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MS 18 - Advocacy Snapshots (ID 36)
- Event: WCLC 2015
- Type: Mini Symposium
- Track: Advocacy
- Presentations: 1
MS18.02 - Advocates Making a Responsible Case for High-Risk Screening (ID 1927)
14:15 - 15:45 | Author(s): K. Eguchi
Purpose: The purpose is to discuss how to advocate to make a Responsible Case for the Screening of lung cancer high risk group. Background and fact: Screening is looking for cancer at an early stage before a person has any symptoms. For the better screening, efficiency is determined as well as sensitivity and specificity. In these forty years, three screening tests have been studied to find if they decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer. Chest X-rays were evaluated at the earliest time in the lung cancer screening history while it is no longer recommended for screening.. Sputum cytology is a procedure in which a sample of sputum is viewed under a microscope to check for cancer cells, so it is required to good mucus that is coughed up from the lungs. Now, it is used as a non-invasive examination of a patient with a sputum symptoms rather than screening. Low-dose spiral CT (LDCT) scan is a special kind of x-ray that takes many pictures as you lie on a table that slides in and out of the machine. A computer then combines these pictures into a detailed picture of a slice of your body. In this procedure, low-dose radiation is used to make a series of very detailed pictures of areas inside the body with reduction of radiation exposure.. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) provided the first evidence that lung screening can reduce cancer deaths, when data from the study was published in 2011. The National Lung Screening Trial began in 2002 and enrolled more than 53,000 participants who were current or former heavy smokers, ages 55 to 74. The trial randomly assigned people to receive lung screening either by low-dose helical CT scans or chest X-rays. The trial was sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, and the University of Michigan was one of 33 places across the country to take part. U-M enrolled 850 participants. The study found that screening individuals with low-dose CT scans could reduce lung cancer mortality by 20 percent compared to chest x-ray. Now, it is concluded that the only recommended screening test for lung cancer is LD-CT, which result Medicare's decision to cover lung cancer screening in US. However, the evidence at the present time in LD-CT screening is only one report from US, the results of additional studies from Europe (NELSON) and Japan (Sagawa team) is awaited. Discussion: To raise up the efficiency of screening, It is important who is suitable as subjects. According to “ the Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines and Recommendations” by CDC, many organizations in US definite that lung cancer screening with LDCT is recommended for people of age 55 to 74 years with ≥ 30 pack year smoking history, who either currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years while some difference of subjects who are in relatively good health or age 55 to 80 years across organizations. However, major obstacles are lying that smokers are lack of awareness or information for risks and benefits with attention to the specifics of each person making a decision about screening as well as the risk of lung cancer, in order to operate LD-CT screening effectively. GLCC poll in 2013 showed that in Australia and Great Britain current smokers are less aware of the symptoms of lung cancer than former smokers and people who have never smoked regularly. Even if screening system was developed, the risk of death due to lung cancer can not be reduced unless the people of high risk group do not visit to appropriate screening service that has been ensurring quality. In addition, Assessment of smoking and the provision of smoking cessation services must be part of any lung cancer screening program. Advocate movement based on research is urgently needed to develop approaches that will maximize cessation rates among smokers undergoing screening. Even more, it is required to enlightenment for smokers in cooperation with the international community by utilizing a variety of public relations means. In November 2014, lung cancer awareness month, Japan Lung Cancer Society approved the Kyoto Declaration. This declaration has been included that the tackle in the prevention of lung cancer and development of effective treatment by alliance with lung cancer Society, lung cancer patient, government, people, medical personnel, advocacy organizations, and healthcare industry. While the evidence from the NLST supports the implementation of lung cancer screening for high-risk individuals via LDCT, the experience to date also must validates the prior recommendations around institutional approaches to lung cancer screening, including the need for the availability of multidisciplinary clinical teams. In order to advocate making responsible case, several ways should be developed like a “Shared Decision-Making” toolkit(s) by the Lung Association that would act as a “consumers’ guide” for those considering lung cancer screening. After examine such a tool, it is also one of the ideas to take advantage according to the circumstances of each country.
ORAL 29 - MASCC-IASLC Joint Session: Palliative and Supportive Care (ID 136)
- Event: WCLC 2015
- Type: Oral Session
- Track: Palliative and Supportive Care
- Presentations: 1
ORAL29.02 - ONO-7643/Anamorelin for the Treatment of Cancer Cachexia in Advanced NSCLC Patients: Results From the Phase 2 Study in Japan (ID 1375)
16:45 - 18:15 | Author(s): K. Eguchi
Cancer cachexia is characterized by decreased body weight (BW), mainly lean body mass (LBM) and negatively impacts quality of life (QOL) and prognosis. ONO-7643/anamorelin (ANAM) is a novel selective ghrelin receptor agonist with appetite-enhancing and anabolic activity.
ONO-7643-03 was a double-blind, exploratory Phase 2 trial assessing ANAM efficacy and safety in Japanese non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with unresectable stage III/IV NSCLC, ECOG performance status (ECOG PS) 1-2 and cachexia (main criteria: ≥5% weight loss within prior 6 months). Patients were randomized to ANAM at 100 or 50 mg, or placebo, given daily orally for 12 weeks. Co-primary endpoints were change from baseline over 12 weeks in LBM (measured by DXA) and handgrip strength (HGS). Secondary endpoints included change in BW, ECOG PS, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) and QOL assessment (QOL-ACD).
Demographics were balanced (N=180); median age=66 yr, male (68.9%), ECOG PS=1 (77.5%) and stage IV (76.1%). Treatment effects: the change in LBM over 12 weeks was 0.55 kg in the placebo arm and 1.15 kg in the ANAM 100 mg arm, and the change in LBM at both Weeks 8 and 12 showed significant differences between ANAM 100 mg and placebo (p<0.05). However, the change in HGS was similar between arms at both time points. The change in BW to Weeks 12 was -0.93 kg in the placebo arm vs +0.54 kg in the 50 mg arm and +1.77 kg in the 100 mg arm, and was significantly different between the 100 or 50 mg arms and the placebo arm at all time points (p<0.05). The cumulative rate of deterioration of ECOG PS was lowest in the 100 mg arm, and ANAM 100mg significantly improved KPS and QOL-ACD compared to placebo at Weeks 4 and 12 (p<0.05). Regarding safety, ANAM treatment for 12 weeks was well tolerated. While median survival time (MST) was not significantly different between active treatment arms and placebo, MST of patients with BW loss was significantly shorter than those without (215 vs 327 days; p=0.0055).
This phase 2 study demonstrated that ANAM has promising potential in improving body composition, performance status and QOL in patients with cancer cachexia.