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Mark G Kris



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    OA 03 - Mediastinal and Esophageal Tumor: Insight and New Treatment (ID 654)

    • Event: WCLC 2017
    • Type: Oral
    • Track: Thymic Malignancies/Esophageal Cancer/Other Thoracic Malignancies
    • Presentations: 1
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      OA 03.03 - Phase II Trial of Cetuximab and Chemotherapy Followed by Surgical Resection for Locally Advanced Thymoma (ID 10288)

      11:00 - 12:30  |  Author(s): Mark G Kris

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      The mainstay of treatment for thymoma is surgery with neoadjuvant chemotherapy recommended to patients with locally advanced disease. EGFR is overexpressed in thymoma. Clinical responses to single-agent cetuximab have been reported in patients with advanced cetuximab. We conducted this two-site prospective phase II trial of cetuximab combined with a standard induction chemotherapy regimen of cisplatin, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (PAC) in patients with locally advanced thymoma prior to surgical resection.

      Method:
      Patients with clinical Masaoka stage III-IVA thymoma were treated with cetuximab (250mg/m[2] weekly x 4 weeks) followed by cetuximab (250 mg/m[2] weekly) combined with cisplatin (50mg/m[2]), doxorubicin (50 mg/m[2]) and cyclophosphamide (500mg/m[2]) 3 weeks x 4 cycles). Radiographic response was assessed by CT using RECIST 1.1 and FDG-PET using PERCIST. All patients went on to surgery after completion of induction therapy. The primary endpoint was major pathologic response (MPR, >90% treatment effect). Planned enrollment was 18 patients in first stage of a two stage design. If 1 MPR was observed, then enrollment would expand to 28 patients.

      Result:
      Eighteen patients were enrolled: 8 women, median age 53 (range 32-73). WHO Histologic subtype A: 2, AB: 3, B1: 3, B2: 7, B3: 3. Final Masaoka stage I: 2, II: 2, III: 5, IVA: 9. There were no responses to cetuximab alone by RECIST criteria, although 1 patient had a 25% reduction in indicator lesions. Response rate (CR+PR), in evaluable patients after complete treatment course was 50% (8/16, 95% CI 28-72%). Partial responses by PERCIST criteria were seen on PET in 11/18 (61%) evaluable patients. There were no MPRs. R0 resection was obtained in 7 patients; 5 had R1 and 6 had R2 resections.

      Conclusion:
      The addition of cetuximab to PAC chemotherapy did not lead to pathologic complete responses in the neoadjuvant setting. Cetuximab alone appears to have little effect during 4 weeks of treatment. There was no apparent increase in radiographic response rate with the addition of cetuximab to PAC chemotherapy compared to historical series.

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    OA 05 - Next Generation TKI (ID 657)

    • Event: WCLC 2017
    • Type: Oral
    • Track: Advanced NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      OA 05.04 - Discussant - OA 05.01, OA 05.02, OA 05.03 (ID 10795)

      15:45 - 17:30  |  Presenting Author(s): Mark G Kris

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Abstract not provided

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    OA 14 - New Paradigms in Clinical Trials (ID 681)

    • Event: WCLC 2017
    • Type: Oral
    • Track: Clinical Design, Statistics and Clinical Trials
    • Presentations: 1
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      OA 14.05 - Phase 2 Basket Trial of Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine in Patients with HER2 Mutant or Amplified Lung Cancers (ID 10368)

      11:00 - 12:30  |  Author(s): Mark G Kris

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, ERBB2) mutation and amplification each occurs in 2% of lung cancers, resulting in receptor dimerization and oncogenic signaling with in vitro sensitivity to trastuzumab. Ado-trastuzumab emtansine is a HER2 targeted antibody drug conjugate linking trastuzumab with the anti-microtubule agent emtansine.

      Method:
      Patients with advanced HER2 mutant or amplified lung cancers were enrolled into separate cohorts in a basket trial of ado-trastuzumab emtansine, treated at 3.6mg/kg IV every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR) using RECIST v1.1. A separate cohort included patients with HER2 mutant lung cancers assessed using PERCIST, with pre-treatment 89Zr-trastuzumab PET as correlative imaging. A Simon two stage optimal design was used with type I error rate under 2.7% (and a family wise error rate across baskets under 10%), power of 89%, H0 10%, H1 40%. Other endpoints include progression-free survival (PFS) and toxicity. HER2 testing was performed on tumor tissue by next generation sequencing (NGS), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC).

      Result:
      A total of 33 patients were identified by NGS and enrolled. The first HER2 mutant cohort completed accrual of 18 patients with ORR of 44% (8/18 confirmed, 95% CI 22-69%), rejecting null hypothesis. The median PFS was 4 months, and median PFS for responders was 6 months (range 4-11 months). The PERCIST measured HER2 mutant cohort accrued 9 patients, there were 2 confirmed partial responses (PR) in 5 patients evaluated. The HER2 amplified cohort accrued 6 patients, with 3 confirmed PR observed including 1 with concurrent EGFR sensitizing mutation and resistance to erlotinib. Toxicities included grade 1 or 2 including infusion reaction, thrombocytopenia and transaminitis, there were no treatment related deaths. Of the 27 patients in the HER2 mutant cohorts, there were 18 (67%) exon 20 insertions and 9 (33%) point mutations; responders were seen across mutation subtypes (A775_G776insYVMA, G776delinsVC, V659E, S310F, L755P). Concurrent HER2 amplification was observed in 4 of 27 patients by either NGS or FISH. IHC ranged from 0 to 3+ and did not predict response. Of the 6 patients in the HER2 amplified cohort, 2 had concurrent HER2 mutation and 1 had concurrent EGFR L858R mutation.

      Conclusion:
      Ado-trastuzumab emtansine is active and well tolerated in patients with advanced HER2 mutant or amplified lung cancers as identified by NGS. While cohort expansion is ongoing, this study has met its primary endpoint in patients with HER2 activating mutations. Further development is warranted.

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    P1.03 - Chemotherapy/Targeted Therapy (ID 689)

    • Event: WCLC 2017
    • Type: Poster Session with Presenters Present
    • Track: Chemotherapy/Targeted Therapy
    • Presentations: 1
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      P1.03-028 - A Phase II Trial of Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel and Gemcitabine in Patients with Untreated Stage IV Squamous Cell Lung Cancers (ID 8556)

      09:30 - 16:00  |  Author(s): Mark G Kris

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Therapeutic options for squamous cell lung cancer (SQCLC) patients remain limited. Platinum-based chemotherapies, which have been the standard first-line treatments for nearly 20 years, are associated with ORR=30-40%, median PFS=4-5.7mo, and median OS=9-11.5mo. We previously reported the results of a phase 1/2 trial of albumin-bound paclitaxel (ABP) in 40 patients with untreated stage IV NSCLC, noting an ORR of 30%, median PFS of 5mo, and median OS of 11mo (Rizvi JCO 2008). These data suggest that platinum adds little when coupled to ABP. Conversely, compelling evidence of anti-tumor synergy between gemcitabine and ABP was recently demonstrated by Frese et al. who showed that ABP downregulates cytidine deaminase (which inactivates gemcitabine), leading to increased intratumoral [gemcitabine] (Cancer Disc 2012). Based on these data, we sought to assess the efficacy of ABP + gemcitabine in patients with SQCLC.

      Method:
      This is a phase II trial of ABP (100mg/m[2]) + gemcitabine (1000mg/m[2]) given on D1, D8, D15 of an every 4 week cycle (A1) in patients with untreated stage IV SQCLC. Patients received up to 6 cycles and were followed thereafter (A1). The primary endpoint is best objective response (RECIST 1.1). The study utilizes a Simon two-stage design with H0=25% (6/17 responses) and H1=45% (16/41 responses). After clearing the first stage, the study was amended to a 3 week cycle (D1, D8 treatment); to allow ABP + gemcitabine until progression; and to allow maintenance ABP to begin after C4 for tolerability (A2). PFS, TTP, and OS were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Patients underwent NGS by MSK-IMPACT for genotype-phenotype correlation.

      Result:
      N=17 patients (14 evaluable) were treated on A1 and, to date, N=3 patients (2 evaluable) have been treated on A2. Median age=70, female=30%, median KPS=90%, smokers=90%, median pack years=32. Median cycles of therapy in A1=4. Grade ‚Č•3 related AEs included: peripheral neuropathy (5%); diarrhea (5%); elevated ALT (5%); anemia (15%); and decreased neutrophils (25%). Three patients (15%) experienced a related SAE including G3 decreased WBC, G3 diarrhea, and G3 lung infection. There was 1 unrelated death as a result of complications from a G3 mechanical fall. ORR in A1=50% (7/14 PRs). ORR in A2=100% (2/2 PRs). ORR in A1+A2=56% (9/16 PRs). SD=6 (38%) and PD=1 (6%). Median PFS=5.8mo; TTP=6.9mo; OS=13.3mo.

      Conclusion:
      ABP + gemcitabine has promising efficacy and is relatively well-tolerated, particularly when compared to platinum regimens. Accrual to the study is ongoing and updated data, including NGS correlates, will be presented.

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    P3.03 - Chemotherapy/Targeted Therapy (ID 719)

    • Event: WCLC 2017
    • Type: Poster Session with Presenters Present
    • Track: Chemotherapy/Targeted Therapy
    • Presentations: 1
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      P3.03-007 - LCMC2: Expanded Profiling of Lung Adenocarcinomas Identifies ROS1 and RET Rearrangements and TP53 Mutations as a Negative Prognostic Factor (ID 8338)

      09:30 - 16:00  |  Presenting Author(s): Mark G Kris

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      The Lung Cancers Mutation Consortium (LCMC) is a multi-institutional effort where 16 sites identify oncogenic drivers and pool data to assess the impact of targeted therapies in patients with lung adenocarcinomas. We now report the results of the second patient cohort (LCMC2) with an expanded multiplex molecular panel to include RET and ROS1 and tumor suppressors.

      Method:
      904 patients with centrally confirmed stage IV lung adenocarcinomas who were candidates for therapy had at least one of 14 oncogenic drivers assessed in a CLIA-compliant laboratory using genotyping, FISH, massively parallel sequencing (NGS), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses.

      Result:
      Among 423 patients tested for all 14 targets, we found a driver in 65%. Mutated KRAS was found in 31%, sensitizing EGFR in 14%, MET amplification in 5%, ALK rearrangements in 4%, BRAF V600E in 3%, and HER2 in 3%. Rearrangements in RET and ROS1 were each found in 2% (CI 1 to 3%). Using IHC, PTEN loss was found in 8% (CI 6 to 11%) and MET expression in 58% (CI 55 to 61%). Use of targeted therapies in patients with EGFR, HER2, or BRAF mutations, ALK, ROS1, or RET rearrangements, and MET amplification was associated with a gain in overall survival of 1.5 years relative to those with the same drivers not receiving targeted therapy and a gain of 1 year relative to those without an actionable driver. Current and former cigarette smokers derived a survival benefit from targeted therapies similar to never smokers (p=0.975). Among 154 patients who had all drivers assessed and NGS testing in addition, any TP53 mutation was associated with poorer survival among those with EGFR, ALK, or ROS1 (p=0.014). STK11 was detected in 11%, all in patients with KRAS mutations.

      Conclusion:
      Using an expanded testing panel, LCMC2 demonstrates the survival benefit of matching targeted treatments to oncogenic drivers in patients with lung adenocarcinomas, identifies additional prognostic factors, and supports the performance of multiplex molecular testing on specimens from all individuals with lung adenocarcinomas irrespective of clinical characteristics. We detected either MET amplifications or HER2 mutations in 7%, together more than the 4% with ALK. A targeted drug is available in the United States for 35% of patients with lung adenocarcinomas. The routine use of massively parallel sequencing (NGS) detects both targetable drivers and tumor suppressor genes that have significance for therapy selection and prognosis. Supported by Free to Breathe

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