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R. Ten Haken
P1.02 - Poster Session/ Treatment of Localized Disease – NSCLC (ID 209)
- Event: WCLC 2015
- Type: Poster
- Track: Treatment of Localized Disease - NSCLC
- Presentations: 1
- Coordinates: 9/07/2015, 09:30 - 17:00, Exhibit Hall (Hall B+C)
P1.02-037 - Thoracic Radiation-Induced Pleural Effusion and Risk Factors in Patients with Lung Cancer (ID 1397)
09:30 - 17:00 | Author(s): R. Ten Haken
Pleural effusion is regarded as a frequent late toxicity after thoracic radiotherapy (TRT). However, recent literature is lacking on this toxicity. This study aimed to examine the patient and dosimetric risk factors associated with radiation induced pleural effusion (RIPE) in lung cancer patients treated with TRT.
Lung cancer patients treated with TRT having follow-up imaging, CT or PET/CT, were eligible. Pleural effusion of increased volume after TRT without evidence of tumor progression was considered to be RIPE. Parameters of lung dose-volume histogram including percent volumes irradiated with 5 to 55 Gy (V5-V55) and mean lung dose (MLD) were analyzed. Optimal dosimetric thresholds for RIPE were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Associating clinical and treatment-related risk factors for RIPE were detected by univariate and multivariate analyses with SPSS 18.0. Data were considered statistically significant at value of p < 0.05.
Of 806 consecutive patients who received TRT at two institutions, 205 had post-treatment imaging available and were included in this study. The median (range) age was 63 (34-85) years; Male, Caucasian race, current smokers, stage III and squamous cell cancer accounted for 73.2%, 81.0%, 50.7%, 66.8% and 27.8%, respectively. The median follow-up duration was 14.6 (range, 0.7-80.8) months. Of 51 patients (24.9%) who developed RIPE, 40 had symptomatic RIPE including chest pain (47.1%), cough (23.5%) and short of breath or dyspnea (35.3%). The median (range) RIPE interval from end of TRT was 3.7 (0.6-18.0) months. The RIPE rates of the two institutions were 20.2% and 32.1% with a borderline significance (p = 0.053). Caucasian race (HR = 2.930, 95% CI: 1.197-7.172, p = 0.019) and histology of squamous cell lung cancer (HR = 0.645, 95% CI: 0.425-0.980, p = 0.04) were significantly associated with the low risk of RIPE, while age (p = 0.378), gender (p = 0.071), stage (p = 0.148), radiation dose (p = 0.782) and concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.173) were not. The whole lung V5, V10, V15, V20, V25, V30, V35, V40, V45, V50 and MLD were significantly higher in patients with RIPE than in those without RIPE (p = 0.007, 0.022, 0.044, 0.048, 0.034, 0.016, 0.010, 0.026, 0.040 and 0.014), and only V5 was the significant predictive factor for both RIPE and symptomatic RIPE (p = 0.007 and 0.021) with the largest areas under ROC curve (AUC = 0.779). Using a cutpoint of 41.5% for V5, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 61.5%, respectively.
Radiation induced pleural effusion is notable. Caucasian race and squamous cell tumor histology may be associated with lower risk of RIPE. The whole lung V5 seems to be a significant risk factor for symptomatic RIPE.
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