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Anthony Reeves



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    P2.16 - Surgery (ID 717)

    • Event: WCLC 2017
    • Type: Poster Session with Presenters Present
    • Track: Surgery
    • Presentations: 3
    • Now Available
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      P2.16-022 - Initiative for Early Lung Cancer Research on Treatment: Pilot Implementation (Now Available) (ID 10165)

      09:30 - 09:30  |  Author(s): Anthony Reeves

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      We have initiated a new multi-center, international collaborative cohort study, the Initiative for Early Lung Cancer Research for Treatment (IELCART), which focuses on identifying optimal treatment for early stage lung cancer An issue under discussion is the extent of surgery (i.e., sublobar resection and no mediastinal lymph node resection) in order to decrease the length and morbidity of the surgical procedure, preserves pulmonary function, and increases the likelihood of resection of future new occurrences of lung cancers. The role of Stereotactic Body Radiation (SBRT), and for certain cases, Watchful Waiting (WW) also needs to be better delineated. Increasingly, the power of large prospective databases collected in the context of clinical care is being recognized as providing important information.

      Method:
      Based on an extensive literature review, scientific articles, and a series of focus sessions with patients and treating physicians, a common protocol has been developed. Relevant data forms were developed for both physicians and patients, both for pre- and post-surgery to account for potential confounders. These forms have been tested and entered into a web-based data collection system that also includes relevant imaging data. Initial enrollment focused on surgery.

      Result:
      Initial enrollment was limited to surgical clinics of 8 surgeons and a total of 174 patients (94 women, 80 men) agreed. Average age was 67.5 years and pack-years of smoking was 31.4. Patients stated that the internet was the most frequent source of information (35%), while family/friends, medical literature were used much less frequently (each <20%). Factors influencing the patient pre-treatment choice was that the physician thought it was best (93%) or what would provide the best outcome (87%); only 38% got a second opinion. The surgeon’s choice of procedure depended mainly on the location (75%), size of the nodule (64%), and the ability to have negative parenchymal margin (40%), with other considerations being much less likely (<26%). There was good agreement between patients’ and surgeons’ perceptions of the procedure, although the patients not fully prepared about the post-treatment consequences of surgery. Patients also thought that support groups were important in patients’ decisions on what was the best surgery.

      Conclusion:
      These results together with quality of life information and focus sessions suggest that more support in the post-operative phase of the treatment would be beneficial. Within the next 3 years, we anticipate to have statistically meaningful results to start to compare outcomes of alternative treatments.

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      P2.16-023 - Changes of the Pulmonary Artery After Resection of Stage I Lung Cancer (Now Available) (ID 10238)

      09:30 - 09:30  |  Author(s): Anthony Reeves

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Radiologists focus on the anatomic changes in the lung itself when interpreting postoperative surveillance CT scans, but the anatomic and physiologic effects of lung resection on the other organs of the thorax, specifically the pulmonary artery (PA), have not been well studied. Potential variations in PA size over time have been recognized as predictors of post-surgical complications and the development of pulmonary hypertension.

      Method:
      The International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (I-ELCAP) database was queried for lung cancer patients who underwent lobectomy and had both preoperative and postoperative CT imaging. Case-specific details were previously recorded in the database as per I-ELCAP protocol. All surgeries were performed by general thoracic surgeons. All CT imaging for each patient was reviewed by a fellowship-trained chest radiologist. Figure 1



      Result:
      Among the 142 subjects who underwent lobectomy, the median follow-up time from the pre-surgical CT to the last reviewable CT was 53.2 months (IQR: 27.9-100.4 months). The average increase in the size of the main pulmonary artery (mPA) was 1.5 mm (19.9 mm to 21.4 mm, P < 0.0001). There was also a significant increase between the pre-surgical CT and the initial postoperative CT which was on average 12.6 months later from 19.9 mm to 20.7 mm (P = 0.0002). Considering patients with and without CT evidence of emphysema, the 82 with emphysema had a smaller average change of the main PA between the pre-surgical and the last reviewable CT than the 60 without emphysema (1.0 mm vs. 1.8 mm, P = 0.08).

      Conclusion:
      Patients undergoing lobectomy appear to be at increased risk for enlargement of their pulmonary artery diameters after surgery. These results show that a focus on all the organs in the thorax, not just the lungs themselves, is important when evaluating postoperative lung resection CTs.

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      P2.16-024 - Effect of Resection of Stage 1 Lung Cancer on Lung Volume (Now Available) (ID 10248)

      09:30 - 09:30  |  Author(s): Anthony Reeves

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      The anatomic and physiologic effects of lung resection for early stage lung cancer patients have not been extensively reported. We hypothesize that patients who have undergone lobectomy or wedge resection will have reduced lung volume on the affected side immediately after surgery while the lung volume on the opposing side may increase to compensate.

      Method:
      The Mount Sinai database was queried for stage 1 lung cancer patients who underwent lobectomy or wedge resection and had both pre-operative and postoperative CT imaging. Surgeries were performed by thoracic surgeons. The lung volumes on all CT scans were measured using previously published research software including actual volumes for each lung (left and right) at each time point as well as a set of volumes normalized to the overall chest volume in order to compensate for differences in inspiration.

      Result:
      In the cohort of 21 patients who met the above criteria, the median follow-up time from the date of surgery to the most recent CT was 44.6 months (IQR: 23.5-94.7 months). The median age was 63 and the median pack years was 40. There were 2 patients for which only one post-op scan was successfully analyzed; the remaining cases all had two postop scans. In 20 of the 21 patients, the lung volume on the side where the surgery occurred was reduced in the first postop CT scan (average reduction in volume of 5.6%). The change in volume of the contralateral side (not undergoing surgery), was highly variable, with 11 cases showing an increase in volume on both post-op scans, 2 cases showing a decrease, and 8 cases showing an increase in volume at the first postop scan followed by a decrease in volume on the second post-op scan.

      Conclusion:
      Stage 1 lung cancer patients undergoing resection have reduced lung volume on the side of surgery, however there was marked variability in the contralateral lung suggesting that the extent to which patients compensate post operatively is complex and dependent on many factors.

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    WS 01 - IASLC Supporting the Implementation of Quality Assured Global CT Screening Workshop (By Invitation Only) (ID 632)

    • Event: WCLC 2017
    • Type: Workshop
    • Track: Radiology/Staging/Screening
    • Presentations: 1
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      WS 01.17 - The Potential of Radio-omics and Deep Learning (ID 10655)

      11:30 - 11:45  |  Presenting Author(s): Anthony Reeves

      • Abstract

      Abstract not provided

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    WS 02 - IASLC Symposium on the Advances in Lung Cancer CT Screening (Ticketed Session SOLD OUT) (ID 631)

    • Event: WCLC 2017
    • Type: Symposium
    • Track: Radiology/Staging/Screening
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
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      WS 02.03 - Lung Cancer Screening – IELCAP Contribution to CT Screening Implementation (Now Available) (ID 10620)

      09:10 - 10:10  |  Author(s): Anthony Reeves

      • Abstract
      • Presentation

      Abstract:
      1. Introduction of CT screening and showing its value. First to introduce CT screening in a novel cohort design comparing CT with chest radiography, providing a workup strategy for screen-detected nodules. Predicted outcome of well-designed and correctly powered RCT studies Henschke C, McCauley D, Yankelevitz D, Naidich D, McGuinness G, Miettinen O, Libby D, Pasmantier M, Koizumi J, Altorki N, and Smith J. Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening. Lancet 1999; 354:99-105. 2. Long-term survival rates of patients diagnosed with lung cancer in a program of CT screening. First to provide estimated cure rates under screening by measuring long-term survivial. The International Early Lung Cancer Action Program Investigators. Survival of Patients with Stage I lung cancer detected on CT screening. NEJM 2006; 355:1763-71 3. First to provide information on the value of CT scans in delivering smoking cessation advice. Ostroff J, Buckshee N, Mancuso C, Yankelevitz D, and Henschke C. Smoking cessation following CT screening for early detection of lung cancer. Prev Med 2001; 33:613-21. Anderson CM, Yip R, Henschke CI, Yankelevitz DF, Ostroff JS, and Burns DM. Smoking cessation and relapse during a lung cancer screening program. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009; 18:3476-83. 4. First to introduce computer-assisted CT determined growth rates into the workup of pulmonary nodules. Yankelevitz DF, Gupta R, Zhao B, and Henschke CI. Small pulmonary nodules: evaluation with repeat CT--preliminary experience. Radiology 1999; 212:561-6. Yankelevitz DF, Reeves AP, Kostis WJ, Zhao B, and Henschke CI. Small pulmonary nodules: volumetrically determined growth rates based on CT evaluation. Radiology 2000; 217:251-6. Kostis WJ, Yankelevitz DF, Reeves AP, Fluture SC, Henschke CI. Small pulmonary nodules: reproducibility of three-dimensional volumetric measurement and estimation of time to follow-up CT. Radiology 2004; 231:446-52. Henschke C, Yankelevitz D, Yip R, Reeves A, Farooqi A, Xu D, Smith J, Libby D, Pasmantier M, and Miettinen O. Lung cancers diagnosed at annual CT screening: volume doubling times. Radiology 2012; 263:578-83. 5. Development of size threshold values and short-term followup and importance of a regimen of screening. Henschke C, Yankelevitz D, Naidich D, McCauley D, McGuinness G, Libby D, Smith J, Pasmantier M, and Miettinen O. CT screening for lung cancer: suspiciousness of nodules according to size on baseline scans. Radiology 2004; 231:164-8. Libby DM, Wu N, Lee IJ, Farooqi A, Smith JP, Pasmantier MW, McCauley D, Yankelevitz DF, and Henschke CI. CT screening for lung cancer: the value of short-term CT follow-up. Chest 2006; 129:1039-42. Henschke C, Yip R, Yankelevitz D, and Smith J. Definition of a positive test result in computed tomography screening for lung cancer: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med 2013; 158:246- 52. Yip R, Henschke CI, Yankelevitz DF, and Smith JP. CT screening for lung cancer: alternative definitions of positive test result based on the national lung screening trial and international early lung cancer action program databases. Radiology 2014; 273:591-6. Yip R, Henschke C, Yankelevitz D, Boffetta P, Smith J, The International Early Lung Cancer Investigators. The impact of the regimen of screening on lung cancer cure: a comparison of I-ELCAP and NLST. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2015;24(3):201-8. 6. Nomenclature and management protocols for nonsolid and part-solid nodules. Henschke C, Yankelevitz D, Mirtcheva R, McGuinness G, McCauley D, and Miettinen O. CT screening for lung cancer: frequency and significance of part-solid and nonsolid nodules. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2002; 178:1053-7. Yankelevitz DF, Yip R, Smith JP, Liang M, Liu Y, Xu DM, Salvatore MM, Wolf AS, Flores RM, Henschke CI, and International Early Lung Cancer Action Program Investigators Group. CT Screening for Lung Cancer: Nonsolid Nodules in Baseline and Annual Repeat Rounds. Radiology 2015; 277:555-64. Henschke CI, Yip R, Wolf A, Flores R, Liang M, Salvatore M, Liu Y, Xu DM, Smith JP, Yankelevitz DF. CT screening for lung cancer: part-solid nodules in baseline and annual repeat rounds. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2016; 11:1-9. 7. Differences in management of nodules found in baseline and annual repeat rounds of screening. International Early Lung Cancer Investigators. Baseline and annual repeat rounds of screening: implications for optimal regimens of screening. Eur Radiol 2017. In press. 8. Assessment of risk of lung cancer among women and never smokers. International Early Lung Cancer Action Program Investigators. Women’s susceptibility to tobacco carcinogens and survival after diagnosis of lung cancer. JAMA 2006; 296:180-4. Yankelevitz DF, Henschke CI, Yip R, Boffetta P, Shemesh J, Cham MD, Narula J, Hecht HS, FAMRI-IELCAP Investigators. Second-hand tobacco smoke in never smokers is a significant risk factor for coronary artery calcification. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2013; 6:651-7. Henschke CI, Yip R, Boffetta P, Markowitz S, Miller A, Hanaoka T, Zulueta J, Yankelevitz D. CT screening for lung cancer: importance of emphysema for never smokers and smokers. Lung Cancer 2015; 88:42-7 PMID:25698134. Yankelevitz DF, Cham MD, Hecht HS, Yip R, Shemesh S, Narula J, Henschke CI. The Association of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and CT angiography-verified coronary atherosclerosis. JACC Imaging. 2016. 9. Determination of cardiac risk on nongated, low-dose CT scans and development of an ordinal scale. Shemesh J, Henschke CI, Farooqi A, Yip R, Yankelevitz DF, Shaham D, and Miettinen OS. Frequency of coronary artery calcification on low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer. Clin Imaging 2006; 30:181-5. Shemesh J, Henschke CI, Shaham D, Yip R, Farooqi AO, Cham MD, McCauley DI, Chen M, Smith JP, Libby DM, Pasmantier MW, and Yankelevitz DF. Ordinal scoring of coronary artery calcifications on low-dose CT scans of the chest is predictive of death from cardiovascular disease. Radiology 2010; 257:541-8. 10. Recommendations for reporting findings of emphysema, coronary arteries, breast, and abdomen on low-dose CT scans. Zulueta JJ, Wisnivesky JP, Henschke CI, Yip R, Farooqi AO, McCauley DI, Chen M, Libby DM, Smith JP, Pasmantier MW, and Yankelevitz DF. Emphysema scores predict death from COPD and lung cancer. Chest 2012. Henschke CI, Lee IJ, Wu N, Farooqi A, Khan A, Yankelevitz D, and Altorki NK. CT screening for lung cancer: prevalence and incidence of mediastinal masses. Radiology 2006; 239:586-90. Salvatore M, Margolies L, Kale M, Wisnivesky J, Kotkin S, Henschke CI, and Yankelevitz DF. Breast density: comparison of chest CT with mammography. Radiology 2014; 270:67-73. Hu M, Yip R, Yankelevitz D, and Henschke C. CT screening for lung cancer: frequency of enlarged adrenal glands identified in baseline and annual repeat rounds. Eur Radiol 2016. Chen X, Li K, Yip R, Perumalswami P, Branch AD, Lewis S, Del Bello D, Becker BJ, Yankelevitz DF, and Henschke CI. Hepatic steatosis in participants in a program of low-dose CT screening for lung cancer. European Journal of Radiology 2017. In Press. 11. Quantatative assessment of the vascular system on low-dose CT scans. Fully automated evaluation of quantitaive image biomarkers for multple organs and anatomic regions including: pulmoanry nodules, lungs (emphysema, ILD, major airways), coronary arteries, aorta, pulmoanry artery, breast, and vertebra. Kostis, W. J., Reeves, A. P., Yankelevitz, D. F., and Henschke, C. I. Three-dimensional segmentation and growth-rate estimation of small pulmonary nodules in helical CT images. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 2003; 22: 1259-1274. Enquobahrie, A., Reeves, A. P., Yankelevitz, D. F., and Henschke, C. I. Automated detection of small solid pulmonary nodules in whole lung CT scans from a lung cancer screening study. Academic Radiology 2003; 14, 5: 579-593. Keller, B. M., Reeves, A. P., Henschke, C. I., and Yankelevitz, D. F. Multivariate Compensation of Quantitative Pulmonary Emphysema Metric Variation from Low-Dose, Whole-Lung CT Scans. AJR 2011; 197, 3: W495-W502. Xie Y. Htwe YM, Padgett J, Henschke CI, Yankelevitz DF, Reeves AP. Automated aortic calcification detection in low-dose chest CT images. SPIE Medical Imaging 2014; 9035:90250P. Xie Y, Cham M, Henschke CI, Yankelevitz DF, Reeves AP. Automated coronary artery calcification detection on low-dose chest CT images. SPIE Medical Imaging 2014; 9035:90250F.

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