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Fred R. Hirsch



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    MA04 - Novel Approaches with IO (ID 900)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Mini Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Immunooncology
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/24/2018, 13:30 - 15:00, Room 107
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      MA04.10 - Comprehensive Peripheral Blood Immunophenotyping and T-Cell Clonal Analysis During Neoadjuvant Immunotherapy with Atezolizumab in NSCLC (Now Available) (ID 13118)

      14:35 - 14:40  |  Author(s): Fred R. Hirsch

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background

      Immune-checkpoint blockade targeting PD-L1/PD-1 to activate anti-tumor immunity is associated with improved response rates and survival compared to chemotherapy in selected metastatic NSCLC patients. Evaluation of the pre-therapeutic immune profile and its treatment-related evolution associated with clinical benefit will guide future immunotherapy development and support clinical decision-making. Here, we present an analysis of peripheral blood (PB) immunophenotyping and T-cell-receptor (TCR) clonality before and after immunotherapy from an ongoing 180-patient phase II study of atezolizumab as neoadjuvant therapy with stage IB-IIIB resectable NSCLC (NCT02927301; LCMC3).

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      As of February 5th datacut, the first 54 enrolled and dosed patients are presented. The biomarker evaluable population (BEP) further subset to patients with paired PB samples analyzed within 72 hours after collection and a major pathological response (MPR) assessment. Comprehensive immune cell phenotyping (10-color flow cytometry, IMMUNOME) and TCR-Vß-analysis by flow cytometry were performed. Immunoprofile analyses were correlated with atezolizumab treatment, pathological response and PD-L1 expression.

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      In this ongoing analysis, BEP included 31 patients. 5 patients (16%, 95% CI (5%, 34%)) had a MPR; all of which stained positive for PD-L1 by IHC using 22C3 (TPS≥1%) and SP142 (PD-L1 expression on ≥1% tumor cells (TC) and/or tumor infiltrating immune cells (IC)) at baseline. We observed significant increases in natural killer (NK) cells (p=0.005) and CD8+ T-cells (p=0.031) and a Th1-response related dendritic cell (DC) subpopulation (p=0.031) and significant decreases in B-cells (p=0.015) after treatment.

      Patients who achieved MPR show lower baseline levels of degranulated CD8+ T-cells (p=0.015), late-activated NK-cells (p=0.043), memory CD4+ (p=0.048) and memory CD8+ T-cells (p=0.032); changes in PB NK-cells (p=0.041), a decrease in M-MDSCs and a Th-2 and Th-17-response related DC subpopulation (p=0.043) in response to treatment were noted in patients with MPR versus non-MPR.

      Among the 16 patients with TC/IC 1/2/3 (> 1% PD-L1 expression) the following significant differences were observed compared to TC0/IC0 (7 patients): higher levels of late-activated CD4+ T-cells (p=0.025) and mid-activated CD8+ T-cells (p=0.044) at baseline, decrease of senescent T-cells (p=0.041), monocytic myeloid-suppressor cell subpopulations (M-MDSCs) and an increase in a Th1-response related DC subpopulation (p=0.026) after treatment.

      TCR clonality analysis showed expansions in Vß-subtypes after atezolizumab treatment.

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      Immunophenotyping and TCR-Vß-repertoire analysis in peripheral blood samples from NSCLC patients treated with neoadjuvant atezolizumab show differences in immune cell subsets in baseline samples and changes after treatment.

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    MA11 - Biomarkers of IO Response (ID 912)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Mini Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Immunooncology
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/25/2018, 10:30 - 12:00, Room 203 BD
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      MA11.05 - Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Expression in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Analyses of Prevalence, Clinical Correlations and Prognostic Impact (Now Available) (ID 13309)

      11:00 - 11:05  |  Author(s): Fred R. Hirsch

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background

      Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) is a cytosolic enzyme involved in the catabolism of tryptophan; IDO-1-related immune suppression is due to decreased tryptophan availability and to the generation of tryptophan metabolites, culminating in substantial suppression of T-lymphocytes. Here we investigate IDO-1 expression in a cohort of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens, both in tumor cells and in immune infiltrate, with correlation of IDO-1 to PD-L1 expression, clinical patient demographics and outcomes.

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      A cohort of 1.200 NSCLC samples were obtained from 437 patients who underwent surgical lung resections at Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia. IDO-1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Correlations were assessed using Spearman and Kendall tests. A Cox proportional hazards (PH) model was used to assess if overall survival (OS) was associated with IDO-1 positivity in univariate and multivariable settings.

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      Samples from 437 patients were analyzed for IDO-1 expression, with 111 (25.4%) determined as positive (H-Score 1) and 326 patients (74.6%) as negative (H-Score: 0). IDO-1 expression was determined to be greater in tumor immune infiltrate, with 406 patients (93.8%) determined as positive, while just 27 (6.2%) were IDO-1 negative. There was a significant positive correlation between IDO-1 positive tumor cells and immune cells (0.2167, p < 0.001). Both continuous and binary versions of tumor H-Score showed a significant positive correlation with the amount of tumor immune infiltrate (0.1806 and 0.1698, p < 0.0001, respectively). None of the analyzed variables (age, sex, histology, stage, EGFR, KRAS and PD-L1 status) were found to display a significant correlation with IDO-1 positivity in tumor and immune cells. IDO-1 positivity in tumor cells was found to be significantly associated with OS in the univariate setting and in the multivariable model where variables age, sex, histology, stage, EGFR, KRAS and PD-L1 status were included [P-value = 0.009 and 0.021, respectively; HR: 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55-0.95)]. IDO-1 positivity in immune cells was found to be significantly associated with OS in the univariate setting and was borderline significant in the multivariable model [P-value = 0.006 and 0.053, respectively; HR: 0.798 (95% CI: 0.635-1.003)].

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      To our knowledge, this is the most extensive analysis of IDO-1 expression in NSCLC patients reported in the literature. Our results suggest the possible prognostic role of IDO-1 expression in tumor and immune cells, highlighting the relevance of IDO-1 detection in tumor tissue. Since new compounds targeting IDO-1 are actually under investigation, the identification of potential prognostic and predictive biomarkers will be needed.

      6f8b794f3246b0c1e1780bb4d4d5dc53

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    MS21 - Giants in Thoracic Oncology (ID 869)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Mini Symposium
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/25/2018, 15:15 - 17:00, Room 105
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      MS21.07 - The Growing Role of Biomarkers in Treatment Selection: “The Tissue is the Issue” (Now Available) (ID 13380)

      16:15 - 16:25  |  Presenting Author(s): Fred R. Hirsch

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Abstract

      Much progress has occurred in the treatment of lung cancer over the last decades. A main reason for this progress is due to technology developments, which make it possible to identify new targets and develop new active drugs targeting the molecular abnormalities. However, developing predictive biomarkers for selection of the right group of patients to the right treatment has been crucial in this progress.

      The detection of EGFR mutations as predictive biomarkers for EGFR TKIs paved the way for biomarker development and was shortly followed by the detection of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase fusions and the development of ALK-inhibitors. Later, many other targets have been identified (i.e. ROS1, BRAF, RET, TRAKS) and specific targeted drugs developed with impressive clinical effect in biomarker defined subgroups, particularly of NSCLC (1).

      The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) has together with the College of American Pathologists (CAP) and the Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) developed guidelines for molecular testing of patients with advanced NSCLC, which second edition has recently been published (2). Those guidelines have been the role model for several other guidelines globally.

      Assay developments have been crucial in the biomarker development. While traditional immunohistochemistry (IHC) is still relevant for selection of patients to certain targeted therapies, e.g. ALK- inhibitors, more technological advanced assays based on DNA or RNA have become more” relevant” as multiplexed marker analysis seems in many cases “mandatory” as (sparse) “Tissue is the Issue” (3). The last revision of the CAP/IASLC/AMP guidelines recommend the use of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) if possible, as this assay gives more information and detect mutations as well as fusions. Today only a limited number of targets are linked to FDA approved drugs for treatment of lung cancer and the use of NGS gives a broad molecular profiling of the patients’ tumor. This knowledge gives the patient opportunity to seek clinical trials, of which many are ongoing, including a broad range of molecular targets.

      Many molecular targets have seen several generations of specific targeted drugs, e.g. EGFR and ALK and more knowledge has emerged on resistance mechanisms, a knowledge, which in some cases, leads to targeted agents specifically targeting the resistance mechanisms. The third generation EGFR TKI represented by osimertinib targeting T790 M mutation is the best example. This development has paved the way for the need for biopsy at progression, which is a change in the current “culture”. However, acquiring tissue at this stage can often be challenging, and the development of liquid biopsy is rapidly emerging. The IASLC has just published a consensus report on the role of liquid biopsy in the management of patients with NSCLC (4). The liquid biopsy technology has the capability to be applied to NGS and several other DNA and RNA assays with high specificity (90-100%) and increasing high sensitivity (70-90%).

      The progress with immunotherapy has been remarkable for patients with lung cancer; however, the role of predictive biomarkers in immunotherapy has been challenging. PD-L1 has been pursued by the relevant pharmaceutical companies, but, unfortunately, with the development of their own proprietary assays that differ with regard to antibodies, processing platforms, and with different cut-off points for definition of “high’- versus “low” PD-L1 expression in the clinical trials. IASLC has compared the analytical performances of the different assays in order to see if harmonization is possible, and the results of the “Blueprint Project” indicate that three assays (Dako’s 28-8 and 22C3 and Ventana’s SP 263) perform very similar and seem to be interchangeable when the same clinical cut-offs for the different categories are used (5,6). Tumor mutation burden has also emerged as a predictive biomarker for immunotherapies (7); however, the tumor mutation burden assays need to be compared and standardized as well. Much research today is devoted to try to identify new and better predictive biomarker(s) for immunotherapy. While we have primarily focused on “single” biomarker assays for immunotherapy thus far, it might be time to look into the role of “combined” biomarkers or assays for the most optimal selection of patients, who benefit from immunotherapy.

      In conclusion, a tremendous development of biomarkers and assays have been seen over the last decade(s), which has made it possible to identify subgroups of patients with dramatic effect of new targeted therapies. Future drug development needs to ensure the biomarker development occurs simultaneously in the clinical development to ensure validation and proper selection of subgroups of patients, who will benefit from the new agents. Development of “masterprotocols” seems to be one mechanism for speeding up this development (8).

      REFERENCES:

      1.Hirsch FR, Scagliotti GV, Mulshine JL et al: Lung Cancer: Current Therapies and New Targeted Treatments. Lancet 389 (10016); 299-331, 2017.

      2.Lindeman NI, Cagle PT, Aisner DL et al: Updated Molecular Testing Guidelines for Selection of Lung Cancer Patients for Treatment With Targeted Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors. Guideline from the College of American Pathologists, The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer and the Association for Molecular Pathology. J Thorac Oncol 142(3); 321-346, 2018.

      3.Hirsch FR, Wynes MW, Gandara DG, Bunn PA: “The Tissue is the Issue”. Clin Cancer Res 16 (20); 4909-4911. 2010

      4.Rolfo C, Mack PC, Scagliotti GV et al: IASLC Statement Paper: Liquid Biopsy for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. J Thorac Oncol , June 6th, 2018 (E-pub ahead of time).

      5.Hirsch FR, McElhinny A, Stanforth D et al; PD-L1 Immunohistochemistry Assays for Lung Cancer: Results from Phase1 of the Blueprint PD-L1 Comparison Project. J Thorac Oncol 12(2); 208-222, 2017.

      6.Tsao MS, Kerr KM, Kockx M et al: PD-L1 Immunohistochemistry Comparison Study in Real-Life Samples; Results from Blueprint Phase 2 Project. J Thorac Oncol , May 22, 2018 (Epub ahead of time).

      7.Hellman MD, Callahan MK, Awad MM: Tumor Mutation Burden and Efficacy of Nivolumab Monotherapy and in Combination with Ipilumumab in Small Cell Lung Cancer. Cancer Cell 14(33): 853-861, 2018.

      8.Malik SM, Pazdur R, Abrams JS et al: Consensus Report from a Joint NCI Thoracic Malignancy Steering Committee- FDA workshop on strategies for integration of biomarkers into clinical development of new therapies for lung cancer leading to inception of “Masterprotocols” in lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol 9 (10); 1443-1448. 2014

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    OA03 - Advances in Lung Cancer Pathology (ID 897)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Pathology
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/24/2018, 10:30 - 12:00, Room 205 BD
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      OA03.03 - Phase 2B of Blueprint PD-L1 Immunohistochemistry Assay Comparability Study (Now Available) (ID 14530)

      10:50 - 11:00  |  Author(s): Fred R. Hirsch

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background
      PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been established as companion or complementary diagnostic assays, each developed as predictive biomarker for specific anti PD1/PD-L1 immunotherapies. The Blueprint (BP) phase 1 comparability study demonstrated that three PD-L1 assays (28-8, 22C3, SP263) showed comparable analytical performance for assessment of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells (TPS), while the SP-142 PD-L1 assay appeared to stain a lower percentage of tumor cells when compared to the other assays. The first part of BP phase 2 (BP2A) re-affirmed these findings in a larger cohort of ‘real life’ specimens scored by 24 experienced pulmonary pathologists, and also showed that the 73-10 assay developed for avelumab showed greater sensitivity than all other assays to detect PD-L1 on tumour cells. BP2A also demonstrated generally excellent inter-observer agreement for tumor cell PD-L1 scoring using both glass slides and digital images, with slightly lesser agreement for the cytology samples included in the study cohort. Inter-observer agreement for immune cell scoring on glass or digital slides was poor. Phase 2B of Blueprint (BP2B) aimed to compare PD-L1 scoring on triplet samples representing large tumor resection blocks, small biopsy samples and fine needle aspirate cell blocks prepared from the same tumor. a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method
      Triplet samples of large resected tumor block, small biopsy sample and fine needle aspirate cell block (the latter two taken from the resected tumour specimen) were gathered from 31 resected primary lung cancers (17 adenocarcinomas, 12 squamous cell carcinomas, and 2 large cell carcinomas). Sections from all 93 blocks were stained with the pharmDx 28-8 and 22C3, the FDA-approved SP142 and SP263, or clinical trial associated 73-10 PD-L1 assays, in a CLIA-approved immunohistochemistry laboratory. All H&E and PD-L1 IHC slides were scanned and digital images were used to score all cases by the same 24 pathologists involved in BP2A. As before, tumor cells PD-L1 staining were scored as continuous variable and into 7 cut-off-defined categories, as used in various immune checkpoint inhibitor trials. Immune cells were not scored. 4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result
      The data reaffirm the relative comparability of 28-8, 22C3 and SP263 assays across the range of scores; SP142 assay scores were lower, those for 73-10 higher. Inter-observer agreement between readers ranged from moderate to near perfect (Kappa-Fleiss (K-F) scores generally >0.7); best overall agreement was on aspirates. Overall, the agreement between scores on the different sample types from the same tumor was good (most K-F scores >0.7); aspirates showed no significant difference from biopsy samples or whole surgical blocks. In contrast to biopsies and surgical blocks, scores could, however, not be rendered in about 14% of aspirate sections. 8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion
      The results of BP2B confirms earlier results and also demonstrate comparable performance for fine needle aspirates in those cases where TPS scores were possible. 6f8b794f3246b0c1e1780bb4d4d5dc53

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    P1.04 - Immunooncology (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 936)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/24/2018, 16:45 - 18:00, Exhibit Hall
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      P1.04-23 - Expression of Emerging Immunotherapy Targets in Early-Stage Squamous Lung Carcinoma (Now Available) (ID 13520)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Fred R. Hirsch

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background

      Anti-PD1/PD-L1 immunotherapy has demonstrated response in approximately 20% of unselected advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Strategies involving combination immunotherapies are under investigation to improve the overall response to immunotherapy. The objective of this study was to identify the expression of emerging immune targets in a cohort of early-stage squamous lung carcinoma (SqLC), which may be used to design combinatorial immunotherapy approaches.

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      202 early stage (I-II) SqLC resected patient tumors and corresponding clinical data were collected from 6 cancer centers as part of the SPECS II program. Fourteen emerging immune targets or targeted axis were selected based on their advanced stage of development in preclinical/clinical studies. The mRNA expression level of these targets and PD-1/PD-L1 were determined by Affymetrix U133A gene expression profiling. The correlations among these targets and the overall survival were evaluated.

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      The mRNA levels of the immune molecules which were grouped on PD-L1 protein expression in early stage SqLC are shown in Figure 1. No correlation was found between the mRNA level of PD-L1 and the other immune targets expressed on APC/tumor cells, except PD-L2 (r2= 0.41, p<0.00001). We found that the immune cell receptor, CD226, correlated with CD96 and CD112R respectively (r2= 0.514, p<0.00001; r2= 0.476, p<0.00001), and CD96 correlated with CD112R (r2= 0.644, p<0.00001) as well. In addition, higher expression of GAL-9, CD48 and ICOS were associated with better prognosis [p= 0.0358, HR=0.249 (0.068, 0.912); p= 0.0309, HR=1.61 (1.04, 2.49); p= 0.0429, HR=2.47 (1.03, 5.93)].

      figure 1.tif

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      Several emerging immune targets were expressed at higher levels than PD-L1 in this early stage SqLC cohort. The mRNA levels of all immune targets evaluated were independent of PD-L1 expression, except PD-L2. The expression of GAL-9, CD48 and ICOS were identified as prognostic. These results may provide important information in the design of future combination immunotherapies for early-stage SqLC.

      6f8b794f3246b0c1e1780bb4d4d5dc53

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    P2.04 - Immunooncology (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 953)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 2
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/25/2018, 16:45 - 18:00, Exhibit Hall
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      P2.04-13 - The Immune Checkpoint, HVEM Contribute to Immune Escape in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer of Lacking PDL1 Expression (ID 13116)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Fred R. Hirsch

      • Abstract

      Background

      Herpes Virus Entry Mediator (HVEM) is an important immune checkpoint in cancer recognition. HVEM expressed on tumor cell membranes activates immune cell signaling pathways leading to either inhibition of activity (BTLA) or activation of immune activity (LIGHT). The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of HVEM expression and its association with PDL1 expression in NSCLC.

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      A TMA of 527 resected NSCLC samples and 53 NSCLC cell lines were evaluated for HVEM and PD-L1 expression. The IHC assay for HVEM was optimized on the Dako Link48 autostainer using a polyclonal antibody from R&D Systems(AF356). PD-L1 IHC was performed on the Dako Link48 autostainer using the PD-L1 22C3 pharmDx kit. Scoring HVEM employed the H-score system while for PD-L1 the tumor proportion score (TPS) was used.

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      HVEM expression in the NSCLC resected samples and cell lines revealed a positive H-score more than 1 was18.6%(77/415) and 45.3%(24/53) respectively. HVEM expression was significantly higher in patients with lymph node N2 metastasis (25.5% vs 7.9% vs 17.5%, P=0.046) when comparing with N1 or no lymph node metastasis, and was marginally significantly higher in patients with stage III/IV disease (24.5% vs 16.4%, P=0.059). Subgroup analysis showed that HVEM (median 45 vs 36 months, p=0.706) and PD-L1 expression (median 45 vs 48 months, p=0.178) status was not predictive of overall survival. HVEM was found to have a significant negative correlation with PD-L1 expression (r=-0.232, p=0.002, Figure 1A) in patients with NSCLC and also have a negative correlation in NSCLC cell lines(r=-0.055, p=0.764,Figure 1B).

      figure 1.tif

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      HVEM was found to be overexpressed in patients of NSCLC with advanced disease or lymph node metastasis and has a negative co-relationship with PD-L1 expression, while, it did not have a prognostic role in patients with NSCLC.

      6f8b794f3246b0c1e1780bb4d4d5dc53

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      P2.04-15 - Heterogeneity and Correlation Between Immune Markers in Lung Cancers: Analysis of Treatment-Naïve Lesions (ID 11288)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Fred R. Hirsch

      • Abstract

      Background

      Immunotherapies are becoming a new standard of care for patients with lung cancers. Although a few immune-checkpoints are currently used as therapeutic targets and/or as predictive biomarkers, the complex correlation between immune-checkpoints is not well understood. Expression level of immune-checkpoint molecules is affected by numerous factors including tumor cells themselves, patients’ immunological characteristics, tumor microenvironment (metastatic sites), and previous treatments. To effectively investigate correlations of immune-checkpoints across multiple lesions, we analyzed gene expression data obtained from treatment-naïve autopsied patients.

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      Our cohort of 5 lung cancer patients included thirty specimens of both primary and metastatic lesions. RNA sequencing reads were mapped to the hg19 reference genome using the TopHat/Cufflinks workflow and transcripts were quantified using the FPKM method. Expression data for immune-checkpoints and total numbers of detected mutations were compared.

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      We observed substantial inter-tumor heterogeneity in immune-checkpoint expression between lesions obtained from each patient. No consistent correlation was found by comparison of primary vs. metastatic lesions or between primary vs. specific metastatic sites. Evaluation of immune-checkpoints expressed by tumor cells and/or antigen presenting cells revealed a positive correlation between GAL9 and PD-L2 (R = 0.79) and GAL9 and HVEM (R = 0.69; Figure 1A). We also observed a strong correlation between these markers when lesions obtained from each patient were correlated to each other (Figure 1B and C). Comparisons between immune-checkpoints expressed by immune cells identified a positive correlation between PD-1 and LAG3 (R = 0.77). No correlation was found between immune-checkpoint expression and mutation burden.

      figure for abstract..tif

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      We observed substantial inter-tumor heterogeneity in immune-checkpoints expression in each patient. We also found several positive correlations between immune-checkpoints which were consistent within the small cohort of patients. Further functional evaluation is warranted.

      6f8b794f3246b0c1e1780bb4d4d5dc53

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    P2.09 - Pathology (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 958)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 2
    • Now Available
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/25/2018, 16:45 - 18:00, Exhibit Hall
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      P2.09-01 - Tumor-Associated Immune Cell Infiltration Patterns in Early Stage Squamous Lung Carcinoma (Now Available) (ID 13456)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Fred R. Hirsch

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background

      With the recent clinical success of immunotherapy in non-small cell lung carcinoma, the character of the inflammatory infiltrate associated with these tumors is now the subject of increasing interest. Molecular studies have suggested that tumors can be stratified by the character of their inflammatory infiltrate. We now describe the detailed histological appearances of a multi-institutional series of early stage squamous carcinomas and correlate them with mutation burden, PDL1 expression patterns and clinical outcome.

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      Histologic sections of from 250 tumors were evaluated by two pathologists independently for squamous subtype (WHO classification), percentage and character of intratumoral inflammatory cells, percentage and character of para-tumoral infiltrate and presence or absence of scalloping at tumor cell/stromal interface by inflammatory cells along the edges of tumor cell nests, a feature possibly related to existing immune reaction. The ratios of infiltrating inflammatory cells to tumor cells were estimated in 10% increments by microscopic inspection. Quantity and character of infiltrates was assessed by Kaplan-Meir testing for effect on survival and by Pearson bivariate testing for relationships among variables.

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      The character and extent of inflammatory infiltrates were highly heterogeneous. The infiltrates could be divided into intratumoral and paratumoral patterns according to their location in relation to microscopic tumor cell nests. Intratumoral infiltrates could be further subdivided into two patterns: one consisted exclusively lymphocytes, usually few in number; a second polymorphous pattern contained many inflammatory cell types including polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In paratumoral tissue, three patterns could be discerned: lymphocytic, plasmacytic and polymorphous. Inflammatory cell infiltrate quantity or character did not correlate with survival for either intratumoral or paratumoral infiltrates and there was no evident relationship to mutational burden or to PDL1 expression by IHC. Scalloping at the tumor cell stromal interface was also not prognostically significant.

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      The inflammatory infiltrates in early stage squamous lung carcinoma are highly heterogenous and are not associated with outcome. However, the complexity of tumor infiltrating inflammatory cells is worthy of further evaluation in future immunotherapeutic trials.

      6f8b794f3246b0c1e1780bb4d4d5dc53

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      P2.09-24 - MERS67 is a Novel anti-NaPi2b Antibody and Demonstrates Differential Expression Patterns in Lung Cancer Histologic Subtypes (ID 12636)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Fred R. Hirsch

      • Abstract

      Background

      NaPi2b is a sodium-dependent phosphate transporter expressed in lung, ovarian, and thyroid cancers. Prior studies have suggested an enrichment of expression in lung adenocarcinoma (ACA).

      XMT-1536 is a NaPi2b targeting ADC (Antibody Drug Conjugate) comprised of a humanized antibody (XMT-1535) conjugated with 10-15 auristatin F-HPA (AF-HPA) payload molecules via the Dolaflexin platform. AF-HPA is capable of controlled bystander-effect killing, resulting in efficacy in models with heterogeneous antigen expression, and is metabolized intra-tumorally to an active non-permeable metabolite to enable greater systemic tolerability. Previously, we demonstrated pre-clinical activity of XMT-1536 in human primary xenograft models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

      MERS67 is a human-rabbit chimeric antibody derived from XMT-1535. MERS67 has been formatted for use as an immunohistochemical reagent by multiple methods and expression has been shown to correlate with response in an unselected series of primary ovarian cancer xenografts. (AACR-EORTC, 2017)

      We evaluated MERS67 to see if it would preferentially stain lung adenocarcinoma (ACA), as has been demonstrated using other NaPi2b antibodies.

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      An immunohistochemical assay for MERS67 was established on a Leica BondRx Instrument. The assay was performed on tissue microarrays (TMA), including NSCLC and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line arrays, and a NSCLC human tumor array. Tumors in the NSCLC array had previously been classified based on morphologic features only. All arrays were scored based on the H-score method.

      To characterize the primary tumors further, the tumor TMA was stained with TTF-1 and p40, markers of ACA and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC), respectively. Results of this staining were compared to MERS67 staining patterns.

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      H-Scores in the NSCLC cell line TMA ranged from 0-260, and from 0-100 in the SCLC TMA. Within the tissue microarray, 99 individual cases were evaluable. By morphologic classification 63 cases were SqCC, and 23 cases were ACA. Using an arbitrary cut point of H=50, there was a statistically significant difference in the number of NaPi2b positive ACA cases (19/23) vs SqCC (3/63). Among 43 cases where p40 and TTF-1 were evaluable and were in agreement with morphologic diagnosis, 7/7 cases of ACA were positive for NaPi2b, while 0/36 SqCC were positive.

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      MERS67 is an anti-NaPi2b antibody that frequently demonstrates immunoreactivity in lung ACA. MERS67 is a chimeric antibody related to XMT-1536, a proprietary anti-NaPi2b ADC. Target expression using MERS67 is being evaluated in an ongoing XMT-1536 Phase 1 clinical trial enrolling non-squamous NSCLC patients.

      6f8b794f3246b0c1e1780bb4d4d5dc53

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    P2.11 - Screening and Early Detection (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 960)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/25/2018, 16:45 - 18:00, Exhibit Hall
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      P2.11-08 - Tumor Autoantibody Panel Can Improve the Accuracy of Early Diagnosis in Lung Cancer Presenting with GGNs /Solid Nodules  (ID 14324)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Fred R. Hirsch

      • Abstract

      Background

      Autoantibody is an attractive diagnostic approach for early detection of malignant tumors. We performed this study to validate the performance of an autoantibodies (TAAs) panel (p53,PGP9.5,SOX2,GAGE7,GBU4-5,MAGE A1,CAGE) to aid early diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma with ground-glass nodules (GGNs) and/or solid nodules in Chinese population and to find an effective simple blood test which can be used in further assessing the risk of lung cancer being present GGNs and/or nodules.

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      A prospective audit was conducted on 540 individuals known to have GGNs and/or lung nodules. These patients included 311 pulmonary malignant or borderline lung diseases, 229 lung benign GGNs and/or nodules. We detected TAAs quantitation by ELISA method.

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      The sensitivity and specificity of autoantibody assay were 48.6% and 92.7% respectively. In lung invasive adenocarcinoma, the sensitivity of autoantibody assay was 51.9%. When the seven-autoantibody panel test was combined with CT imaging in patients with GGNs and/or nodules, the accuracy was increased to 90.42%.

      table.png

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      The greatest impact of using the new seven-autoantibody panel was the highly significant improvement in the sensitivity and specificity of the test in the clinical setting. Our study suggested that the seven-autoantibody panel can be combined with CT imaging to aid diagnosis of lung cancer with GGNs and/or solid nodules.

      6f8b794f3246b0c1e1780bb4d4d5dc53

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    P2.13 - Targeted Therapy (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 962)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/25/2018, 16:45 - 18:00, Exhibit Hall
    • +

      P2.13-45 - SHERLOC: A Phase 2 Study of Seribantumab in Combination with Docetaxel in Patients with Heregulin Positive, Advanced NSCLC (Now Available) (ID 11349)

      16:45 - 18:00  |  Author(s): Fred R. Hirsch

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background

      HER3 and its ligand, heregulin (HRG), have been identified as a critical activator of PI3K and Akt signaling and a key pro-survival pathway in cancer cells. Seribantumab (MM-121) is a fully human, monoclonal IgG2 antibody that binds to the HRG domain of HER3, blocking HER3 activity. Preclinical data suggest that seribantumab reverses HRG-mediated drug resistance across multiple cancer models. In retrospective analyses of prior seribantumab Phase 2 studies, high levels of HRG mRNA appeared to predict poor outcome to standard of care (SOC) treatment. Addition of seribantumab to SOC appeared to improve progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with HRG positive (HRG+) tumors, consistent with the hypothesis that the blockade of HRG-induced HER3 signaling by seribantumab can restore drug sensitivity.

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      In the current randomized, open-label, international, Phase 2 study, patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC histologically classified as adenocarcinoma are screened for HRG using an RNA in situ hybridization assay on a recent biopsy tissue sample. Approximately 100 HRG+ patients will be enrolled and randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive seribantumab plus docetaxel (experimental treatment Arm), or docetaxel alone (control Arm). Eligible patients must have no EGFR and ALK mutations and have progressed following one to two SOC for locally advanced and/or metastatic disease, including platinum-based therapy and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy where available and clinically indicated. Primary trial endpoint is PFS. Secondary endpoints include overall survival, objective response rate, time to progression, and pharmacokinetic profile. The study has ≥ 80% power to detect a 3-month improvement in median PFS over 3 months (hazard ratio ≤ 0.50), using a one-sided, stratified log-rank test at a significance level of 0.025. Study is ongoing and enrolling patients in seventy nine sites worldwide. Clinical trial information: NCT02387216

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      Section not applicable

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      Section not applicable

      6f8b794f3246b0c1e1780bb4d4d5dc53

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    P3.12 - Small Cell Lung Cancer/NET (Not CME Accredited Session) (ID 978)

    • Event: WCLC 2018
    • Type: Poster Viewing in the Exhibit Hall
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/26/2018, 12:00 - 13:30, Exhibit Hall
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      P3.12-13 - Expression of the Immune Checkpoint Axis-PVR/TIGIT in Small Cell Lung Cancer (Now Available) (ID 13994)

      12:00 - 13:30  |  Author(s): Fred R. Hirsch

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background

      The poliovirus receptor (PVR) is an immune checkpoint protein expressed on tumor cells. It has been reported to mediate activation of T cells via CD226 or inhibition through binding to T-cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT). TIGIT competes with CD226 for binding to PVR, and exhibits stronger affinity for PVR. Recently we have found that PVR is highly expressed in SCLC cell lines. Characterizing the expression and significance of the PVR-TIGIT axis in SCLC will help us to better understand the immunology of SCLC and may lead to novel therapeutic strategies to combine checkpoint blocking agents for improved SCLC immunotherapy.

      a9ded1e5ce5d75814730bb4caaf49419 Method

      Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to evaluate PVR protein expression in a TMA of 39 SCLC cell lines and a cohort TMA of 77 limited stage SCLC patients with clinical data. We analyzed both PVR and TIGIT in an independent cohort of 27 resected, limited-stage SCLC tumors.

      4c3880bb027f159e801041b1021e88e8 Result

      Thirty-seven cell lines (95%, 37/39) demonstrated staining for PVR and of those, 4 cell lines (10.3%, 4/39) showed strong staining (H-score ≥ 270). In the 77 SCLC patients cohort, PVR expressed predominantly in the membrane of tumor cells, with minimal expression observed on immune cells. PVR expression in the SCLC patient cohort was 82% with an arbitrary H-score cut-off of ≥ 50. Higher PVR expression was found for male patients (P=0.040). The expression of PVR increased with the tumor progressing from stage I to stage III (p =0.007). SCLC patients who had higher PVR expression demonstrated poorer prognosis and the difference was near statistically significant (p=0.050). Using the same cut-off (H-score ≥ 50) in the independent SCLC cohort, the prevalence of high PVR expression was 89% (24/27).

      In the independent SCLC cohort, TIGIT was found to be expressed membranous or cytoplasm on the immune cells with weak to moderate staining. Immune cells with TIGIT staining were typically seen as variable size and aggregated toward the periphery of the tumor nest. TIGIT protein staining was demonstrated in 20 cases (74%). No association was found between PVR H-score and TIGIT expression by Fisher’s test (p=0.093).

      8eea62084ca7e541d918e823422bd82e Conclusion

      PVR is broadly expressed in SCLC cell lines and tumor tissues. The expression of TIGIT protein was also found in SCLC patients with weak to moderate staining. Blockade of the PVR-TIGIT pathway may represent a possible future target to immunotherapy in SCLC patients.

      6f8b794f3246b0c1e1780bb4d4d5dc53

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