if it may change the therapeutic strategy, confirmation of the MLN involvement is recommended.

      Conclusion

      A multidisciplinary consensus statement on the definition and staging of sOMD-NSCLC was formulated taking into account results of a European survey, a systematic review and case discussion. This statement might be helpful to standardise inclusion criteria in future clinical trials. However, the definition of sOMD may change over time when more prospective data will become available.

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    MA26 - New Therapies and Emerging Data in ALK, EGFR and ROS1 (ID 930)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Mini Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Targeted Therapy
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/26/2018, 13:30 - 15:00, Room 201 BD
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      MA26.10 - CNS Activity of Ramucirumab in Combination with Osimertinib in Patients with Advanced T790M-Positive EGFR-Mutant NSCLC (Now Available) (ID 12295)

      14:35 - 14:40  |  Presenting Author(s): Luis Paz-Ares

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background

      Many patients with NSCLC develop central nervous system (CNS) metastasis. Osimertinib, a novel third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has previously demonstrated CNS and systemic efficacy in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC. Combination of an EGFR TKI with a VEGF/VEGFR2-directed monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have shown promising results in EGFR-mutant NSCLC. Ramucirumab, human IgG1 VEGFR2 mAb, was used in combination with osimertinib. Planned exploratory and CNS response analyses aim to examine the safety/efficacy of ramucirumab+osimertinib in patients with CNS metastasis.

      Method

      In this ongoing, open-label, multicenter Phase 1 study (NCT02789345), patients with T790M-positive EGFR-mutant (Ex19del or L858R) NSCLC who had relapsed after first-line EGFR TKI therapy were enrolled. Patients with asymptomatic and stable CNS metastasis (with/without prior radiotherapy) were eligible. Primary objective of the study was to assess safety and tolerability of ramucirumab+osimertinib. Secondary endpoints include objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR). Exploratory endpoints relevant to CNS include CNS ORR and CNS DCR.

      Result

      Patients (N=25) were 45-80 years (median 64) with ECOG-PS 0 (n=3) or 1 (n=22) and 10 patients had CNS metastasis at enrollment while 15 never had CNS metastasis. Patients with CNS metastasis could have had prior radiotherapy (n=7) or no radiotherapy (n=3) to the CNS. Median follow-up time was 7.23 months. Fifteen patients remained on study treatment (five with CNS metastasis, ten without). TEAEs of interest (CNS metastasis, no CNS metastasis), such as headache (4/10, 5/15), vomiting (3/10, 4/15), and nausea (2/10, 4/15), were observed with comparable rates in patients with or without CNS metastasis. One patient developed TEAE of cerebral hemorrhage (Grade 1), related to CNS metastasis, but unrelated to study treatment, according to the investigator. Another patient with CNS metastasis developed Grade 5 TRAE of subdural hemorrhage, unrelated to CNS metastasis, ~7 weeks after the last dose of ramucirumab. Only one patient with CNS metastasis had measurable CNS lesions (tumor shrinkage of 24% [SD] as best response). The other nine patients with CNS metastasis had non-measurable CNS lesions, one of whom had a CNS complete response; his systemic best response was SD. The rest of patients had CNS non-CR/non-PD. To date, one patient (1/25) developed CNS progression (due to new CNS lesion); her CNS best response was SD.

      Conclusion

      Ramucirumab+osimertinib showed potential antitumor activity in the CNS. Patients with CNS metastasis, with/without prior radiotherapy, appeared to tolerate this combination similarly to patients without CNS metastasis.

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    MS23 - What's New in Targeted Therapy? (ID 801)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Mini Symposium
    • Track: Targeted Therapy
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/26/2018, 10:30 - 12:00, Room 106
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      MS23.02 - Emerging or Rare Targets - Fusions, Mutational Burden Etc (Now Available) (ID 11497)

      10:45 - 11:00  |  Presenting Author(s): Luis Paz-Ares

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Abstract not provided

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    P1.01 - Advanced NSCLC (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 933)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 3
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/24/2018, 16:45 - 18:00, Exhibit Hall
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      P1.01-04 - Treatment Patterns and Overall Survival Following Biomarker Testing in Real-World Advanced NSCLC Patients (ID 12743)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Luis Paz-Ares

      • Abstract

      Background

      Foundation Medicine (FMI) comprehensive genomic profiling and other next-generation sequencing (NGS) tests are gaining importance in routine clinical management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). They assess multiple genetic alterations that drive sensitivity or resistance to treatment, enabling optimal therapeutic decisions. We evaluated the effect of biomarker testing on treatment patterns and overall survival (OS) in real-world advanced NSCLC (aNSCLC) patients receiving different test types, and in non-tested patients.

      Method

      The Flatiron Health (FH) Database comprises patient-level electronic health records from a large network of US cancer clinics. Patients had aNSCLC diagnoses between 01/2013 and 05/2017, ≥2 clinic visits in the FH network, first treatment starting ≤90 days after aNSCLC diagnosis, and biomarker tests before first treatment. Testing data were abstracted for five biomarkers (EGFR, ALK, KRAS, ROS1, and PD-L1). Patients were hierarchically categorized into three testing groups: FMI, other NGS, and single-biomarker non-NGS. Biomarker status and patterns in first treatment were described. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare OS among testing groups and non-tested patients.

      Result

      As of 11/30/2017, 355 patients had ≥1 FMI test, 780 had ≥1 other NGS test, and 6,363 had ≥1 non-NGS test prior to first treatment; 5,148 patients were never tested. Table 1 summarizes biomarker status, treatment patterns, and results of multivariate survival models adjusted for baseline demographic and clinical differences among testing groups. Patients with FMI tests were more likely to receive NCCN-recommended targeted treatments. Better OS was observed for FMI, other NGS, and non-NGS compared with non-tested patients.

      FMI

      Other NGS

      Non-NGS

      Non-tested

      (n = 355)

      (n = 780)

      (n = 6,363)

      (n = 5,148)

      n

      %

      n

      %

      n

      %

      n

      %

      Biomarker status1

      EGFR mutation

      51

      14.4

      121

      15.5

      853

      13.4

      -

      -

      ALK rearrangement

      8

      2.3

      23

      2.9

      187

      2.9

      -

      -

      ROS1 rearrangement

      0

      0

      3

      0.4

      33

      0.5

      -

      -

      KRAS mutation

      94

      26.5

      189

      24.2

      415

      6.5

      -

      -

      PD-L1-positive

      21

      5.9

      112

      14.4

      234

      3.7

      -

      -

      Patterns in first treatment

      NCCN-recommended
      targeted therapy2,3

      77

      21.7

      129

      16.5

      1,037

      16.3

      112

      2.2

      Non NCCN-recommended targeted therapy2,4

      2

      0.6

      3

      0.4

      11

      0.2

      40

      0.8

      NCCN-recommended ICI2,5

      36

      10.1

      102

      13.1

      381

      6.0

      229

      4.4

      Non NCCN-recommended ICI2,6

      2

      0.6

      0

      0

      8

      0.1

      3

      0.1

      Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model to compare OS, hazard ratio (95% CI)

      All aNSCLC7

      0.72*

      (0.61, 0.85)

      0.74*

      (0.66, 0.83)

      0.78*

      (0.74, 0.83)

      1.00

      (ref)

      aNSCLC, non-squamous
      cell histology8

      0.69*

      (0.61, 0.79)

      0.76*

      (0.70, 0.80)

      0.69*

      (0.57, 0.83)

      1.00

      (ref)

      All aNSCLC9

      0.93

      (0.77, 1.13)

      1.05

      (0.92, 1.21)

      1.00

      (ref)

      -

      -

      aNSCLC, non-squamous
      cell histology10

      0.91

      (0.74, 1.13)

      1.01

      (0.87, 1.17)

      1.00

      (ref)

      -

      -

      aNSCLC, non-EGFR-mutated, non-ALK-rearranged, non-squamous cell histology11

      0.9

      (0.74, 1.10)

      0.94

      (0.82, 1.08)

      1.00

      (ref)

      -

      -


      ECOG, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group; ICI, immune checkpoint inhibitor; NCCN, National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

      1 Denotes biomarker status overall prior to starting first treatment and represents overall status from all test-types. In case of multiple tests, the following hierarchy is used: positive>negative>pending/unsuccessful/indeterminate/unknown.

      2 Based on the NSCLC NCCN Guidelines, Version 3. 2018; 02/21/2018.

      3 NCCN-recommended targeted therapy implies treatment regimens containing at least one of the following: erlotinib, afatinib, gefitinib, osimertinib, crizotinib, ceritinib, alectinib, brigatinib, dabrafenib+trametinib, cabozantinib, vandetanib, ado-trastuzumab emtansine.

      4 Non NCCN-recommended targeted therapy implies treatment regimens containing at least one of the following: necitumumab, cetuximab, panitumumab, vemurafenib, dabrafenib, trametinib, trastuzumab, pertuzumab+trastuzumab, venetoclax.

      5 NCCN-recommended ICI implies treatment regimens containing at least one of the following: pembrolizumab, nivolumab, atezolizumab.

      6 Non NCCN-recommended ICI implies treatment regimens containing at least one of the following: ipilimumab, avelumab.

      7 Adjusted for age, sex, race, clinic type, payer type, smoking history, stage at initial diagnosis, ECOG performance status, histology, and year of advanced diagnosis.

      8 Adjusted for age, sex, race, clinic type, payer type, smoking history, stage at initial diagnosis, ECOG performance status, and year of advanced diagnosis.

      9 Adjusted for age, sex, race, clinic type, payer type, smoking history, stage at initial diagnosis, ECOG performance status, histology, year of advanced diagnosis, sample type used for the test, and biomarker status.

      10 Adjusted for age, sex, race, clinic type, payer type, smoking history, stage at initial diagnosis, ECOG performance status, year of advanced diagnosis, sample type used for test, and biomarker status.

      11 Adjusted for age, sex, race, clinic type, smoking history, stage at initial diagnosis, ECOG performance status, and year of advanced diagnosis.

      * Indicates a statistically significant estimate (p<0.05).

      Conclusion

      Complexity of real-world aNSCLC biomarker testing and associated treatments creates challenges when comparing OS among testing groups. In the future, as more treatments targeting a wider array of genomic alterations become available and accessible, the utility of NGS-based assays to guide NCCN-recommended treatments with actionable targets and differences in OS may become more apparent.

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      P1.01-68 - Correlation of the Lung Immune Prognostic Index (LIPI) and PDL1 Status with Outcomes for Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Advanced NSCLC Patients (ID 14256)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Luis Paz-Ares

      • Abstract

      Background

      Baseline LIPI, based on derived NLR (neutrophils/[leucocytes-neutrophils]) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was associated with outcomes for immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced NSCLC patients. We assessed the correlation between LIPI and PDL1 for ICI outcomes in NSCLC.

      Method

      Baseline dNLR and LDH and clinical data were retrospectively collected in advanced NSCLC patients, treated with PD1/PDL1 +/- CTLA4 inhibitors from Nov. 2012 to Mar. 2018, in a multicentric cohort (N=794) from 11 centers. LIPI stratified 3 groups: good (dNLR<3+LDH<upper limit of normal (ULN), intermediate (dNLR>3 or LDH>ULN), poor risk (dNLR>3+LDH>ULN). PDL1 positivity was defined as ≥ 1% tumor cells expression by immunohistochemistry.

      Result

      476 patients (60%) were male, 693 (87%) smokers, 695 (88%) had PS ≤1, with median age 65; 576 (73%) had nonsquamous histology. PDL1 was ≥ 1% in 195 (70%) patients, negative in 82 (30%), and unknown in 517. The median of prior lines was 1 (0-11). The median PFS and OS were 4 months (m) [95% CI 4-5] and 12 m [10-15]. dNLR was>3 in 276 (35%) and LDH>ULN in 290 (37%) patients. LIPI stratified 349 patients as good (44%), 323 (41%) as intermediate and 121 (15%) as poor LIPI risk groups. LIPI was an independent factor for OS (table) and PFS (HR 2.58; CI 1.3-5.2, P=0.02). ≥ 1% PDL1 and ≥ 50% PDL1 were not correlated with OS and PFS. Median OS for good, intermediate, and poor LIPI risk groups were 21 m [17-23], 11 m [9-14] and 4 m [2-6], respectively (P=<0.0001). Median PFS for good, intermediate, and poor risk was 5 m [5-7], 4 m [3-5], and 2 m [1-3], respectively (P=0.0005). No differences were observed in LIPI groups according to the PDL1 expression.

      Multivariate analysis for OS

      HR

      95% CI

      P value

      Immunotherapy line

      >2

      2.117

      0.641

      6.992

      0.219

      N# Metastasis sites

      ≥2

      1.242

      0.727

      2.121

      0.428

      Performance status

      ≥2

      2.141

      1.059

      4.332

      0.034

      Albumin

      >35 g/dL

      0.867

      0.507

      1.48

      0.6

      LIPI

      Intermediate

      Poor

      1.697

      4.178

      0.917

      1.956

      3.142

      8.925

      0.001

      PDL1 IHC

      ≥1%

      0.713

      0.406

      1.252

      0.239

      Conclusion

      Baseline LIPI is associated with ICI outcomes in advanced NSCLC, regardless the PDL1 expression. LIPI should be evaluated in prospective clinical trials.

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      P1.01-79 - CheckMate 817: Safety of Flat-Dose Nivolumab Plus Weight-Based Ipilimumab for the First-line (1L) Treatment of Advanced NSCLC (ID 12004)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Presenting Author(s): Luis Paz-Ares

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background

      CheckMate 227 demonstrated significant, clinically meaningful progression-free survival benefit with 1L nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks (Q2W) plus low-dose ipilimumab 1 mg/kg Q6W vs chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and tumor mutational burden (TMB) ≥10 mutations/megabase. The dose and schedule for this combination regimen were optimized for 1L NSCLC in CheckMate 012 and further validated in CheckMate 568 and CheckMate 227. Flat dosing of nivolumab (240 mg Q2W) may simplify treatment while providing comparable exposure, and was recently approved for previously treated NSCLC. CheckMate 817 (NCT02869789) is a multi-cohort, open-label phase 3b/4 study evaluating the safety and efficacy of flat-dose nivolumab plus weight-based low-dose ipilimumab in recurrent/metastatic NSCLC. We report safety results from Cohort A, which evaluated this regimen in the 1L setting; updated results will be presented.

      Method

      Patients with ECOG PS ≤1 and previously untreated NSCLC were eligible, regardless of tumor programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and TMB. Nivolumab 240 mg Q2W plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg Q6W were administered for 2 years or until disease progression/unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was safety assessed by the incidence of grade ≥3 select treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs; defined as AEs of potential immunologic causes).

      Result

      Enrollment occurred between October 2016 and August 2017, with 391 patients initiating treatment at 68 academic and community-based centers in Europe and North America. Median age was 65 years and 27.9% of patients had squamous histology. PD-L1 expression was evaluable in 91% of patients; of these, 50% had ≥1% tumor PD-L1 expression. At database lock (March 1, 2018), minimum follow-up was 5.4 months and 34.5% of patients remained on treatment. The median (range) number of nivolumab and ipilimumab doses received were 9 (1–28) and 3 (1–10), respectively. Any grade and grade 3–4 TRAEs occurred in 74.4% and 27.6% of patients, respectively; 14.1% of patients discontinued treatment due to TRAEs. Rates of any grade select TRAEs by category ranged from 1.3% (renal) to 28.4% (skin). The most common grade 3–4 select TRAEs by category were hepatic (4.6%), pulmonary (3.1%), and gastrointestinal (3.1%). Two treatment-related deaths were reported; one due to Guillain-Barré syndrome and one due to rhabdomyolysis leading to heart failure.

      Conclusion

      The safety profile of flat-dose nivolumab plus low-dose ipilimumab was consistent with previous reports of weight-based nivolumab plus low-dose ipilimumab optimized for NSCLC. Toxicities were manageable with no new safety signals identified.

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    P1.09 - Pathology (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 941)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/24/2018, 16:45 - 18:00, Exhibit Hall
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      P1.09-09 - Evaluation of a Novel ROS1 Immunohistochemistry Clone (SP384) for the Identification of ROS1 Rearrangements in NSCLC Patients (ID 12744)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Luis Paz-Ares

      • Abstract

      Background

      After the approval of crizotinib in ROS1 rearranged NSCLCs, the importance of accurately identifying those patients has never been greater. Although the recently updated guideline for molecular testing supports the use of ROS1 IHC as a screening test, to the best of our knowledge, only one ROS1 clone is commercially available and most published comparison studies involve a relatively small numer of positive cases. This situation prompted us to investigate a novel ROS1 IHC antibody in a large series of ROS1 positive NSCLCs samples.

      Method

      Thirty-nine ROS1 FISH-positive (i.e., gold standard) samples from patients with NSCLCs procured at 22 hospitals were used for this study. In addition, 20 consecutive ROS1 FISH-negative samples from NSCLCs diagnosed at the referral institution were included as negative controls. The material available for all tumors had been formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded. The specifics of formalin fixation were unknown. All specimens were independently screened for ROS1 expression by two IHC antibodies (clone D4D6 from Cell Signaling Technology and clone SP384 provided by Ventana Medical Systems, Inc.) according to previously published methodology or the manufacturer´s instructions. FISH-validated ROS1-positive external controls were included in all the slides. The slides were reviewed by two pathologists blinded to FISH results. The results of both ROS1 IHC assays were evaluated using a modified H-score: strong cytoplasmic staining (3+), clearly visible using a ×2 or ×4 objective; moderate staining (2+), requiring a ×10 or ×20 objective to be clearly seen; and weak staining (1+), cannot be seen until a ×40 objective is used. Both anti-ROS1 IHC staining results were finally interpreted using a binary scoring system: positive (3+ or 2+) or negative (1+ or 0).

      Result

      In ROS1 FISH-negative cases, positive immunoreactivity (3+ or 2+) was observed in 25% and 5% of samples by SP384 and D4D6, respectively. In ROS1 FISH-positive cases, positive expression above the threshold was always present with both antibodies except for one sample that was only stained with SP384. In 4 positive cases (10.3%) by SP384 and 22 positive tumors (56.4%) by D4D6, we noted significant intratumoral heterogeneity, ranging from weak to strong protein expression.

      Conclusion

      We have studied a very large series of ROS1 FISH-positive NSCLCs with a novel IHC clone, which showed excellent sensitivity. The predominantly homogeneous and intense staining may support the use of a dichotomous scoring approach, before confirmation with FISH or a molecular method.

      Funding: I+D+I 2013-2016/Feder. ISCIII: PI14/01176

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    P1.16 - Treatment of Early Stage/Localized Disease (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 948)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 2
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/24/2018, 16:45 - 18:00, Exhibit Hall
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      P1.16-05 - Effect of Induction Chemotherapy in the PACIFIC Study (ID 13864)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Luis Paz-Ares

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background

      The Phase 3 PACIFIC study of patients with stage III, unresectable NSCLC without progression after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (cCRT) demonstrated significantly longer PFS with durvalumab versus placebo (stratified HR 0.52; 95% CI 0.42–0.65; P<0.0001). Overall, 26% and 29% in the durvalumab and placebo groups, respectively, received induction chemotherapy (ICT) before cCRT. Here, we report exploratory analyses of baseline characteristics, disposition, and outcomes from this study based on the presence or absence of prior ICT.

      Method

      PACIFIC (NCT02125461) was a Phase 3, randomized, double-blind study of patients with WHO PS 0/1 and any tumor PD-L1 status without progression after ≥2 cycles of platinum-based cCRT. Patients were stratified by age, sex and smoking history and randomized (2:1) to durvalumab 10 mg/kg IV Q2W or placebo up to 12 months. Co-primary endpoints were PFS (blinded independent central review, RECIST v1.1) and overall survival (not available). We investigated associations between the presence/absence of ICT and disposition, baseline characteristics, and efficacy and safety endpoints.

      Result

      As of February 13, 2017, 713 patients were randomized; 27% had prior ICT. Baseline characteristics were similar between treatment arms; however, patients with ICT were generally younger, less frequently Asian, had lower incidence of squamous histology, and more often had stage IIIB disease. There were no differences between groups in terms of prior RT dose. PFS benefit with durvalumab was demonstrated irrespective of ICT use (ICT: HR=0.61, 95% CI, 0.41–0.88; no ICT: HR=0.54, 95% CI, 0.42–0.69). Similarly, ORR with durvalumab was numerically higher than with placebo irrespective of ICT use (ICT: 16.1% vs 13.1%; no ICT: 32.9% vs 17.1%). ICT did not affect treatment duration for durvalumab or placebo. Between-treatment safety differences were minimal across subgroups; however, patients with ICT experienced fewer SAEs, treatment-related SAEs and pneumonitis/radiation pneumonitis regardless of treatment arm.

      Conclusion

      Durvalumab demonstrated clinical benefit irrespective of ICT. The safety profile of durvalumab was consistent in patients with or without ICT. A lower rate of toxicity was observed in patients with ICT regardless of treatment arm.

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      P1.16-06 - Expanded Efficacy and Safety Analysis of PACIFIC Based on a PD-L1 Cutpoint of 25% (ID 12992)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Luis Paz-Ares

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background

      In the Phase 3 PACIFIC study of patients with stage III, unresectable NSCLC without progression after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (cCRT), PFS was significantly longer with durvalumab versus placebo (stratified HR 0.52; 95% CI 0.42–0.65; P<0.0001). We report exploratory analyses of PACIFIC outcomes by PD-L1 expression assessed in tumor samples collected prior to cCRT.

      Method

      PACIFIC (NCT02125461) was a Phase 3, randomized, double-blind study of patients with WHO PS 0/1 without progression after ≥2 cycles of platinum-based cCRT. Eligibility was irrespective of PD-L1 expression; archived samples were optional for testing (VENTANA PD-L1 [SP263] assay). No samples were obtained after cCRT, prior to infusion with durvalumab or placebo. Patients were randomized (2:1) to durvalumab 10 mg/kg IV Q2W or placebo up to 12 months, stratified by age, sex and smoking history. Co-primary endpoints were PFS (blinded independent central review, RECIST v1.1) and OS (not available). Secondary endpoints included ORR and safety. We investigated associations between subgroups of patients with PD-L1 expression on tumor cells (TC) of <25% or ≥25% and efficacy.

      Result

      As of February 13, 2017, 713 patients were randomized; 451 (63.3%) had known PD-L1 status (TC<25%, 64.7%; TC≥25%, 35.3%; Table). Baseline characteristics and prior therapy (including best response to prior therapy) were generally well balanced between arms across both PD-L1 subgroups. PFS benefit with durvalumab was demonstrated irrespective of PD-L1 status (HR 0.59; 95% CI, 0.43–0.82 for TC<25% and HR 0.41; 95% CI, 0.26–0.65 for TC≥25%) (Table). ORR was greater with durvalumab compared to placebo regardless of PD-L1 status (Table). The overall safety profile of durvalumab in each PD-L1 subgroup was consistent with the ITT population treated with durvalumab.

      Conclusion

      Durvalumab demonstrated clinical benefit and had a well-tolerated, manageable safety profile irrespective of PD-L1 status obtained from archival tumor samples prior to cCRT.

      PD-L1 TC<25%

      PD-L1 TC≥25%

      Durvalumab (n=187)

      Placebo
      (n=105)

      Durvalumab (n=115)

      Placebo
      (n=44)

      Completed 12 months treatment, n (%)

      74 (39.6)

      35 (33.3)

      55 (47.8)

      13 (29.5)

      PFS*

      Median (95% CI), months

      16.9 (11.0–NR)

      6.9 (5.0–11.0)

      17.8 (11.1–NR)

      3.7 (2.0–13.2)

      HR (95% CI)

      0.59 (0.43–0.82)

      0.41 (0.26–0.65)

      ORR

      n=170

      n=96

      n=108

      n=40

      n (%)

      [95% CI]

      50 (29.4)

      [22.7–36.9]

      19 (19.8)

      [12.36–29.17]

      31 (28.7)

      [20.4–38.2]

      6 (15.0)

      [5.71–29.84]

      *In the overall ITT population, median PFS was 16.8 months (95% CI, 13.0–18.1) with durvalumab (n=476) vs. 5.6 months (95% CI, 4.6–7.8) with placebo (n=237), with an HR of 0.52 (95% CI, 0.42–0.65; P<0.001) (stratified log-rank); PD-L1 assessment was not required in the study; in PD-L1 unknown patients, median PFS was 14.0 months (95% CI, 9.2–NR) with durvalumab (n=174) vs. 6.4 months (95% CI, 3.8–9.0) with placebo (n=88), with an HR of 0.59 (95% CI, 0.42–0.83) (unstratified Cox proportional hazards model); ORR for n evaluable patients included unconfirmed responses. ITT, intention-to-treat; NR, not reached; ORR, objective response rate; PFS, progression-free survival.

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    P2.04 - Immunooncology (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 953)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/25/2018, 16:45 - 18:00, Exhibit Hall
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      P2.04-27 - Ph II Study of Oral Selective AXL Inhibitor Bemcentinib (BGB324) in Combination with Pembrolizumab in Patients with Advanced NSCLC (ID 14307)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Luis Paz-Ares

      • Abstract

      Background

      Bemcentinib (BGB324) is a first-in-class, highly selective oral inhibitor of the AXL tyrosine kinase currently in phase II clinical development across several cancer types. AXL overexpression has been observed in pts failing anti-PD-1 therapy in several cancers whereas AXL inhibition via bemcentinib has shown synergistic effect with checkpoint blockade in pre-clinical models of NSCLC.

      In pts with advanced, pre-treated NSCLC, bemcentinib monotherapy led to disease stabilisation in 2 out of 8 pts including evidence of tumour reduction. Combination therapy of bemcentinib with EGFR inhibition indicated the potential of AXL blockade to reverse resistance to targeted therapy in advanced EGFR therapy resistant NSCLC. Evidence of immune activation following bemcentinib monotherapy was observed in AML patients.

      This open label, single-arm, two-stage Phase 2 study was designed to test whether AXL inhibition may increase the efficacy of pembrolizumab in patients with advanced, previously treated adenocarcinoma of the lung.

      Method

      Patients with documented Stage IV adenocarcinoma of the lung who had progressed on previous platinum chemotherapy and – if applicable – at least one line of licensed EGFR or ALK targeted therapy, received 200 mg/d bemcentinib po and 200 mg/q3wk pembrolizumab iv. Patients were required to consent to a fresh pre-treatment biopsy. Tumour assessments were done 9-weekly. The primary endpoint was ORR. Tumour biopsies were analysed for PD-L1 and AXL as well as immune cell populations. Plasma protein biomarker levels were measured using the DiscoveryMap v3.3 panel (Myriad RBM) in patients pre-dose and at C2D1.

      Result

      As of time of writing, the study had fully recruited its first stage. Of 24 patients enrolled, 14 were ongoing. 6 of 10 patients who had reached their first scan showed evidence of tumour shrinkage including 3 pts with partial responses in their target lesions. 2 patients had stable disease. There were no grade 4 treatment-related events. Dose reduction from 200 to 100 mg/d of bemcentinib as a consequence of adverse events was required in 12% of patients. Correlation of AXL and PD-L1 expression with response was evaluated. Soluble AXL plasma levels were increased following one cycle of treatment indicative of target engagement.

      Conclusion

      A preliminary analysis of response to combination treatment during the first stage of this study as well as biomarker correlation will be presented at the meeting. Clinical trial information: NCT03184571

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    P2.09 - Pathology (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 958)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/25/2018, 16:45 - 18:00, Exhibit Hall
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      P2.09-11 - TMB Estimated with Targeted NGS in Early Stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Correlation with PD-L1 Expression and Lymphocyte Density (ID 12774)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Luis Paz-Ares

      • Abstract

      Background

      It has been proposed that a combination of assays may refine the prediction of response to checkpoint inhibitors, with tumour mutation burden (TMB) being lately the strongest biomarker associated with efficacy. Although some targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) assays provide a good estimate of whole exome sequencing TMB, they are only available throughout referral laboratories. We sought to investigate the possibility of profiling TMB in-house with a commercially available targeted NGS assay, and to correlate the results with survival, the status of TP53, PD-L1 overexpression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs).

      Method

      The study included samples from 40 patients diagnosed with early-stage lung squamous cell carcinoma. PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed with two clones (SP263 and SP142, Ventana Medical Systems). CD8+ TILs were scored with a digital algorithm. The status of TP53 (exons 4–10) was investigated with direct sequencing. Ion TorrentTM OncomineTM Tumor Mutation Load Assay (ThermoFisher Scientific), a targeted NGS assay which covers 1.7Mb across 409 cancer driver genes, was used to assess TMB. NGS was performed on genomic DNA from FFPE tumor samples using the Ion S5TM system. The results were analyzed with the Ion ReporterTM software. According to the manufacturer’s instructions, TMB was calculated based on the number of non-synonymous somatic mutations, after removing polymorphisms and known or predicted driver mutations from all the variants. We investigated the correlation between TMB and PD-L1 expression, lymphocyte density, TP53 status and survival.

      Result

      TMB data was available for all 40 patients. The mean and median number of mutations was 13 and 11, respectively. CD8+/mm2 TILs within the peritumoral stromal compartment ranged from 312 to 4793 and within the intraepithelial compartment ranged from 17 to 2002. Sixty percent and 32% of cases were positive in tumor cells with SP263 or SP142, respectively (1% cut-off). Immune cells PD-L1 expression (1% cut-off) was observed in 92% of samples with both clones. No correlation was found between PD-L1 expression or lymphocyte density and TMB. Tumors with TP53 mutations showed non-significant higher numbers of mutations than those wild-type (p=0.075). Accordingly, there was a similar trend for overall survival using the median number of mutations as a cut-off (p=0.137, HR, 5.29).

      Conclusion

      It is feasible to use targeted NGS to estimate TMB. In our pilot study, there was no obvious correlation with other immunooncology predictive biomarkers.

      Funding: AES 2017/Feder. ISCIII: PI17/01001

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    P2.12 - Small Cell Lung Cancer/NET (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 961)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/25/2018, 16:45 - 18:00, Exhibit Hall
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      P2.12-04 - Liposomal Irinotecan vs Topotecan in Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer Who Have Progressed On/After Platinum-Based Therapy (ID 12768)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Luis Paz-Ares

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background

      Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) accounts for ~15% of all lung cancers; it is an aggressive disease marked by rapid growth and early metastasis. Patients typically demonstrate initial sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, followed by rapid relapse and development of drug resistance. Topotecan, a topoisomerase I (TOP1) inhibitor, is the only agent approved for second-line treatment in the United States and Europe. Liposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI) has demonstrated sustained TOP1 inhibition, with liposomal deposition in tumor tissue through leaky vasculature, followed by irinotecan release and subsequent conversion to the active metabolite SN-38. Pre-clinical data suggests that nal-IRI has improved anti-tumor activity compared to topotecan. The current trial (NCT03088813) is being undertaken to investigate the safety and efficacy of nal-IRI versus intravenous topotecan in patients with SCLC who have progressed on or after platinum-based first-line therapy.

      Method

      There are two parts of this study: Part 1 is an open-label, single-arm, safety run-in phase and Part 2 is a randomized, controlled, efficacy assessment phase. Key inclusion criteria include ECOG performance status of 0–1, adequate organ function, histopathologically/cytologically confirmed SCLC, evaluable disease (RECIST v1.1), and life expectancy ≥12 weeks. Prior exposure of immuno-oncology therapies is allowed. Key exclusion criteria include a diagnosis of large cell neuroendocrine lung carcinoma, prior treatment regimens with TOP1 inhibitors, and retreatment with the same platinum-based regimen after relapse of first-line therapy. In Part 1, patients will be treated with different doses of nal-IRI to identify a tolerable dose level; this dose level will be expanded to include a total of 24 patients. The primary endpoint is safety and tolerability, with secondary endpoints including objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS).

      In Part 2, ~450 patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio between nal-IRI and IV topotecan. The primary endpoint is OS, followed by PFS, ORR, patient-reported outcomes, and exploratory analyses. Patients will be treated for a minimum of 3 cycles (1 cycle = 6 weeks) or until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity. Safety analyses will be performed using the safety population, defined as all patients receiving any study drug.

      Result

      Section not applicable - Trial in progress

      Conclusion

      Section not applicable - Trial in progress

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    P3.12 - Small Cell Lung Cancer/NET (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 978)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/26/2018, 12:00 - 13:30, Exhibit Hall
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      P3.12-11 - Association of the Lung Immune Prognostic Index (LIPI) with Outcomes for Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Diffuse SCLC Patients (ID 14200)

      12:00 - 13:30  |  Author(s): Luis Paz-Ares

      • Abstract

      Background

      Pretreatment LIPI (Lung Immune Prognostic Index), based on derived NLR (neutrophils/[leucocytes-neutrophils] ratio) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has been associated with outcomes for immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in advanced NSCLC patients. We tested whether LIPI has the same role in diffuse small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients.

      Method

      Baseline dNLR and LDH and clinical data were retrospectively collected in SCLC patients, treated with ICI (PD1 inhibitor, PDL1 inhibitors +/- CTLA4 inhibitor) from April 2014 to Jan. 2018 (N=66) from 6 European centers. LIPI was calculated combining dNLR and LDH, stratifying 3 risk groups: good (dNLR<3+LDH<upper limit of normal (ULN), intermediate (dNLR>3 or LDH>ULN), poor (dNLR>3+LDH>ULN). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), and secondary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS).

      Result

      Fifty-three patients (80%) were males, 58 (88%) smokers and all patients had PS ≤1, with median age 63 years (41-82). PDL1 was ≥ 1% by immunohistochemistry in 6 patients, and unknown in 60 patients. The median of prior lines was 1 (0-6). Platinum-based therapy was the prior line in 63 (95%) patients, with ORR of 88%. The median PFS and OS with ICI were 2.7 months (m) [95% CI 1.87-4.43] and 10.3 m [95% CI 5.8-12.6]. dNLR was greater than 3 in 16 (25%) and LDH> Upper Limit of Normal (ULN) in 33 (50%) patients. Based on both, LIPI stratified the population in 3 groups: 26 patients as good (40%), 29 (45%) as intermediate and 10 (15%) as poor LIPI risk groups. LIPI was an independent factor for OS (HR 2.77, 95% CI 1.07-7.14, P=0.03) and PFS (HR 3.13, 1.37-7.16, P=0.01). Median OS for good, intermediate, and poor risk groups were 11.4 m [95% CI 5.5-27.3], 11 m [95% CI 6.8-not-reached (NR)] and 2.3 m [95% CI 0.7-NR], respectively (P=0.004). Median PFS for good, intermediate, and poor risk groups were 3 m [95% CI 1.9-12.6], 2.8 m [95% CI 1.6-6.0 and 1.2 m [95% CI 0.47-NR], respectively (P=0.004).

      Conclusion

      Baseline LIPI poor risk group is associated with poor outcomes for ICI in diffuse SCLC patients. LIPI effect in a validation cohort is currently evaluated.

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    P3.16 - Treatment of Early Stage/Localized Disease (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 982)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/26/2018, 12:00 - 13:30, Exhibit Hall
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      P3.16-02 - Phase III Study of Canakinumab (ACZ885) as Adjuvant Therapy in Patients with Surgically Resected NSCLC (ID 12069)

      12:00 - 13:30  |  Author(s): Luis Paz-Ares

      • Abstract

      Background

      Preclinical and clinical data suggest that cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β can promote angiogenesis and tumor growth, and are essential to tumor invasiveness. Canakinumab (ACZ885) is a high-affinity human IgGκ anti-IL-1β monoclonal antibody approved for patients with various IL-1–driven auto-inflammatory diseases. In the Phase III Canakinumab Anti-Inflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study (CANTOS) in patients with atherosclerosis, canakinumab was associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of fatal and non-fatal lung cancer in patients with increased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels. ACZ885T2301 (NCT03447769) is evaluating the efficacy and safety of adjuvant canakinumab versus placebo in patients with surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

      Method

      This Phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study is enrolling patients (≥18 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status ≤1) with completely resected (R0) American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) v.8 stages II−IIIA and IIIB (T >5 cm and N2) NSCLC, who have completed standard-of-care adjuvant treatments, including cisplatin-based chemotherapy and mediastinal radiation therapy (if applicable). Prior treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy is not permitted. Approximately 1500 patients will be randomized 1:1 to receive canakinumab (200 mg every 3 weeks [Q3W], subcutaneous [s.c.]) or placebo (Q3W, s.c.) on Day 1 of 21-day cycles for 18 cycles or until disease recurrence, unacceptable toxicity, treatment discontinuation at the discretion of the investigator or patient, death, or loss to follow-up. Following baseline screening, imaging assessment will be performed every 12 weeks for the first year (treatment phase) following Cycle 1 Day 1, then every 26 weeks during Years 2 and 3, and annually during Years 4 and 5 (post-treatment surveillance phase). Randomization will be stratified by AJCC/UICC v.8 stage, tumor histology, and region.

      The primary objective is to compare disease-free survival (DFS) in the canakinumab versus placebo arms, as determined by local investigator assessment. Secondary objectives include a comparison of the two treatment groups with respect to overall survival (key secondary objective), lung cancer-specific survival, safety, pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity of canakinumab, and patient-reported outcomes. Exploratory objectives include assessment of the relationship between pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, and efficacy, and evaluation of correlation between cytokines/soluble markers and efficacy endpoints. Enrollment is ongoing.

      Result

      Section not applicable

      Conclusion

      Section not applicable

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    PL02 - Presidential Symposium - Top 5 Abstracts (ID 850)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Plenary Session
    • Track: Advanced NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/25/2018, 08:15 - 09:45, Plenary Hall
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      PL02.01 - Overall Survival with Durvalumab Versus Placebo After Chemoradiotherapy in Stage III NSCLC: Updated Results from PACIFIC (Now Available) (ID 14701)

      08:15 - 08:25  |  Author(s): Luis Paz-Ares

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background

      In the global, Phase 3 PACIFIC study (Antonia 2017; NCT02125461), durvalumab significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) versus placebo in Stage III, unresectable NSCLC patients without progression after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (stratified HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.42–0.65; P<0.001). This was the first major advance in this disease setting for many years. Here we report the second primary endpoint overall survival (OS) for PACIFIC.

      Patients with WHO PS 0/1 (any PD-L1 tumor status) who received ≥2 cycles of platinum-based CRT were randomized (2:1) 1–42 days post-CRT to durvalumab 10 mg/kg IV Q2W or placebo up to 12 months, stratified by age, sex, and smoking history. Primary endpoints were PFS from randomization (blinded independent central review; RECIST v1.1) and OS (interim analysis reported). Secondary endpoints included time to death or distant metastasis (TTDM) and PFS2 (time to second progression) from randomization and safety. Time to first/second subsequent therapy or death (TFST/TSST) were supportive assessments for PFS/PFS2.

      Between May 2014 and April 2016, 713 patients were randomized of whom 709 received treatment (durvalumab, n=473; placebo, n=236). As of March 22, 2018 (data cutoff), median follow-up duration was 25.2 months (range, 0.2–43.1). After discontinuation, 41.0% and 54.0% in the durvalumab and placebo groups received subsequent anticancer therapy; overall, 8.0% and 22.4% received additional immunotherapy. Durvalumab significantly improved OS versus placebo (stratified HR 0.68, 99.73% CI, 0.469–0.997; P=0.00251), with the median not reached (NR; 95% CI, 34.7 months–NR) and 28.7 months (95% CI, 22.9–NR), respectively. Durvalumab improved OS in all pre-specified subgroups. Updated PFS remained similar (stratified HR 0.51, 95% CI, 0.41–0.63), with medians of 17.2 and 5.6 months with durvalumab and placebo, respectively. Durvalumab improved the updated TTDM (stratified HR 0.53, 95% CI, 0.41–0.68), as well as PFS2 (stratified HR 0.58, 95% CI, 0.46–0.73), TFST (stratified HR 0.58, 95% CI, 0.47–0.72) and TSST (stratified HR 0.63, 95% CI, 0.50–0.79). Within the durvalumab and placebo groups, 30.5% and 26.1% had grade 3/4 any-causality AEs, 15.4% and 9.8% discontinued due to AEs, and no new safety signals were identified.

      Durvalumab demonstrated statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in OS compared with placebo, supported by secondary endpoints such as PFS2. PACIFIC is the first study to show a survival advantage following CRT in this population, providing compelling evidence for the unprecedented benefit of durvalumab treatment as the standard of care.

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