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J. Wolf



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    MINI 04 - Clinical Care of Lung Cancer (ID 102)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      MINI04.04 - Economic Burden of Lung Cancer Patients Treated in Clinical Trials: Experience from a Comprehensive Cancer Center in Germany (ID 2841)

      16:45 - 18:15  |  Author(s): J. Wolf

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Lung cancer leads to the highest costs among cancers in developed countries. Hospital inpatient care is the main cost driver. Comprehensive cancer centers (CCC) are designed to adopt innovative treatment methods within clinical trials. This analysis focuses on the economic burden of clinical trials for advanced lung cancer patients in a CCC in Germany.

      Methods:
      111 consecutive patients with advanced lung cancer treated in clinical trials (phase I - phase II) were analyzed. We integrated medical and economic data from a business perspective during patients’ in- and outpatient treatment. Different reimbursement systems and cost calculation models are linked with an internal budget system for lung cancer patients.

      Results:
      79 patients (71.2%) had at least one in-house stay with a total of 204 inpatient cases. 67 different diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) were coded for these cases. Grouping of the DRGs into 4 categories (i. Neoplasm, ii. Infection, iii. Radiotherapy and iv. Rest) reveals a statistically significant difference in the case mix index (p<0.001) and length of hospitalization (p<0.001). Cost type calculation demonstrated labor (46%) and infrastructure (31%) being the predominant cost factors. The average revenues of 1301 outpatient contacts (219 cases per quarter) of all patients are €144. Subgroup analysis of 44 cases with €117 revenues in average identified imaging procedures accounting for 74% of the costs.

      Conclusion:
      The medical development involves economic risks for the hospital that recommend a fully integrative cost- and sales controlling between the in- and outpatient treatment setting including standards care and clinical trials, which should be discussed with all stakeholder in the healthcare system.

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    ORAL 02 - PD1 Axis Immunotherapy 2 (ID 87)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      ORAL02.03 - Longer-Term Follow-Up of a Phase 2 Study (CheckMate 063) of Nivolumab in Patients with Advanced, Refractory Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (ID 828)

      10:45 - 12:15  |  Author(s): J. Wolf

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Patients with advanced, refractory squamous (SQ) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have historically poor outcomes and limited treatment options. Nivolumab (NIVO), a fully human IgG4 programmed death-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, has activity across NSCLC histologies and is FDA-approved for treatment of metastatic SQ NSCLC with progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy. We report efficacy, safety, and biomarker analyses from a phase 2, single-arm study of NIVO in patients with SQ NSCLC who progressed during/after prior platinum-based doublet chemotherapy and ≥1 additional systemic regimen.

      Methods:
      Patients (N=117) received NIVO 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks until progressive disease (PD)/unacceptable toxicity; treatment beyond PD was permitted per protocol. The primary endpoint was independent radiology review committee (IRC)-assessed objective response rate (ORR), per RECIST v1.1. Additional objectives included investigator-assessed ORR, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), safety, ORR by patient subgroups, efficacy by tumor PD-L1 expression (PD-L1[+]: ≥5% tumor cells expressing PD-L1), and blood-based biomarker analyses (measurement of circulating microRNA and cytokines).

      Results:
      IRC-assessed ORR was 15% (95% CI: 9, 22), with a minimum of 11 months follow-up. Median duration of response was not reached (range, 2+–12+ months); 76% (13/17) of patients had ongoing responses. Objective responses were observed across patient subgroups and regardless of PD-L1 expression (Table). Four of 22 patients treated beyond PD demonstrated a non-conventional pattern of benefit (ie, persistent reduction in target lesions in the presence of new lesions, regression following initial progression, or no further progression for ≥2 tumor assessments); OS for these patients was 6.6, 11.6+, 12.9+, and 13.5+ months. The 1-year OS rate was 41% (95% CI: 32, 50) and median OS was 8.2 months (95% CI: 6.1, 10.9). The 1-year PFS rate was 20% (95% CI: 13, 29); median PFS was 1.9 months (95% CI: 1.8, 3.2). Peripheral increases in serum IFN-γ-stimulated cytokines, including CXCL9 and CXCL10, were observed, and preliminary microRNA analyses identified altered gene expression following NIVO treatment. Grade 3–4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 17% of patients, including fatigue (4%), diarrhea (3%), and pneumonitis (3%). Pneumonitis was manageable with corticosteroids; median time to resolution was 3.4 weeks (range, 0.7–13.4). Two treatment-related deaths (1 hypoxic pneumonia, 1 ischemic stroke) occurred in patients with multiple comorbidities and concurrent PD. Figure 1



      Conclusion:
      NIVO demonstrated clinically meaningful efficacy and an acceptable safety profile in patients with advanced, refractory SQ NSCLC. Updated 18-month OS, safety, and biomarker analyses will be presented.

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    ORAL 06 - Next Generation Sequencing and Testing Implications (ID 90)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 1
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      ORAL06.07 - An Integrated Cost-Effectiveness and Outcome Analysis Based on Multiplex Lung Cancer Genotyping in the Network Genomic Medicine (ID 2800)

      10:45 - 12:15  |  Author(s): J. Wolf

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      The Network Genomic Medicine (NGM) Lung Cancer is an interdisciplinary and intersectoral network offering comprehensive and centralized next generation sequencing (NGS)-based multiplex genotyping for all inoperable lung cancer patients in Germany. In 2014 NGM and the AOK Rheinland/Hamburg, one of the largest German public health insurances, have successfully contracted and established the first "flat rate" cost reimbursement model for NGS-based comprehensive lung cancer genotyping in Europe. After a year the first joint health-economic evaluation of NGM patients was initiated.

      Methods:
      The AOK Rheinland/Hamburg cooperates with NGM within the integrated care contract (ICC) according to § 140 German Social Insurance Code. Besides the cost reimbursement model for the NGS-based diagnostics the ICC comprises optional second opinion consultation hours and a joint evaluation program. The NGS panel used for all patients currently consists of 14 genes and 102 amplicons to cover potentially targetable aberrations. Other German public and private health insurances are currently negotiating to join the ICC. In April 2015 we elaborated a model to analyze molecularly guided therapy cost and outcome of inoperable lung cancer patients integrating health insurance cost data (diagnostic, therapy and drug-related costs). This model includes NGS-based molecular diagnostic results, treatment strategies and cost-effectiveness. Additionally, time-points of molecular genotyping and their influence on patient-related outcome and quality of life will be examined.

      Results:
      In 2014 about 4500 lung cancer NGM patients were centrally genotyped on the central NGS platform in Cologne. Since April 2014 167 patients, insured by the AOK Rheinland/Hamburg, consented for ICC. 149 patients received NGS-based molecular diagnostic of their tumors. 18 samples were not suitable for testing. ICC patients were stratified according to their molecular diagnostic results and molecular guided therapy options (targeted drugs including off-label use, participating in clinical trials or standard chemotherapy). Clinical outcome data were collected within NGM (by over 200 clinical partners) and reimbursement data are provided by the AOK Rheinland/Hamburg. This model will be extended to all NGM patients independent of their insurance status. Final cost-effectiveness and outcome data will be presented.

      Conclusion:
      NGM stands for the implementation of personalized cancer therapy into clinical routine in Germany. Now we systematically evaluate NGS-based molecular results, clinical outcome and cost-effectiveness data besides of clinical trials. First-time in Europe data evaluation is provided in a close cooperation between health care providers and health insurance companies and even matching the patient’s data. Furthermore, in 2015 a joint database (NGM Cancer Information System) for retrospective evaluation of personalized cancer treatment in Germany will be launched. Our model of implementing personalized cancer care in broad clinical routine is currently transferred to other tumor entities.

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    ORAL 21 - Biology - Moving Beyond the Oncogene to Oncogene-Modifying Genes (ID 118)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 1
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      ORAL21.03 - KEAP1-Mutations and NFE2L2-Mutations in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) (ID 2792)

      10:45 - 12:15  |  Author(s): J. Wolf

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Mutations in genes of the KEAP1-NFE2L2 pathway in patients with NSCLC are associated with an increased tumor growth, resistance towards cytostatic drugs and reduced survival rates. KEAP1 suppresses NFE2L2 under physiological conditions. Oxidative stress or electrophiles cause NFE2L2 to stabilize and translocate to the nucleus, resulting in transcription of various cytoprotective genes. Mutations in KEAP1 and NFE2L2 are described for diverse tumor entities and often cause an increased level of NFE2L2 leading to resistance of cancer cells against anti-cancer drugs and irradiation. This study was performed to characterize KEAP1-mutated and NFE2L2-mutated NSCLC clinically and genetically.

      Methods:
      Tumor tissue collected from 446 patients within a regional screening network was analysed for KEAP1 mutations and NFE2L2 mutations using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Clinical, pathological and genetic characteristics of these patients are described and compared with a control group of patients without KEAP1 mutation and without NFE2L2 mutation.

      Results:
      So far, we identified 33 patients with KEAP1 mutations. Among these we found 34 different mutations, of which the majority was not previously described. KEAP1 mutations were not restricted to a special exon. In 30 patients (90.9%), additional driver aberrations in KRAS, EGFR, FGFR1, FGFR3, STK11, ALK, DDR2, HRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, PTEN, NFE2L2, EP300, TSC1, CREBBP, NRAS, MET and Her2 could be detected, as well as mutations and polymorphisms in TP53. KEAP1 mutations occurred in both genders (male/female ratio 3/1), in squamous-cell carcinoma (36.4%) and adenocarcinoma (60.6%) and were significantly associated with smoking. We also identified 26 patients with NFE2L2 mutations. Among these we found 15 different mutations, of which W24R and E79K were the most common. In 20 patients (76.9%) additional driver aberrations were detected. NFE2L2 mutations occurred in squamous-cell carcinoma (69.2%) and adenocarcinoma (23.1%) and were significantly associated with smoking as well. NFE2L2 mutations also occurred in both genders with 61.5% male and 38.5% female. Two patients had both a KEAP1 mutation and a NFE2L2 mutation.

      Conclusion:
      Our data suggest a role of KEAP1-mutations and NFE2L2-mutations as a cofactor in addition to classical driver mutations underlying the malignant phenotype of lung cancer cells. So far, this is the largest cohort of patients with KEAP1-mutations and NFE2L2-mutations analysed and described. Further survival and treatment analyses will reveal the role of these mutations for the outcome of these patients.

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    ORAL 41 - Immune Biology, Microenvironment and Novel Targets (ID 159)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 1
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      ORAL41.01 - Tumor-Infiltrating B Lymphocytes Characterized by CD79a and MUM1 Independently Predict Outcome in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (ID 485)

      18:30 - 20:00  |  Author(s): J. Wolf

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes play an important role in cell-mediated immune-destruction of cancer cells and tumor growth control. For non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) a prognostic role of T cell subtypes, natural killer cells and dendritic cells within the tumor stroma has been described. Here, we studied the role of tumor-infiltrating B cells characterized by CD79a (B-cell antigen receptor complex-associated protein alpha chain) and MUM1 surface expression (Multiple myeloma oncogene 1) in patients with NSCLC. To our knowledge, this study represents the so far largest cohort analyzing the prognostic impact of tumor-infiltrating B-cells.

      Methods:
      B cell infiltration was quantified using immunohistochemistry and antibodies to CD79a (Dako, clone JCB117) and MUM1 (Dako, clone MUM1p) on tissue microarrays (TMA) of paraffin embedded tumor sections. Genetic driver mutations were identified by next-generation sequencing and FISH analysis. SPSS version 20 (IBM Corp.) was used for statistical analysis. Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox-regression analysis were used as appropriate.

      Results:
      478 tissue samples from NSCLC patients were available for immunohistochemistry. 65% of patients were male, median age was 66 years. 56% had adenocarcinoma and 39% squamous cell histology. 61% of patients had localized disease (stage I/II), 30% locally advanced disease (stage III) and 6% were diagnosed with stage IV. Frequencies of genomic aberrations are listed in Table 1. CD79a and MUM1 positive cells were detected in 40.8% (195/478) and 40.2% (192/478) of the analyzed NSCLC tissue samples, respectively. B cell infiltration was not associated with clinical or histo-pathological characteristics. MUM1 expression was associated with a significantly prolonged overall survival (median OS 54 vs. 40 months, p=0.025). The expression of CD79a showed a trend towards a better outcome (median OS 49 vs. 40 months, p=0.069). In the multivariate analysis B cell infiltration characterized by CD79a/MUM1 positivity was an independent prognostic marker for survival (p=0.045) as was MUM1 expression (p=0.031). Table 1.

      Genomic aberration Number of patients Frequency
      TP53 mutation 136 28.5%
      KRAS mutation 65 13.6%
      FGFR1 amplification 28 5.9%
      PIK3CA mutation 17 3.6%
      EGFR mutation 12 2.5%
      ALK fusion 4 0.8%
      ERBB2 mutation 4 0.8%
      ERBB2 amplificiation 4 0.8%
      ROS1 fusion 2 0.4%
      BRAF mutation 2 0.4%
      DDR2 mutation 2 0.4%
      FGFR2 mutation 1 0.2%


      Conclusion:
      B cell infiltration characterized by immunohistochemical positivity for CD79a and MUM1 represents an independent prognostic marker in NSCLC. This finding supports the hypothesis of a B cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity.

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    P1.01 - Poster Session/ Treatment of Advanced Diseases – NSCLC (ID 206)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Poster
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      P1.01-076 - TIGER-1: A Phase 2/3 Study of First Line Rociletinib or Erlotinib in EGFR-Mutant NSCLC (ID 944)

      09:30 - 17:00  |  Author(s): J. Wolf

      • Abstract

      Background:
      Activating EGFR mutations including the L858R mutation and exon 19 deletions (del19) are key drivers of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 10%–15% of patients of European and 30%–35% of Asian descent.[1] Acquired resistance to first-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as erlotinib can be driven by additional EGFR mutations, with exon 20 T790M accounting for 50%–60% of cases.[2] Rociletinib (CO-1686) was designed to inhibit T790M as well as L858R and del19 while sparing wild-type EGFR and has demonstrated response rates up to 67% in patients with T790M mutations who had progressed on first or later line EGFR inhibitor therapy. Rociletinib continues to be well tolerated by patients in ongoing studies.[3] Given that T790M mutated subclones commonly emerge during treatment with existing EGFR inhibitors, early targeting of T790M along with initial activating mutations is a rational approach to delay progression.

      Methods:
      TIGER-1 (NCT02186301) is a randomized, open label study of rociletinib vs erlotinib in patients with mutant EGFR NSCLC. Patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed metastatic or unresectable locally advanced treatment-naive NSCLC (no prior therapy in the metastatic setting and no CNS disease), with documentation of ≥1 activating EGFR mutation (excluding exon 20 insertions) and biopsy within 60 days will be enrolled in this 2-part study. All patients will be randomized 1:1 to rociletinib (500 mg twice daily) or erlotinib (150 mg once daily) and treated until death, qualifying adverse events or disease progression. Patients will be stratified by sensitizing EGFR mutation (T790M, del19, L858R, or other) and territory (Asian vs non-Asian geography). The same patient eligibility criteria will be used for the Phase 2 and Phase 3 portions of TIGER-1. The phase 2 portion is currently enrolling and will transition to the Phase 3 portion upon enrollment of the 201[st] patient. The maturing Phase 2 dataset will contribute to decision-making rules for the Phase 3 interim analyses. The Phase 3 portion will incorporate larger cohorts; the final sample sizes will be determined by interim analyses where the chances of success will be estimated at pre-planned enrollment milestones. The primary endpoint is PFS; secondary efficacy endpoints include objective response rate, duration of response, disease control rate and overall survival. Safety will be assessed via standard adverse event reporting. PFS and OS will be summarized with Kaplan-Meier plots. The stratified log-rank and hazard ratio will compare PFS distributions for rociletinib- vs erlotinib-treated patients. Enrollment is ongoing. 1. Herbst R et al. N Engl J Med. 2008 2. Yu H et al. Clin Cancer Res. 2013 3. Sequist LV J Clin Oncol. 2014

      Results:
      Not applicable

      Conclusion:
      Not applicable

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    P3.04 - Poster Session/ Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing (ID 235)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Poster
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 1
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      P3.04-037 - Prevalence of NRG1 Fusions in Caucasian NSCLC Patients Determined by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridisation (ID 1553)

      09:30 - 17:00  |  Author(s): J. Wolf

      • Abstract

      Background:
      Fusions of the gene Neuregulin1 (NRG1) have been described to activate PI3K-AKT signaling in NSCLC via NRG1 overexpression and binding to Her2/Neu-Her3. NRG1 fusions were detected in pulmonary mucinous adenocarcinoma of Asian non-smokers lacking other known oncogenic driver mutations. The incidence in such patients has been described to be between 17.6% (6/34) and 44.4% (4/9). NRG1 fusions might be targeted by Her2/Her3-inhibitors and clinical trials are planned. Here we describe for the first time the systematic analysis of NRG1 in Caucasian patients by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

      Methods:
      A ZytoLight®-based FISH assay (ZytoVision, Bremerhaven, Germany) was developed and verified on nine published clinical cases with known NRG1 fusions. A total of 160 Caucasian NSCLC patients were screened. 25 of the cases were mucinous adenocarcinoma lacking a known oncogenic driver mutation as determined by deep-sequencing and FISH tests. 135 cases were pulmonary adenocarcinoma of various subtypes including 35 cases that lacked a driver mutation and 100 cases that were EGFR, ALK and ROS1 wildtype. The smoking-status was not evaluated. Statistics were calculated using R 3.1.0 .

      Results:
      The NRG1 fusions in the published cases were easily detected by the FISH assay. However, none of the screened cases harbored a NRG1 fusion. The result is significant compared to published reference values of 17.6% (p=0.041) and 44.4% (p<0.001). The theoretical maximum incidence of NRG1 fusions among Caucasian NSCLC patients not stratified by smoking-status was calculated to be <16.6% for mucinous adenocarcinomas lacking driver mutations, <7.5% for adenocarcinoma of all morphological subtypes lacking driver mutations and <3% for EGFR, ALK, ROS1 negative pulmonary adenocarcinoma (95% confidence intervals).

      Conclusion:
      FISH is a suitable technique to screen for NRG1 fusions in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Among 160 Caucasian patients including 25 mucinous carcinomas lacking a driver mutation none were NRG1 positive. Thus, the incidence among Caucasian patients appears to be low and should be evaluated in studies of large NSCLC cohorts.