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Ferdinandos Skoulidis



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    MA 05 - Immuno-Oncology: Novel Biomarker Candidates (ID 658)

    • Event: WCLC 2017
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Immunology and Immunotherapy
    • Presentations: 1
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      MA 05.02 - STK11/LKB1 Loss of Function Genomic Alterations Predict Primary Resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 Axis Blockade in KRAS-Mutant NSCLC (ID 10367)

      15:45 - 17:30  |  Presenting Author(s): Ferdinandos Skoulidis

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      The genomic landscape of primary resistance to PD-1 blockade in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is largely unknown. We previously reported that co-mutations in STK11/LKB1 (KL) or TP53 (KP) define subgroups of KRAS-mutant LUAD with distinct therapeutic vulnerabilities and immune profiles. Here, we present updated data on the clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in co-mutation defined KRAS mutant and wild-type LUAD patients and examine the relationship between genetic alterations in individual genes, tumor cell PD-L1 expression and tumor mutational burden (TMB) using cohorts form the SU2C/ACS Lung Cancer Dream Team and Foundation Medicine (FM).

      Method:
      The cohorts included 924 LUAD with NGS (FM cohort) and 188 patients with KRAS non-squamous NSCLC (SU2C cohort) who received at least one cycle of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor therapy and had available molecular profiling. Tumor cell PD-L1 expression was tested using E1L3N IHC (SU2C) and the VENTANA PD-L1 (SP142) assay (FM). TMB was defined as previously described and was classified as high (TMB-H), intermediate (TMB-I) or low (TMB-L).

      Result:
      188 immunotherapy-treated (83.5% nivolumab, 11.7% pembrolizumab, 4.8% anti-PD1/PD-L1 plus anti-CTLA-4) pts with KRAS-mutant NSCLC were included in the efficacy analysis. The ORR differed significantly between the KL (8.8%), KP (35.9%) and K-only sub-groups (27.3%) (P=0.0011, Fisher’s exact test). KL LUAC exhibited significantly shorter PFS (mPFS 1.8m vs 2.7m, HR=0.53, 95% CI 0.34-0.84, P<0.001, log-rank test) and OS (mOS 6.8m vs 15.6m, HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.84, P=0.0072, log rank test) compared to KRAS-mutant NSCLC with wild-type STK11. Loss-of function (LOF) genetic alterations in STK11 were the only significantly enriched event in PD-L1 negative, TMB-I/H compared to PD-L1 high positive (TPS≥50%), TMB-I/H tumors in the overall FMI cohort (Bonferroni adjusted P=2.38x10[-4], Fisher’s exact test) and among KRAS-mutant tumors (adjusted P=0.05, Fisher’s exact test) . Notably, PD-1 blockade demonstrated activity among 10 PD-L1-negative KP tumors, with 3 PRs and 4SDs recorded. In syngeneic isogenic murine models PD-1 blockade significantly inhibited the growth of Kras mutant tumors with wild-type LKB1 (K), but not those with LKB1 loss (KL), providing evidence that LKB1 loss can play a causative role in promoting PD-1 inhibitor resistance.

      Conclusion:
      Loss of function genomic alterations in STK11 represent a dominant driver of de novo resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in KRAS-mutant NSCLC. In addition to tumor PD-L1 status and tumor mutational burden precision immunotherapy approaches should take into consideration the STK11 status of individual tumors.

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