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Karen Kelly



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    MS18 - Management of SCLC Patients Not Represented in Clinical Trials (ID 797)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Mini Symposium
    • Track: Small Cell Lung Cancer/NET
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/25/2018, 13:30 - 15:00, Room 206 BD
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      MS18.02 - Treatment of Elderly Patients with SCLC (ID 11478)

      13:50 - 14:10  |  Presenting Author(s): Karen Kelly

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Abstract not provided

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    OA06 - Early Stage Lung Cancer: Outcomes and Interventions (ID 902)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Treatment of Early Stage/Localized Disease
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/24/2018, 13:30 - 15:00, Room 202 BD
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      OA06.01 - Case-Series Study in Ever- and Never-Smoking Females and Males with NSCLC: Exposures, Tumor Factors, Biology and Survival (SWOG S0424) (ID 14526)

      13:30 - 13:40  |  Author(s): Karen Kelly

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background
      Sex differences in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) susceptibility, tumor biology and survival have been retrospectively reported. We conducted a prospective, case-series intergroup study (SWOG S0424) in 4 cohorts of females (F) and males (M), ever-smokers (ES) and never-smokers (NS) with newly-diagnosed stages I-III NSCLC. This is the first overall survival (OS) report. a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method
      Patients were accrued at US sites via SWOG/NCI-CTSU. A questionnaire of demographics and exposures (tobacco, environmental, reproductive, hormonal); stage and histology data; treatment; and OS were obtained. Tumor tissue was submitted for EGFR, RAS and p53 mutations. Nuclear and cytoplasmic estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta were measured (Cheng, JNCI 2017). Kaplan-Meier (KM) curves and OS modeled using Cox proportional hazards were examined. The NS cohorts remained open longer to maximize accrual. Patients were followed 5 years for OS or until death. 4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result
      The accrual goal of 981 was achieved from 10/2005-3/2011. Evaluable cases were FES, n=337; MES, 383; FNS, 188; MNS, 49 (MNS under-accrued despite extension). The 4 cohorts differed significantly in demographics, tumor stage, histology, mutational profile (overall, by histology), ER expression, lifestyle factors and exposures. KM curves showed MNS/MES had overlapping OS and FNS/FES had significantly better OS. Five-year estimates were FNS, 73%; FES, 69%; MNS, 58%; MES, 52%. Markedly improved OS for females persisted after adjusting for other factors. Four multivariate OS models were constructed: all patients (model 1) and women only (model 2), each with mutations and ER expression added (models 3, 4). Model 1: better OS for females (HR 0.56, p <.001); higher BMI (continuous, HR 0.98, p=0.045); and adenocarcinoma, BAC, large cell (all vs squamous, HRs 0.84, 0.48, 0.57); worse OS for stages II and III (HRs 1.87, 3.76: each p<.001) and greater age. Model 2: worse OS if ES (HR 1.48, p=0.05), higher stages; histology and hormonal exposure variables were not significant. Model 3: better OS if EGFR mutation (HR 0.53, p=0.013), female, stage I, higher BMI or greater height; worse OS if p53 mutation, higher ER-alpha cytoplasmic or ER-beta nuclear H-scores. Model 4: worse OS if higher stage, p53 mutation or ER-alpha cytoplasmic H-score; EGFR mutation lost significance. 8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion
      Sex, histology, mutations and exposures impacted OS, with dramatically better OS for females regardless of the analysis/model. Hormonal influences (persistent association of ER-expression with OS) were independently significant. Despite adjustments, favorable female survival could not be explained away. Randomized studies should stratify by sex and validation analyses should be conducted in targeted therapy and immunotherapy trials.

      SUPPORT: NIH/NCI grants R01CA106815, U10CA180888, U10CA180819 and UG1CA189974. 6f8b794f3246b0c1e1780bb4d4d5dc53

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    OA10 - Right Patient, Right Target & Right Drug - Novel Treatments and Research Partnerships (ID 910)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Targeted Therapy
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/25/2018, 10:30 - 12:00, Room 106
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      OA10.04 - Afatinib With or Without Cetuximab for EGFR-Mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Safety and Efficacy Results from SWOG S1403 (ID 14014)

      11:05 - 11:15  |  Author(s): Karen Kelly

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background

      Several EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are used for the treatment of EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however resistance inevitably develops. The combination of the irreversible ErbB family TKI afatinib and the EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab was previously shown to overcome resistance to first-line EGFR TKIs. To attempt to delay resistance, we conducted a randomized trial of afatinib plus cetuximab versus afatinib alone in treatment-naïve patients with advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC (NCT02438722).

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      Patients with previously-untreated EGFR-mutant NSCLC were randomized to afatinib 40mg PO daily plus cetuximab 500mg/m2 IV every 2 weeks or afatinib 40mg PO daily. The study was designed to accrue a total of 212 patients, comparing progression-free survival (PFS) between the arms at the 1-sided 0.025 level when 134 PFS events had been observed. Secondary objectives included comparison of overall survival (OS), time to treatment discontinuation (TTD), and toxicity. An interim analysis evaluating early stopping for futility occurred when at least 64 PFS events were reported.

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      Between March 26, 2015 and April 23, 2018, 170 eligible patients were accrued: 86 to afatinib/cetuximab and 84 to afatinib. Median age was 66.4 years, 66% were female, 64% had an EGFR exon 19 deletion mutation and 36% had an L858R point mutation. With 109 events observed, there was no improvement in PFS with the combination compared to single-agent (HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.80-1.73, P = 0.42, median 10.6 months vs 13.1 months). OS was also not improved with the addition of cetuximab (HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.62-2.44, P = 0.55, median 26.9 months vs not reached). TTD was similar between the two groups (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.64-1.39, P = 0.79, median 12.5 months vs 12.2 months). Grade > 3 treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were more common among patients treated with afatinib/cetuximab, and more patients in the combination arm required at least 1 dose reduction of afatinib (57% vs 26%). However, treatment discontinuations due to AEs were similar between the two groups (11.6% vs 10.7%).

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      There was no difference in PFS, OS or TTD with the addition of cetuximab to afatinib for treatment-naïve patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC. The trial was closed to accrual at the interim analysis having met the criteria for futility. Correlative analysis of tumor tissue and blood from patients is ongoing.

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    P1.04 - Immunooncology (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 936)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/24/2018, 16:45 - 18:00, Exhibit Hall
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      P1.04-09 - Immunomodulatory Effects of Afatinib and Pembrolizumab in EGFR-Mutant NSCLC with Progression on Prior EGFR-TKI (ID 12185)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Karen Kelly

      • Abstract

      Background

      EGFR-mutant NSCLC is less responsive to single agent PD-1 blockade than smoking associated NSCLC. Preclinical models suggest EGFR-TKI can render a more immunocompetent tumor microenvironment. This study examined the immunomodulatory effects of combination second generation EGFR-TKI and PD-1 antibody.

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      In this phase 1 dose de-escalation study, patients were treated with afatinib 40 mg oral daily and pembrolizumab 200 mg IV q21day. Key Eligibility: advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC with progression (PD) on prior EGFR-TKI, age≥18, ECOG PS≤1, acceptable organ function, no significant autoimmune diseases, measurable disease and controlled brain metastases. Tissue biopsy performed baseline and week 5-6 on treatment for PD-L1 IHC (22C3) and quantitative immunofluorescence for immune cell subsets and next-generation sequencing. Blood at baseline and at serial on-treatment timepoints were collected for ctRNA of PD-L1, EGFR, HER2 and MET; changes in circulating immune cell subsets, T-Cell repertoire and cytokine levels were evaluated by flow cytometry and Luminex.

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      No DLTs were observed in the first 6 patients and the 10 patient expansion cohort proceeded at afatinib 40 mg daily and pembrolizumab 200 mg IV q21day. Eleven patients enrolled to date. Key molecular and pathologic characteristics: adenocarcinoma 9, neuroendocrine 1, squamous 1. EGFR-TKI resistance mechanism: EGFR-T790M 4, EGFR-T790M/C797S 1, HER2 amp 1, MET 2, Her2 amp+neuroendocrine differentiation 1, unknown 2. Five patients had prior second line osimertinib. Three (27%) patients had immune related AEs (G2 adrenal insufficiency, G2 nephritis, G3 colitis). Nine patients were evaluable for response: (1 PR, 7 SD ((6/7) with tumor reduction <30%)). The responding patient had squamous histology tumor, prior PD on erlotinib, and PFS of 11 months with PD-L1 (22C3) TPS 40% and PD-L1 and PD-L2 amplification. Treatment with afatinib and pembrolizumab induced systemic immune changes including trend for increased soluble IDO, MIG, TIM3, IP-10, LAG3, PD-L1 and PD-L2 and decreased IFN-gamma. ctRNA for EGFR and PD-L1 were detected in 7/7 and 6/7 patients, respectively, with dynamic changes in allele frequency of EGFR and PD-L1 observed. Baseline PD-L1 (22C3) TPS ranged from 0% to 75% expression. Four patients had repeat biopsy and in paired samples analyzed PD-L1 (22C3) expression decreased in the stroma.

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      Immunomodulatory effects of afatinib with pembrolizumab were noted in the tumor microenvironment and peripheral blood. Only modest clinical activity has been observed thus far in patients with PD on prior EGFR-TKI. Genomic and immune-profiling is feasible in EGFR-mutant NSCLC and may identify EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients who may respond or lack benefit to PD-1 blockade.

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    P1.16 - Treatment of Early Stage/Localized Disease (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 948)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/24/2018, 16:45 - 18:00, Exhibit Hall
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      P1.16-47 - Adjuvant Targeted Therapy Following Standard Adjuvant Therapy for Resected NSCLC: An Initial Report from ALCHEMIST (Alliance A151216) (ID 12828)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Karen Kelly

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background

      The Adjuvant Lung Cancer Enrichment Marker Identification and Sequencing Trial (ALCHEMIST) was launched in 2014 across the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This trial platform aims to enroll up to 8300 patients with resected high-risk non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to facilitate enrollment to adjuvant targeted therapy trials following completion of standard adjuvant therapy, and to collect biospecimens for clinical and investigational genomics. On 5/1/2016, the study was expanded to include squamous NSCLC and PDL1 testing to facilitate enrollment to a new immunotherapy study.

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      Eligible patients have completely resected NSCLC, stage IB (>4cm) to IIIA by AJCC 7. Eligibility window extends 75-285 days post-op depending upon receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation. Molecular testing of EGFR, ALK, PDL1 is performed centrally (depending on the histology and testing results) and results are returned to sites within 7-21 days. FFPE tissue and blood are collected by the NCI for genomic analysis. Appropriate patients may then enroll to one of three therapeutic trials studying single agent adjuvant targeted therapy (erlotinib NCT02193282, crizotinib NCT02201992, or nivolumab NCT02595944) versus observation.

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      As of March 19, 2018, 2945 patients have been enrolled from 575 sites within the US, with a median enrollment of 98/month (range: 71-133) in 2017. Central molecular testing was completed in 83%-92% of appropriate patients: EGFR L858R/19del was detected in 395 of 2468 patients (16.0%), ALK FISH was positive in 106 of 2458 patients (4.3%), and PDL1 IHC was >1% in 902 of 1464 patients (61.6%). Adequate tissue and blood for whole exome sequencing (WES) was collected on 1928 patients (65.5%), and enrollment plasma (added January 2017) has been collected on 885 patients (30.1%). Of 1960 patients deemed to be eligible for the adjuvant treatment trials with sufficient follow-up, 560 (28.6%) were enrolled; those enrolled were younger (p=0.01) and had higher N stage (<0.01) than those not enrolled. The primary reason for eligible patients not enrolling to treatment trials was lack of interest in further adjuvant therapy (53%).

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      ALCHEMIST has achieved an enrollment of ~100 patients/month with resected high-risk NSCLC. This initial report demonstrates the feasibility of central molecular testing for enrollment to adjuvant targeted therapies. Efforts are ongoing to plan clinically-informed genomic analyses of tumor and plasma, as well as the planning of new treatment arms that leverage this ongoing trial platform.

      Support: U10CA180821, U10CA180882, U10CA180820, U10CA180868, U10CA180888; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02194738

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    P3.13 - Targeted Therapy (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 979)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/26/2018, 12:00 - 13:30, Exhibit Hall
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      P3.13-26 - Outcomes of Patients with Metastatic Lung Cancer Presented in a Multidisciplinary Molecular Tumor Board (ID 12838)

      12:00 - 13:30  |  Author(s): Karen Kelly

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background

      With the adoption of broad genomic profiling, interpretation of genomic data in NSCLC has become increasingly complex. Approved targeted therapies against oncogenic driver mutations have improved clinical outcomes for patients whose lung cancers harbor these genomic alterations. However, for other patients, the benefit of broad genomic sequencing is not fully proven. Multidisciplinary molecular tumor boards (MTB) may improve clinical outcomes by appropriately matching targeted treatments.

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      We retrospectively reviewed clinical, pathologic, and molecular data of metastatic lung cancer patients presented at the UC Davis MTB from January 2016 through May 2017. Genomic alterations were identified by hybrid capture-based comprehensive genomic profiling to a median coverage depth of >500X for 315 cancer-related genes (FoundationOne®).

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      Out of 48 patients presented, 19 (39.6%) had lung cancer. Fourteen patients (73.7%) had adenocarcinoma, 1 SCLC, 1 squamous, 2 neuroendocrine, and 1 mixed histology. Seventeen patients were available for follow-up.

      Median number of prior treatments was 2 (range: 0-7) and median number of prior targeted therapies was 2 (range: 0-5). On average, each tumor sample had 5.3 genomic alterations (range 2 – 14). Every sample had ³1 actionable mutation, in that matched targeted therapy was available in the form of an FDA-approved drug for NSCLC, FDA-approved drug in another tumor type, or genomically informed clinical trial. Tumors harbored an EGFR mutation (N=7), HER2 amplification (N=2), BRAF V600E (N=2), or mutation in BRCA1 (N=1), KIT (N=1), or PTCH1 (N=1). All 7 patients with an EGFR mutation had previously received EGFR-targeted therapy, six with progressive disease (PD) on prior EGFR-TKI.

      Thirteen patients (76.5%) received targeted therapy, including FDA-approved therapy for NSCLC (N=4), FDA-approved therapy for another tumor type (N=6), or a genomically informed clinical trial (N=3). The other four patients were either on an immunotherapy clinical trial (N=2) or could not tolerate treatment (N=2). Out of the 13 patients who received targeted therapy, 4 patients had a partial response (31%) (3 EGFR, 1 BRAF V600E), all other patients had stable disease or PD. Median PFS on MTB-selected treatment was 4.8 months (range: 25% 2.2 – 75% 10.7 months).

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      MTB at an academic medical center matched a high percentage of patients to either a targeted treatment or clinical trials with targeted therapies or immunotherapy. A subset of patients had clinical benefit to targeted therapies in this pretreated population. Multidisciplinary expertise at MTB can guide treatment for NSCLC, but new targeted treatments are needed to improve clinical outcomes.

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