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MA15 - Immunotherapy Prediction (ID 400)
- Event: WCLC 2016
- Type: Mini Oral Session
- Track: Chemotherapy/Targeted Therapy/Immunotherapy
- Presentations: 1
MA15.06 - Predictive Value of Measuring Somatic Mutations and Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes for PD-1 Axis Therapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) (ID 6255)
14:20 - 15:50 | Author(s): I. Datar
Diverse factors have been associated with clinical benefit to PD-1 axis blockers in NSCLC including PD-L1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry and increased mutation load/predicted class-I neoantigens. However, the association and predictive value of the tumor genomic landscape, composition of the tumor immune microenvironment and T-cell function remain unclear.
We performed whole exome DNA sequencing and multiplexed quantitative immunofluorescence (QIF) for T-cells in pre-treatment FFPE samples from 45 NSCLC patients treated with PD-1 axis blockers (alone or in combination) in our institution. Genomic analysis was used to evaluate the mutational load and predicted class-I neoantigens. Multiplexed QIF-based immunoprofiling was used to measure the level of CD3+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), in situ T-cell proliferation (Ki-67 in CD3+ cells) and T-cell activation (Granzyme-B in CD3+ cells). We studied the association between the tumor somatic mutations, predicted neoantigens, T-cell infiltration/function and clinical benefit /survival.
Increased mutational load was positively associated with predicted class-I neoantigens, variants in DNA-repair genes, smoking and absence of activating mutations in EGFR; but not associated with the level of CD3+ T-cells, T-cell proliferation (Ki-67 in CD3+ cells) and function (Granzyme-B in CD3+ cells). Increased mutations and candidate class-I neoantigens were significantly associated with response to therapy (P=0.02 and 0.03, respectively), but not with overall survival at 3-years (median cut-point, log rank P=0.92 and 0.80, respectively). Higher CD3 positivity was not associated with response to therapy (P=0.17), but was significantly associated with overall survival (median cut-point, log rank P=0.03). Regardless of the mutational load and candidate neoantigen content, elevated CD3 with low Ki-67/Granzyme-B in CD3 predicted longer survival after PD-1 axis blockade than high CD3/high Ki-67/Granzyme-B in CD3, or low T-lymphocyte infiltration.
Increased somatic mutations are associated with smoking and response to PD-1 agents, but not with tumor T-cell infiltration/activation and overall survival. Regardless of the mutational load, increased T-cell infiltration using QIF is significantly associated with longer survival after PD-1 axis blockade in NSCLC. The subgroup of NSCLC with the highest potential of benefit to immune reinvigoration using PD-1 axis blockade comprise tumors with elevated lymphocyte infiltration but low in situ activation/proliferation.
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P3.02c - Poster Session with Presenters Present (ID 472)
- Event: WCLC 2016
- Type: Poster Presenters Present
- Track: Advanced NSCLC
- Presentations: 1
- Coordinates: 12/07/2016, 14:30 - 15:45, Hall B (Poster Area)
P3.02c-088 - Acquired Resistance to Programmed Death-1 Axis Inhibitors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) (ID 5625)
14:30 - 15:45 | Author(s): I. Datar
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) axis inhibitors are increasingly being used to treat patients with advanced NSCLC. Despite durable responses relative to chemotherapy, resistance to such therapy develops in the majority of responders, with median duration of response from 12-17 months. Mechanisms of acquired resistance (AR) to PD-1 axis inhibitors are poorly understood.
Patients with advanced NSCLC and acquired resistance (AR) to PD-1 axis inhibitor therapy were enrolled to an IRB approved repeat biopsy protocol allowing collection of clinical data, archived and fresh tumor tissue, and blood for analysis. Molecular analyses including whole exome sequencing of pre- and post-treatment tumor specimens were performed.
Twelve cases were available for analysis (table 1). Eight and two patients developed resistance limited to lymph nodes (LNs) and adrenal gland respectively. The two remaining patients experienced tumor progression in LNs with other sites of tumor growth (one in liver, one in lung). Nine patients had sufficient archived pre- PD-1 axis inhibitor tumor tissue for analysis/ comparison, leaving three unpaired cases. Genomic analysis of tumor specimens identified two patients with acquired tumor beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) defects at resistance. A patient derived xenograft generated from one of the resistance samples (patient #6) lacked production of B2M protein and did not express surface MHC-1. Additional analyses including immunophenotyping with multiplexed quantitative immunofluorescence on these and other patient samples are ongoing. Figure 1
Lymph nodes may be a particularly susceptible area to AR to PD-1 axis inhibitors. Defects in B2M leading to loss of tumor MHC-1 presentation may represent a unique mechanism of AR to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Further studies to determine the frequency of defects in antigen presentation machinery in tumors with resistance to PD1 axis inhibitors are warranted.