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T.M. Busch



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    MO22 - Advanced Disease and Outcomes (ID 103)

    • Event: WCLC 2013
    • Type: Mini Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Surgery
    • Presentations: 1
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      MO22.11 - Prospective Study of Surgery with Curative Intent and Intraoperative Photodynamic Therapy to Achieve Long-term Pleural Control and Improve Overall Survival for Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with Pleural Dissemination (ID 3141)

      10:30 - 12:00  |  Author(s): T.M. Busch

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background
      Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with pleural spread carries a dismal prognosis of 6-9 months median survival. Standard treatment is palliative chemotherapy. Surgery typically has no role, with studies showing no overall survival (OS) benefit and high rates of local recurrence of up to 90% due to microscopic residual disease following resection. This study investigated the use of surgery with the intent of achieving a gross total resection and intraoperative photodynamic therapy (PDT) to target microscopic residual disease for patients with NSCLC with pleural metastasis to improve local control and OS.

      Methods
      All patients with NSCLC with pleural metastasis treated with definitive surgery and PDT (porfimer sodium, 24hr drug-light interval, 630nm, 30-60J/cm[2]) from 1997-2012 on either of two IRB-approved prospective clinical trials were assessed. Progression-free survival (PFS) and OS were defined as the time from surgery to recurrence and death, respectively, or to last contact. Pleural control was defined as absence of ipsilateral pleural disease after surgery, whereas locoregional control was defined as absence of lung parenchymal or intrathoracic nodal disease.

      Results
      34 consecutive patients were assessed, all with ECOG performance status 0-1. The cohort was 50% male, predominantly Caucasian (85%), and a median of 55yrs at the time of surgery (range, 35-73yrs). Most had adenocarcinoma (79%), clinical N2 nodal metastasis (64%), and received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (94%) and/or radiotherapy (12%). Over half (56%) underwent pneumonectomy, whereas 38% received a lesser anatomic resection. Two patients were found intraoperatively to have unresectable disease due to pericardial effusion (n=1) or trans-diaphragmatic extension (n=1). Pathologic staging was pT4N0 (24%) or pT4N2 (76%). Four patients (3/19 pneumonectomy, 1/13 lung-sparing) suffered peri-operative mortality (day 11-98), with one death attributable to PDT (ARDS, day 11). Following surgery/PDT, 59% of patients received mediastinal radiotherapy (median 50.4Gy/1.8Gy) and 50% received chemotherapy. Pleural recurrence rates and OS were similar for patients undergoing pneumonectomy or other procedures (p>0.05 for both). Cohort median OS was 21.4 months (0.4-161.1 months), and survival rates were 59% at 1yr and 41% at 2yrs. Median overall PFS was 7.5 months, with numerous patients achieving durable disease-free intervals (mean PFS 18.4 months). Median pleural PFS was 13.6 months, with pleural recurrences occurring in only 32%. Overall, 79% experienced recurrence or unresectable disease progression, and distant failure was most commonly observed (53%).

      Conclusion
      This study demonstrates that surgery and intraoperative PDT can achieve durable local control and prolonged survival for NSCLC patients with pleural dissemination. Compared with current standard treatment, which offers a median survival of 6-9 months from pleural metastasis diagnosis, our cohort lived a median of 24.7 months from pleural diagnosis and 21.4 months from surgery/PDT. This study also demonstrates that surgery/PDT can be performed with acceptable morbidity. Distant recurrence was the most common failure, indicating need for improved adjuvant systemic therapy. These results are sufficiently encouraging to warrant further study and suggest that stage IVA NSCLC patients with pleural dissemination, good performance statuses, disease limited to one hemithorax, and of the mind to be aggressive about their disease could be considered for this investigational treatment approach.

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