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L.M. Sholl



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    MA 05 - Immuno-Oncology: Novel Biomarker Candidates (ID 658)

    • Event: WCLC 2017
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Immunology and Immunotherapy
    • Presentations: 1
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      MA 05.02 - STK11/LKB1 Loss of Function Genomic Alterations Predict Primary Resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 Axis Blockade in KRAS-Mutant NSCLC (ID 10367)

      15:45 - 17:30  |  Author(s): L.M. Sholl

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      The genomic landscape of primary resistance to PD-1 blockade in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is largely unknown. We previously reported that co-mutations in STK11/LKB1 (KL) or TP53 (KP) define subgroups of KRAS-mutant LUAD with distinct therapeutic vulnerabilities and immune profiles. Here, we present updated data on the clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in co-mutation defined KRAS mutant and wild-type LUAD patients and examine the relationship between genetic alterations in individual genes, tumor cell PD-L1 expression and tumor mutational burden (TMB) using cohorts form the SU2C/ACS Lung Cancer Dream Team and Foundation Medicine (FM).

      Method:
      The cohorts included 924 LUAD with NGS (FM cohort) and 188 patients with KRAS non-squamous NSCLC (SU2C cohort) who received at least one cycle of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor therapy and had available molecular profiling. Tumor cell PD-L1 expression was tested using E1L3N IHC (SU2C) and the VENTANA PD-L1 (SP142) assay (FM). TMB was defined as previously described and was classified as high (TMB-H), intermediate (TMB-I) or low (TMB-L).

      Result:
      188 immunotherapy-treated (83.5% nivolumab, 11.7% pembrolizumab, 4.8% anti-PD1/PD-L1 plus anti-CTLA-4) pts with KRAS-mutant NSCLC were included in the efficacy analysis. The ORR differed significantly between the KL (8.8%), KP (35.9%) and K-only sub-groups (27.3%) (P=0.0011, Fisher’s exact test). KL LUAC exhibited significantly shorter PFS (mPFS 1.8m vs 2.7m, HR=0.53, 95% CI 0.34-0.84, P<0.001, log-rank test) and OS (mOS 6.8m vs 15.6m, HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.84, P=0.0072, log rank test) compared to KRAS-mutant NSCLC with wild-type STK11. Loss-of function (LOF) genetic alterations in STK11 were the only significantly enriched event in PD-L1 negative, TMB-I/H compared to PD-L1 high positive (TPS≥50%), TMB-I/H tumors in the overall FMI cohort (Bonferroni adjusted P=2.38x10[-4], Fisher’s exact test) and among KRAS-mutant tumors (adjusted P=0.05, Fisher’s exact test) . Notably, PD-1 blockade demonstrated activity among 10 PD-L1-negative KP tumors, with 3 PRs and 4SDs recorded. In syngeneic isogenic murine models PD-1 blockade significantly inhibited the growth of Kras mutant tumors with wild-type LKB1 (K), but not those with LKB1 loss (KL), providing evidence that LKB1 loss can play a causative role in promoting PD-1 inhibitor resistance.

      Conclusion:
      Loss of function genomic alterations in STK11 represent a dominant driver of de novo resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in KRAS-mutant NSCLC. In addition to tumor PD-L1 status and tumor mutational burden precision immunotherapy approaches should take into consideration the STK11 status of individual tumors.

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    MA 07 - ALK, ROS and HER2 (ID 673)

    • Event: WCLC 2017
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Advanced NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      MA 07.08 - Clinical Implications of ALK Resistance Mutations: Institutional Experience and Launch of Remote Participation Study (ID 7931)

      15:45 - 17:30  |  Author(s): L.M. Sholl

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      ALK resistance mutations are detected in 30-50% of the patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and resistance to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Preliminary data suggests that TKI-resistant patients benefit from further ALK inhibition based on the specific resistant mutations, but clinical data are limited.

      Method:
      Patients with ALK-positive NSCLC were identified from our institutional database with IRB approval. Tumor specimens from patients with TKI-resistance were analyzed using next-generation sequencing (NGS). We aimed to study the relationship between specific ALK-resistant mutations, patient characteristics and clinical outcomes.

      Result:
      Among 82 ALK-positive NSCLC patients, we identified 29 cases with advanced disease, TKI resistance, and specimens available for NGS. Twenty-two specimens from 19 patients were adequate for genomic analyses. Patients received a median of 4 lines of treatment for advanced disease including a median of 2 ALK TKIs, with a median overall survival (OS) of 3.3 years. In 9 of 22 specimens, crizotinib was the only TKI received. Ten specimens (45.5%) showed an ALK resistance mutation: one G1128A, one L1152R, four I1171N/T, two F1174V and two G1202R. ALK-resistance mutations were more common with EML4-ALK variant 3 (4/5) than variant 1 (1/5). Three cases with sequential biopsies showed features of tumor evolution, such as a compound mutation (I1171N + C1156Y) or a mutational change (L1152R to G1128A). One case initially had an EGFR L858R mutation, then acquired an ALK rearrangement, then acquired a G1202R mutation. OS was longer in 8 patients with secondary ALK mutation (5.5y) compared to 11 patients without (1.8 y). Using these learnings from an institutional cohort of ALK resistant patients, we designed and are launching a prospective study to characterize ALK TKI resistance, which uses remote-participation and plasma NGS to enroll patients from across the US. Patients with systemic progression while on a next-generation ALK TKI submit blood to a central lab for analysis and banking. Plasma NGS results are returned to the patient and their provider, and including expected TKI sensitivities for any identified ALK-resistance mutations. Through monitoring outcomes, this study can assess if molecularly-guided therapy for ALK TKI-resistance is feasible and effective.

      Conclusion:
      ALK resistance mutations arise in a large portion of patients and are associated with longer survival. The SPACEW-ALK study (Study of Plasma next-generation sequencing for remote Assessment, Characterization, Evaluation of patients With ALK drug resistance) uses plasma NGS and remote consent to assess ALK resistance and the feasibility of precision resistance therapy for these patients.

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    MA 20 - Recent Advances in Pulmonology/Endoscopy (ID 685)

    • Event: WCLC 2017
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Pulmonology/Endoscopy
    • Presentations: 1
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      MA 20.14 - Genotyping of Lung Cancer Using Cell-Free DNA (cfDNA) from Cytologic Supernatant (CSN) (ID 9057)

      14:30 - 16:15  |  Author(s): L.M. Sholl

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Tumor genotyping is transforming lung cancer care but increasingly requires more tumor tissue. Advances in minimally invasive bronchoscopic techniques increase access to small lesions, but often result in smaller samples. With the advent of new cfDNA (“liquid biopsy”) genotyping technologies, we hypothesized that CSN might increase the yield from small FNAs, facilitating cancer genotyping.

      Method:
      We studied patients with known or suspected lung cancer undergoing FNAs. CSN, which is usually discarded, was collected under IRB approval. cfDNA was extracted after a hard spin (1600 Gs) and tested by both ddPCR (EGFR, KRAS mutations) and targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS).

      Result:
      14 patients with suspected or known lung cancer were studied at time of analysis (final diagnosis: 2 non-malignant, 9 adenocarcinomas, 1 small-cell carcinoma, 2 squamous cell carcinomas), including 12 EBUS-TBNAs and 2 CT-guided FNAs. Among 6 known KRAS and EGFR mutations, all could be detected with ddPCR of CSN, with allelic fraction (AF) ranging from 1%-46% (median 8.5%). No ddPCR false positives were seen across 9 cases. NGS analysis was piloted on 7 specimens; 5 failed due to insufficient residual DNA. In one specimen, an EGFR exon 19 deletion was detected at 6% AF (2% AF ddPCR). In the other, a BRAF V600E, PIK3CA E784D and TP53 V274F mutations were detected at 48% (46% AF ddPCR), 18% and 86% AF, respectively.

      Conclusion:
      Cytology supernatant, usually discarded, may be a rich source of fresh tumor DNA, increasing the yield from FNAs. This widely available biospecimen has potential for aiding resistance genotyping, reducing turnaround time of cancer genotyping, and possibly a future role in clarifying the malignant potential of non-diagnostic biopsies. Enrollment continues in order to optimize this biospecimen for NGS. Figure 1



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    P3.03 - Chemotherapy/Targeted Therapy (ID 719)

    • Event: WCLC 2017
    • Type: Poster Session with Presenters Present
    • Track: Chemotherapy/Targeted Therapy
    • Presentations: 1
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      P3.03-007 - LCMC2: Expanded Profiling of Lung Adenocarcinomas Identifies ROS1 and RET Rearrangements and TP53 Mutations as a Negative Prognostic Factor (ID 8338)

      09:30 - 16:00  |  Author(s): L.M. Sholl

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      The Lung Cancers Mutation Consortium (LCMC) is a multi-institutional effort where 16 sites identify oncogenic drivers and pool data to assess the impact of targeted therapies in patients with lung adenocarcinomas. We now report the results of the second patient cohort (LCMC2) with an expanded multiplex molecular panel to include RET and ROS1 and tumor suppressors.

      Method:
      904 patients with centrally confirmed stage IV lung adenocarcinomas who were candidates for therapy had at least one of 14 oncogenic drivers assessed in a CLIA-compliant laboratory using genotyping, FISH, massively parallel sequencing (NGS), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses.

      Result:
      Among 423 patients tested for all 14 targets, we found a driver in 65%. Mutated KRAS was found in 31%, sensitizing EGFR in 14%, MET amplification in 5%, ALK rearrangements in 4%, BRAF V600E in 3%, and HER2 in 3%. Rearrangements in RET and ROS1 were each found in 2% (CI 1 to 3%). Using IHC, PTEN loss was found in 8% (CI 6 to 11%) and MET expression in 58% (CI 55 to 61%). Use of targeted therapies in patients with EGFR, HER2, or BRAF mutations, ALK, ROS1, or RET rearrangements, and MET amplification was associated with a gain in overall survival of 1.5 years relative to those with the same drivers not receiving targeted therapy and a gain of 1 year relative to those without an actionable driver. Current and former cigarette smokers derived a survival benefit from targeted therapies similar to never smokers (p=0.975). Among 154 patients who had all drivers assessed and NGS testing in addition, any TP53 mutation was associated with poorer survival among those with EGFR, ALK, or ROS1 (p=0.014). STK11 was detected in 11%, all in patients with KRAS mutations.

      Conclusion:
      Using an expanded testing panel, LCMC2 demonstrates the survival benefit of matching targeted treatments to oncogenic drivers in patients with lung adenocarcinomas, identifies additional prognostic factors, and supports the performance of multiplex molecular testing on specimens from all individuals with lung adenocarcinomas irrespective of clinical characteristics. We detected either MET amplifications or HER2 mutations in 7%, together more than the 4% with ALK. A targeted drug is available in the United States for 35% of patients with lung adenocarcinomas. The routine use of massively parallel sequencing (NGS) detects both targetable drivers and tumor suppressor genes that have significance for therapy selection and prognosis. Supported by Free to Breathe

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