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OA20 - Immunotherapy and Markers (ID 401)
- Event: WCLC 2016
- Type: Oral Session
- Track: Biology/Pathology
- Presentations: 1
OA20.05 - The Influence of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy, on Immune Response Profile in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinomas (ID 5738)
11:00 - 12:30 | Author(s): A. Weissferdt
The clinical efficacy observed with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) has prompted to characterize the immune response in lung tumors treated with chemotherapy. Our goal was to determine the characteristics of immune microenvironment of localized, surgically resected, NSCLCs from patients who received and did not receive neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Using multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF) and image analysis, we investigated PD-1/PD-L1 expression, and quantified tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and tumor associated macrophages (TAMs).
We studied formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumor tissues from 111 stage II and III resected NSCLC, including 61 chemonaïve (adenocarcinoma, ADC=33; squamous cell carcinoma, SCC=28) and 50 chemotherapy-treated (ADC=30; SCC=20) tumors. mIF was performed using the Opal 7-color fIHC Kit™ and analyzed using the Vectra™ multispectral microscope and inForm™ Cell Analysis software (Perkin Elmer, Waltham, MA). The markers studied were grouped in two 6-antibody panels: Panel 1, AE1/AE3 pancytokeratins, PD-L1 (clone E1L3N), CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD68; and Panel 2, AE1/AE3, PD1, Granzyme B, FOXP3, CD45RO and CD57.
Positive PD-L1 expression (>5%) in malignant cells (MCs) was detected in 48% (n=53/111) of NSCLCs. Overall, chemotherapy-treated tumors showed significantly higher percentages of MCs expressing PD-L1 (median, 18.2%) than chemo-naïve cases (median, 1.8%; P=0.033). Higher densities of inflammatory cells expressing granzyme B (P=0.036), CD57 (P=0.001) and PD-1 (P=0.016) were detected in chemotherapy-treated NSCLCs compared with chemo-naïve tumors. In contrast, lower densities of FOXP3-positive regulatory T cells were detected in chemotherapy-treated tumors when compared with chemo-naïve cases (P=0.032). Following chemotherapy ADCs exhibited significantly higher levels of CD57-positive cells (P<0.0001) and lower density of FOXP3-positive cells (P=0.002) than chemo-naïve tumors. Chemotherapy-treated SCCs demonstrated higher density of PD-1-positive cells than chemo-naïve tumors (P=0.004). In chemotherapy-treated cancers, lower levels of CD4 helper T positive cells and tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) CD68-positive cells were associated with worse overall survival (OS; P=0.04 and P=0.005, respectively) in univariate analysis. In chemotherapy-treated ADC patients, lower levels of CD68-positive (P=0.010) and higher levels of FOXP3-positive cells correlated with worse OS (P=0.044).
We developed a robust mIF panel of 10 markers to study inflammatory cells infiltrates in FFPE NSCLC tumor tissues. Chemotherapy-treated NSCLCs exhibited higher levels of PD-L1 expression and T cell subsets compared to chemo-naïve tumors, suggesting that chemotherapy activates specific immune response mechanisms in lung cancer. (Supported by CPRIT MIRA and UT Lung SPORE grants, and MD Anderson Moon Shot Program).
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