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O06 - Cancer Control and Epidemiology I (ID 135)
- Event: WCLC 2013
- Type: Oral Abstract Session
- Track: Prevention & Epidemiology
- Presentations: 1
O06.06 - Factors Associated with Smoking Cessation in Participants of The Pan Canadian Early Lung Cancer Study (ID 1469)
10:30 - 12:00 | Author(s): S. Su
Lung cancer screening programs provide unique opportunities to facilitate smoking cessation in smokers who participate in these programs. However, the effects of screening on motivation to quit might be mediated or modified by other variables. Identifying the participants more likely to quit will allow rapid application of smoking cessation resources to these participants, while those least likely to quit can be afforded experimental interventions. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of lung cancer screening on smoking cessation in current smokers at the time of enrollment and to identify factors that were associated with quitting smoking in this screening population.
Using data collected from the Pan-Canadian Study of Early Detection of Lung Cancer, both univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of smoking cessation among current smokers at enrolment. Smoking cessation was defined as quitting for at least a 6 month period, occurring anytime after enrolment.
We analyzed baseline and follow-up questionnaires of 2320 participants, of which 1419 were current smokers. Of these 1419 patients, 392 (27.8%) met the definition of smoking cessation during a median of two annual follow-up visits. In both univariate and multivariable (MV) analysis, greater smoking cessation was associated with four factors: (i) having a diagnosis of lung cancer at any time during the screening process, with a MV Odds ratio (OR) of quitting of 2.4 (95%CI: 1.1-5.0); (ii) lower and medium nicotine addiction as assessed by the Fagerström Nicotine Dependence Scale Score, with MV-ORs of 3.2 (95%CI: 2.2-4.6) and 1.4 (95%CI: 0.9-2.0), respectively; (iii) having higher education, with MV-OR: 1.4 (95%CI: 1.1-1.9); and (iv) having an earlier age of onset of regular alcohol intake, with MV-OR of 1.11 (95%CI: 1.02-1.21) per 5 year decrease in age. Smoking cessation was also associated with (i) previous attempts of quitting [UV-OR 1.8 (95%CI: 1.2-2.7)], willingness to quit smoking within the next month (at baseline screening) [UV-OR 2.2 (95%CI: 1.8-2.9)] or within the next 6 months after baseline screening [UV-OR 1.8 (95%CI: 1.3.-2.4)]. Second-hand smoking exposure, including exposure as a child, or as an adult at work, at home, privately with friends, or in public settings, or a cumulative index of these different exposures, was not associated with smoking cessation. Presence of potential index symptoms for lung disease, including shortness of breath, cough (both dry and productive), hoarseness, audible wheezing or even chest pain, was not associated with an increased chance of smoking cessation.
The diagnosis of a new lung cancer had a major positive impact on screening participants quitting smoking, as were factors such as lower nicotine dependence, higher education, earlier starting alcohol drinking age, and willingness to quit. Whether a new lung cancer diagnosis triggered additional efforts by clinicians to help the person quit will be explored further. Individual lung symptoms and secondhand smoke exposure were not associated with smoking cessation. (Geoffrey Liu and Martin Tamemmagi are co-senior authors)