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Lukas Bubendorf



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    MA 06 - Lung Cancer Biology I (ID 660)

    • Event: WCLC 2017
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Biology/Pathology
    • Presentations: 1
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      MA 06.06 - Assessment of RANK Prevalence and Clinical Significance in the NSCLC European Thoracic Oncology Platform Lungscape Cohort (ID 10006)

      15:45 - 17:30  |  Author(s): Lukas Bubendorf

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κappa-B (RANK) is a pathway involved in bone homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that RANK signalling may also play a role in bone metastasis, and primary breast and lung cancers. The European Thoracic Oncology Platform (ETOP) Lungscape project allows evaluation of the prevalence of RANK expression and its clinical significance in a cohort of surgically-resected NSCLCs.

      Method:
      RANK expression was assessed on tissue microarrays (TMAs) using immunohistochemistry. Up to 4 cores per patient were analysed based on sample acceptance criteria. An H-Score (staining intensity + % cells stained) was used to assess RANK expression (positivity), as defined by at least 1 core with any degree of positive staining. Prevalence of RANK positivity and its association with clinicopathological characteristics, other cancer-related biomarkers (IHC ALK/MET/PTEN/PD-L1 expression and EGFR/KRAS/PIK3CA mutations) and patient outcome [Relapse-free Survival (RFS), Time-to-Relapse (TTR), Overall Survival (OS)] was explored in a subset of the ETOP Lungscape cohort. The prevalence of RANK overexpression (proportion of positive cancer cells ≥50%) was also investigated.

      Result:
      RANK expression was assessed in patients from 3 centers, a total of 402 from the 2709 patients of the Lungscape cohort, with median follow-up 44 months; 32.6% female, 40.8/54.2/5.0% adenocarcinomas (AC)/squamous cell carcinomas (SCC)/other, 44.8/28.4/26.9% with stage I/II/III, 20.6/57.7/18.9% current/former/never smokers (and 2.7% with unknown smoking status). Median was 74 months for both RFS and OS, while median TTR was not reached. Prevalence of RANK positivity was 26.6% (107 of the 402 cases), with 95% confidence interval (95%CI):22.4%-31.2%; significantly higher in AC: 48.2% (79 of 164 cases), 95%CI:40.3%-56.1%; vs SCC: 9.2% (20 of 218 cases), 95%CI:5.7%-13.8%; (p<0.001). RANK positivity was more frequent in females (38.9% vs 20.7% in males, p<0.001) and tumors≤4cm (30.7% vs 21.1% in tumors>4cm, p=0.031). Significant associations were also detected between RANK and PTEN expression in AC (RANK positivity 57.4% in PTEN expression vs 30.5% in PTEN loss; p=0.0011) and with MET status in SCC (RANK positivity 27.8% in MET+ vs 7.6% in MET-; p=0.016). No association with outcome was found. RANK overexpression was identified in 43 (10.7%; 95%CI: 7.9%-14.1%) cases.

      Conclusion:
      In this early-stage NSCLC cohort, RANK positivity (26.6% overall) is found to be significantly more common in adenocarcinomas (48.2%), females, patients with tumors of smaller size, with PTEN expression (in SCC) and MET positivity (in AC). No prognostic significance of RANK expression was found. Analysis of additional cases is ongoing and results will be presented.

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    MA 15 - Lung Cancer Biology II (ID 670)

    • Event: WCLC 2017
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Biology/Pathology
    • Presentations: 1
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      MA 15.11 - CCNE1, PTGS2, TGFA and WISP2 Predict Benefit from Bevacizumab and Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (SAKK19/09) (ID 9592)

      15:45 - 17:30  |  Author(s): Lukas Bubendorf

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Bevacizumab (Bev; Avastin[®]) is a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor. No predictive biomarkers for the use of Bev have been established so far. We aimed identifying genes predictive for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients treated in the trial SAKK19/09 (NCT01116219).

      Method:
      SAKK19/09 was a non-randomized phase II trial with two sequential cohorts including patients with non-squamous NSCLC and EGFR wild-type. In Cohort 1, 77 patients were treated with cisplatin (C) 75mg/m[2], pemetrexed (Pem) 500mg/m[2] and Bev 7.5mg/kg, followed by Bev+Pem maintenance. Cohort 2 included 52 patients treated with C+Pem followed by Pem maintenance. RNA was isolated from baseline tumor tissue sections and processed for gene expression analysis by Nanostring. Using the Nanostring nCounter® System (Nanostring Technologies) gene expression of 201 genes, including 6 housekeeping genes was measured using a custom-designed codeset. For each gene, a Cox regression was performed with normalized gene expressions, treatment and the interaction for PFS and OS. No adjustment for multiple testing was done.

      Result:

      Gene Accession HR (95% confidence interval) p-value of interaction
      Cohort 1 Cohort 2
      Potential predictive markers for PFS
      AURKB NM_004217 1.09 (0.84-1.42) 0.78 (0.61-0.99) 0.0481
      CCNE1 NM_001238 1.09 (0.87-1.36) 0.73 (0.53-1.02) 0.0312
      CDKN2B NM_004936.3 0.80 (0.67-0.95) 1.10 (0.85-1.43) 0.0375
      MMP2 NM_004530.2 0.81 (0.67-0.97) 1.10 (0.91-1.34) 0.0258
      PTGS2 (COX-2) NM_000963.1 1.29 (1.06-1.58) 0.90 (0.78-1.04) 0.00352
      TGFA NM_003236.2 1.13 (0.94-1.37) 0.74 (0.53-1.03) 0.0452
      WISP2 NM_003881.2 0.82 (0.69-0.98) 1.24 (1.02-1.51) 0.0015
      Potential predictive markers for OS
      CCNE1 NM_001238 1.08 (0.86-1.36) 0.71 (0.49-1.02) 0.0324
      PTGS2 (COX-2) NM_000963.1 1.35 (1.10-1.65) 0.81 (0.69-0.95) <0.0001
      TGFA NM_003236.2 1.17 (0.96-1.43) 0.55 (0.33-0.91) 0.00352
      WISP2 NM_003881.2 0.87 (0.73-1.03) 1.14 (0.92-1.42) 0.0314
      We analyzed 99 patient samples (61 in Cohort 1; 38 in Cohort 2) with 201 genes at baseline. We found 7 genes potentially predictive for PFS (AURKB, CCNE1, CDKN2B, MMP2, PTGS2, TGFA, WISP2), 4 of which were also potentially predictive for OS (CCNE1, PTGS2, TGFA and WISP2) (Table 1).

      Conclusion:
      We identified several potentially predictive genes for Bev activity in combination with chemotherapy. Several of these (AURKB, CCNE1, CDKN2B, TGFA) have previously been shown to play an important role in cell cycle regulation and cell proliferation supporting the hypothesis that Bev supports chemotherapy activity. Notably, also a gene involved in inflammation (PTGS2) was significantly predictive for outcome. Further work is ongoing to explore changes in gene expression using tumor rebiopsies at progression.

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    MS 15 - Molecular Testing (ID 537)

    • Event: WCLC 2017
    • Type: Mini Symposium
    • Track: Biology/Pathology
    • Presentations: 1
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      MS 15.04 - Molecular Testing Using Cytology Specimens (ID 7714)

      15:45 - 17:30  |  Presenting Author(s): Lukas Bubendorf

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Abstract not provided

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    P2.02 - Biology/Pathology (ID 616)

    • Event: WCLC 2017
    • Type: Poster Session with Presenters Present
    • Track: Biology/Pathology
    • Presentations: 1
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      P2.02-024 - False Positivity Due to Polysomy in Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (ID 10523)

      09:30 - 16:00  |  Author(s): Lukas Bubendorf

      • Abstract

      Background:
      Pathologists may recognize the phenomenon of polyploidy in FISH, which may be misleading in interpretation of break apart fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). The chance for single or split probe signals is likely to increase with the degree of polysomy. The aim of this study was to explore whether false positivity due to polyploidy occurs in practice.

      Method:
      A cohort of cases referred for study or patient care was collected from the archives. From the cases where the ALK and/or ROS1 in-situ hybridization test was repeated in our hospital the outcome of testing was compared. Additionally tumor DNA of an occasional case was tested by an orthogonal method (Ion Torrent Oncomine Focus Assay) for translocations.

      Result:
      Three cases with ALK FISH rearrangement elsewhere were diagnosed with polyploidy in the referral center. One case was reported with rearrangements in both the ALK and the ROS1 gene detected by FISH analysis. In the repeated FISH analysis the average number of co-localization signals in the tumor cell nuclei was 7.6 for ALK and 9.5 for ROS1 respectively (range 1 - 30). Moreover, the morphology of this case was a giant cell carcinoma, variant of pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung. Examination with an orthogonal method (Ion Torrent Oncomine Assay) revealed no translocations and the tumor cells were negative for ALK and ROS1 by immunohistochemistry proving the original report as false positive, supported by absence of response on crizotinib. In break apart FISH the 15% threshold for positivity was obtained in cells emphasizing that in cross sections of normal nuclei occasionally split signals or 3’ probe signals may be present even in diploid nuclei. In the range of 15-20% the chance of false positive FISH is >1%.[1] However, in polyploid tumors the higher number of probe signals within one nucleus comes with an increased chance of split or 3’ signals and a higher rate of false-positive results when maintaining a uniform threshold 15% irrespective of ploidy. Moreover, this may in case of ALK be an additional reason for discordancy with ALK immunohistochemistry, explaining the lack of response on targeted therapy in these patients.[2] 1. vLaffert Lung cancer. 2015;90:465 2. vdWekken. Clin Cancer Res.epub.

      Conclusion:
      In case of polysomy there is a increased chance of false positive in break apart FISH results. An addition technique should be used to confirm a positive FISH status in tumors with highly increased gene copy number due to polysomy.