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A. Gupta

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    Best of Posters - IASLC Selection - Part 1 (ID 262)

    • Event: WCLC 2013
    • Type: Exhibit Showcase Session
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
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      P2.11-035 - Association of tumor PD-L1 expression and immune biomarkers with clinical activity in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with nivolumab (Anti-PD-1; BMS-936558; ONO-4538) (ID 2372)

      09:55 - 10:25  |  Author(s): A. Gupta

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      The immune checkpoint receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) negatively regulates T-cell activation upon interaction with its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. In a Phase 1 dose-escalation/cohort expansion study (CA209-003; NCT00730639), nivolumab, a fully human PD-1 receptor blocking antibody, delivered durable responses in patients with solid tumors, including advanced NSCLC. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of tumor samples from this study suggested an association between pre-treatment tumor PD-L1 expression and clinical response to nivolumab in patients with melanoma (Grosso JF J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(suppl):abs 3016; Topalian SL NEJM 2012;366:2443-54). Here we investigate the association between PD-L1 expression by IHC and response to nivolumab in patients with NSCLC, and patient response with pre-/post-dose absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) and selected lymphocyte cell subsets.

      129 patients with NSCLC from the CA209-003 trial received nivolumab between 2008 and 2012 (1–10 mg/kg IV every 2 weeks) during dose escalation and/or cohort expansion. Archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pre-treatment tumor tissue and pre-treatment and on-treatment peripheral whole blood samples were analyzed to explore potential pharmacodynamic/predictive biomarkers associated with nivolumab therapy. Pre-treatment tumor PD-L1 expression was evaluated by IHC using an automated assay developed by Dako based on a sensitive and specific anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody (28-8). Tumors were defined as PD-L1 positive (PD-L1+) when ≥5% of the tumor cells had membrane staining at any intensity. Lymphocyte subsets in the periphery were measured using flow cytometry.

      Tumor membrane PD-L1 expression was measured in 63 patients with NSCLC (29 squamous; 34 non-squamous). 31/63 (49%) NSCLC biopsies were PD-L1+. There was no apparent association between PD-L1 protein expression and NSCLC histology: for squamous and non-squamous tumors, 52% (15/29) and 47% (16/34) were PD-L1+, respective. Objective response rates for PD-L1+ and PD-L1- NSCLC patients with non-squamous and squamous histology are shown in the Table. Objective responses were observed in patients with squamous and non-squamous NSCLC who were negative for PD-L1 expression. Since increases in on-treatment ALC and activated T-cell phenotypes have been shown to positively associate with favorable clinical outcomes in ipilimumab monotherapy (Ku GY Cancer 2010;116:1767-75; Carthon BC Clin Cancer Res 2010;16:2861-71), results from an analysis correlating patient response with pre-/post-dose ALC and T-cell populations in patients with NSCLC receiving nivolumab will be presented.

      Table. Patient response according to PD-L1 expression status in patients with NSCLC
      Tumor type PD-L1 expression status Objective response rate, n/N (%)
      NSCLC (all patients) + 5/31 (16.1)
      4/32 (12.5)
      NSCLC (squamous) + 2/15 (13.3)
      3/14 (21.4)
      NSCLC (non-squamous) + 3/16 (18.8)
      1/18 (5.6)

      Further evaluation of PD-L1 as a molecular marker of nivolumab therapy is required. Association of PD-L1 protein expression with clinical outcome is currently being prospectively assessed in ongoing Phase 3 trials. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT00730639

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    P2.11 - Poster Session 2 - NSCLC Novel Therapies (ID 209)

    • Event: WCLC 2013
    • Type: Poster Session
    • Track: Medical Oncology
    • Presentations: 1
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      P2.11-038 - Efficacy of nivolumab (anti-PD-1; BMS-936558; ONO-4538) in patients with previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): subpopulation response analysis in a phase 1 trial (ID 2751)

      09:30 - 16:30  |  Author(s): A. Gupta

      • Abstract

      Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths globally, and NSCLC comprises 85% of lung cancers. Patients with advanced (stage IIIB or IV) NSCLC have a poor prognosis. Current second-line chemotherapeutics demonstrate a median overall survival (OS) of 8 months and 1-year survival of 30%. Factors that may influence clinical activity include age, ECOG performance status (PS), number of prior therapies, and EGFR- and KRAS-mutation status. The immune checkpoint receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) negatively regulates T-cell activation upon interaction with its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2. Nivolumab, a fully human IgG4, PD-1 receptor blocking monoclonal antibody, was evaluated in a phase 1 study (CA209-003; NCT00730639) in patients with various tumors, including previously treated advanced NSCLC. In this study, treatment with nivolumab demonstrated durable objective responses and prolonged stable disease in a portion of patients from this NSCLC cohort (Topalian S, et al. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:2443-54). We present the updated findings from assessment of clinical activity to nivolumab in subpopulations of the NSCLC cohort from this study.

      Patients received nivolumab (1–10 mg/kg IV Q2W) for ≤12 cycles (4 doses/8W cycle) or until discontinuation criteria were met. An analysis of clinical activity by select patient characteristics was performed from the NSCLC cohort of this trial.

      129 patients with NSCLC (non-squamous [n=74], squamous [n=54], unknown histology [n=1]) received nivolumab at 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg as of March 2013 (Table). Association of clinical activity with baseline characteristics will be assessed for the following subgroups: age ≥70 and <70 years, gender, ECOG PS 0 and ≥1, number of prior therapies 1–2 and ≥3, prior tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy, EGFR-mutation status, and KRAS-mutation status.

      Baseline characteristic[a] NSCLC patient population (n=129)
      Median age (range), y 65 (38–85)
      Gender, n (%)
      Male 79 (61)
      Female 50 (39)
      ECOG PS, n (%)
      0 27 (21)
      1 100 (78)
      2 2 (2)
      Number of prior therapies, n (%)
      1 25 (19)
      2 34 (26)
      3 27 (21)
      ≥4 43 (33)
      Prior therapy, n (%)
      Platinum-based chemotherapy 128 (99)
      TKI 36 (28)
      [a]Data on EGFR- and KRAS-mutation status are pending.

      Nivolumab demonstrated encouraging clinical activity in patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC. Clinical activity by patient subgroups may provide insights into the influence of patient and tumor characteristics on response to nivolumab. An update of the data regarding clinical activity of nivolumab therapy in these subgroups of the NSCLC cohort will be presented.