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D..R. Camidge



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    MO07 - NSCLC - Targeted Therapies II (ID 114)

    • Event: WCLC 2013
    • Type: Mini Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Medical Oncology
    • Presentations: 3
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      MO07.02 - Clinical experience with crizotinib in patients with advanced <em>ALK</em>-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer and brain metastases in PROFILE 1005 and PROFILE 1007 (ID 2932)

      16:15 - 17:45  |  Author(s): D..R. Camidge

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background
      Crizotinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting ALK and is approved multinationally for the treatment of advanced ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) due to its efficacy in controlling systemic tumor burden. The clinical effects of crizotinib in patients with brain metastases have not been previously studied in detail. To evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with brain metastases on crizotinib, we conducted a retrospective analysis of pooled data from PROFILE 1005 (NCT00932451; a large ongoing global open-label, single-arm phase II study of crizotinib in patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC who have received one or more treatment regimen for advanced/metastatic disease) and PROFILE 1007 (NCT00932893; an ongoing global randomized phase III study that compared crizotinib with standard second-line chemotherapy [docetaxel or pemetrexed] for advanced ALK-rearranged NSCLC; Shaw et al, N Engl J Med 2013). Subgroup analysis in PROFILE1007 showed that progression-free survival was longer with crizotinib than with chemotherapy for both patients with brain metastases (HR 0.67) and patients without brain metastases (HR 0.43) at baseline.

      Methods
      Patients with previously treated (but ALK-inhibitor-naïve) advanced ALK-rearranged NSCLC enrolled in either PROFILE 1005 or PROFILE 1007 (and randomized to crizotinib) were included in this analysis. Patients with asymptomatic brain metastases were eligible for both studies. The starting dose of crizotinib was 250 mg twice daily. Tumor assessments were evaluated by investigators based on RECIST. Baseline brain imaging (with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) was required in both studies, and if brain metastases were detected, subsequent brain imaging was required at 6-week intervals. Otherwise, imaging to assess brain metastases on treatment was performed as clinically indicated. Brain metastases were monitored as non-target or target lesions.

      Results
      A total of 275 patients, 31% of 888 patients included in this retrospective analysis, had asymptomatic brain metastases at baseline. Of the 888 patients included, 109 patients (12%) had no prior radiotherapy and 166 patients (19%) had prior radiotherapy for their brain metastases. Among the 109 patients with previously untreated asymptomatic brain metastases, the systemic disease control rate (DCR; % complete responses + partial responses + stable disease) at 12 weeks was 63%, with a systemic objective response rate (ORR) of 53%, and the intracranial DCR at 12 weeks was 56%, with an intracranial ORR of 7%. Among the 166 patients with previously treated brain metastases, the systemic DCR at 12 weeks was 65%, with a systemic ORR of 46%, and the intracranial DCR at 12 weeks was 62% weeks, with an intracranial ORR of 7%. Additional data, including outcomes for patients without brain metastases at baseline, will be presented.

      Conclusion
      In this large retrospective analysis, crizotinib was associated with an initial intracranial DCR of approximately 60% at 12 weeks in patients who were ALK-inhibitor-naïve and had untreated or previously treated brain metastases identified prior to initiation of therapy. Prospective studies may help to determine if crizotinib can delay the natural occurrence or progression of brain metastases in advanced ALK-positive NSCLC.

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      MO07.03 - Crizotinib therapy for patients with advanced ROS1-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (ID 2777)

      16:15 - 17:45  |  Author(s): D..R. Camidge

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background
      Rearrangements of the ROS1 receptor tyrosine kinase gene identify a subset of NSCLC sensitive to the small-molecule ALK and MET inhibitor crizotinib, approved multinationally for the treatment of advanced ALK-positive NSCLC. Here we present updated efficacy and safety data for crizotinib in an expanded cohort of patients with advanced ROS1-rearranged NSCLC.

      Methods
      ROS1 status was determined by break-apart FISH assays, and patients were enrolled into an expansion cohort of an ongoing phase I crizotinib study (PROFILE 1001; NCT00585195, Pfizer). Where available, samples were also tested for concurrent ALK rearrangement and MET amplification. Patients received crizotinib 250 mg BID, and responses were assessed using RECIST v1.0.

      Results
      At the data cut-off, 35 of 40 patients with ROS1-positive NSCLC were evaluable for response. Median age was 51 years (range 31–77), 80% of patients were never-smokers, and 98% had adenocarcinoma histology; 40% had received one prior regimen, and 45% had received 2–6 regimens for advanced/metastatic disease. 25 samples tested for concurrent ALK rearrangement (24 by FISH and 1 by PCR) and 12 samples tested for concurrent MET amplification (11 by FISH and 1 method not recorded) were all negative. The objective response rate (ORR) was 60% (95% CI: 42–76), with 2 complete responses, 19 partial responses, and 10 cases of stable disease. Median progression-free survival (PFS) had not been reached, with 25 patients (63%) still in follow-up for PFS; six patients (15%) experienced disease progression, and two (5%) died before progression occurred; 6-month PFS probability was 76% (95% CI: 55–88). The disease-control rate was 80% at 8 weeks and 66% at 16 weeks. The most common treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were visual impairment (80%), diarrhea (35%), and nausea (30%), with most patients (68%) reporting only AEs of grade 1 or 2 severity. Peripheral edema (28%) and elevated transaminases (18% AST, 15% ALT) were also reported, similar to previous experience with crizotinib. There were no treatment-related serious AEs and one patient discontinued treatment due to treatment-related nausea. Accrual of patients with ROS1-positive NSCLC is ongoing.

      Conclusion
      Similar to results obtained in ALK-positive NSCLC, crizotinib had marked antitumor activity with a high ORR (60%) in patients with ROS1-positive NSCLC, with a generally tolerable and manageable AE profile. These data suggest that crizotinib is an effective therapy for patients with advanced ROS1-positive NSCLC.

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      MO07.06 - Updated results of a first-in-human dose-finding study of the ALK/EGFR inhibitor AP26113 in patients with advanced malignancies (ID 2400)

      16:15 - 17:45  |  Author(s): D..R. Camidge

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background
      AP26113 is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that exhibits pan-ALK inhibitory activity against all 9 clinically-identified crizotinib-resistant mutants, including the L1196M gatekeeper, in preclinical experiments. AP26113 also inhibits ROS1 and selectively inhibits mutant EGFR (EGFRm) in preclinical experiments, including the T790M resistance mutation, without affecting the native receptor.

      Methods
      We report data from the dose finding component (3+3 design) of a phase 1/2 open-label, multicenter study in patients with advanced malignancies (except leukemia) refractory to available therapies or for whom no standard treatment exists. Dosing was once daily (QD) or twice daily.

      Results
      As of 17 April 2013, 55 patients were enrolled: 30mg (daily dose) n=3, 60mg n=3, 90mg n=8, 120 mg n=15, 180mg n=15, 240mg n=9, 300mg n=2; 62% female, median age 58 yrs; diagnoses: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, n=47), other (n=8). 33 patients discontinued: 22 disease progression, 6 adverse event (AE), 4 deaths (2 possibly related: sudden death, hypoxia), 1 withdrawal by subject. The most common AEs included fatigue (40%), nausea (36%), and diarrhea (33%), which were generally grade 1/2 in severity. The most common grade 3/4 AE was pneumonia (5%). Two patients experienced dose limiting toxicities: grade 3 ALT increase in 1 patient (240mg QD); grade 4 dyspnea and grade 3 hypoxia in 1 patient (300mg QD). Twenty-eight patients had ALK+ history (24 NSCLC, 4 other). Among 24 evaluable ALK+ patients, 15 responded. Responses were observed in 2/4 (50%) ALK+ TKI-naïve patients and 13/17 (76%) ALK+ patients with prior crizotinib therapy and no other ALK inhibitor exposure. Among ALK+ NSCLC patients with prior crizotinib only, 12/16 (75%) responded. The longest response is 40+ weeks (ongoing). 4 of 5 ALK+ patients with untreated or progressing CNS lesions at baseline and with follow-up scans had evidence of radiographic improvement in CNS, including 1 patient resistant to crizotinib and LDK378 (overall response = stable disease). CNS lesion improvements in all 4 patients are ongoing, with durations ranging from 15+ to 28+ weeks. Twenty patients had EGFRm history (19 NSCLC, 1 SCLC); 18 had ≥1 prior EGFR TKI. Of 18 evaluable EGFRm patients, 1 patient (prior erlotinib) responded at 120mg QD (duration 26+ weeks, ongoing), 7 patients had stable disease, including 4 with T790M by history (1 ongoing at 240mg QD, duration 16+ weeks). The maximum tolerated dose has not been defined; however, based on safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics, the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) is 180mg QD. Updated data will be presented.

      Conclusion
      AP26113 has promising anti-tumor activity in patients with ALK+ NSCLC and other ALK+ tumors, with initial evidence of activity in EGFRm patients, and is generally well tolerated. Five phase 2 cohorts are enrolling at the RP2D (180mg QD): 1) ALK inhibitor-naïve ALK+ NSCLC, 2) crizotinib-resistant ALK+ NSCLC, 3) single EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC with documented T790M, 4) other tumors with AP26113 targets, 5) crizotinib-naïve or –resistant ALK+ NSCLC with active CNS metastases. Further phase 1 testing at 240mg QD will occur in EGFRm patients with documented T790M. NCT01449461

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    MO21 - Prognostic and Predictive Biomarkers V - EGFR (ID 98)

    • Event: WCLC 2013
    • Type: Mini Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Medical Oncology
    • Presentations: 1
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      MO21.10 - Serial monitoring of plasma EGFR T790M levels and evaluation of EGFR mutational status in matched tissue and plasma from NSCLC patients treated with CO-1686 (ID 2498)

      10:30 - 12:00  |  Author(s): D..R. Camidge

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background
      Background: We explored the minimally-invasive detection of EGFR mutations in circulating free DNA from plasma and studied the concordance of EGFR mutation status between matched plasma and tumor tissue in a cohort of newly diagnosed or relapsed patients with advanced NSCLC. CO-1686 is an oral, potent, small-molecule irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor that selectively targets mutant forms of EGFR, including T790M and the common initial activating mutations, while sparing wild-type EGFR. Promising clinical activity has recently been reported from an on-going Phase I/II trial.

      Methods
      Methods: Matched tumor tissue and blood from 80 Stage IIIB/IV NSCLC patients, 41 treated with CO-1686, were tested using two allele-specific PCR assays, the cobas® EGFR FFPET and cobas® EGFR blood tests. Each test detects 41 mutations in EGFR, including the T790M resistance mutation, exon 19 deletions and L858R. We also used BEAMing, a highly quantitative and sensitive technology based on digital PCR, to assess a subset of 18 patients treated with CO-1686. BEAMing was compared to cobas analysis at baseline, and also used to serially monitor plasma EGFR mutation levels in response to CO-1686.

      Results
      Results: Using tissue as reference, the positive percent agreement between tissue and plasma was 76% (44/58) for activating mutations and 63% (17/27) for T790M. The cobas® EGFR blood test identified two patients with T790M mutations in plasma that were not detected in the corresponding tumor biopsy—likely because of tumor heterogeneity. The M1a/M1b status was known for 63 EGFR mutation-positive patients. Of the 44 with extrathoracic metastatic disease (M1b), 38 were found to have an activating mutation in plasma (86%). Conversely, only 53% (10/19) of EGFR mutation-positive patients with intrathoracic metastatic disease (M1a) had detectable activating mutations in plasma (p = 0.0081). For the 18 patients profiled by BEAMing, the overall percent agreement between BEAMing and the cobas® EGFR blood test was 94% (17/18) for T790M and 83% (15/18) for activating mutations. Nine of the 18 patients had detectable baseline plasma T790M levels, and several patients treated with CO-1686 had an initial decrease in plasma T790M by BEAMing.

      Conclusion
      Conclusions: Using the cobas® EGFR blood test, a high proportion of EGFR mutations identified in tissue were also detected in plasma. Mutations were more readily detectable in the plasma of patients with M1b rather than M1a disease. These findings suggest that the cobas® EGFR blood test and BEAMing can be useful tools for the non-invasive assessment and monitoring of EGFR mutations in NSCLC patients.

      EGFR mutation Evaluable patients Patients with tissue mutations* Patients with plasma mutations** Patients with same mutation detected in tissue and plasma Positive Percent Agreement***
      L858R, del19, S768I, G719X, or ex20ins 80 58 44 44 76%
      T790M 80 27 19 17 63%
      * identified by the cobas® EGFR tissue test
      ** identified by the cobas® EGFR blood test
      ***agreement of blood and tissue mutation-positive results with tissue as reference; although tissue is reference, some mutations may be missed due to tumor heterogeneity

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    O03 - NSCLC - Targeted Therapies I (ID 113)

    • Event: WCLC 2013
    • Type: Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Medical Oncology
    • Presentations: 1
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      O03.06 - First-In-Human Evaluation of CO-1686, an Irreversible, Highly, Selective Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor of Mutations of EGFR (Activating and T790M) (ID 1354)

      10:30 - 12:00  |  Author(s): D..R. Camidge

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background
      Efficacy of existing EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in NSCLC is limited by emergence of the T790M mutation in approximately 60% of patients, and significant skin rash and diarrhea, caused by wild-type (WT)-EGFR inhibition. CO-1686 is an oral, covalent TKI that targets common activating EGFR mutations and T790M, while sparing WT-EGFR. Animal models suggest greatest efficacy when plasma concentrations exceed 200ng/ml for >16hrs/day.

      Methods
      This is an ongoing first-in-human dose finding study (3+3) of oral CO-1686 administered continuously in 21-day cycles. To be eligible, patients must have EGFR-mutant NSCLC and prior therapy with an EGFR TKI. All patients must undergo tumor tissue biopsy within 28 days before study drug dosing for central EGFR genotyping. Endpoints include safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and efficacy.

      Results
      As of 12 June 2013, 45 patients have been treated with CO-1686. 31/42 (74%) were T790M+; data for three patients is pending. The median age is 58 years, 82% are female, 75% are white, and 73% ECOG 1. The median number of previous therapies was 4 (range: 1- 6), with a median of 1 (range: 1- 4) previous EGFR TKI therapies. Dosing started at 150mg QD and escalated to 900mg QD, 900mg BID and 400mg TID, with a maximum tolerated dose not yet reached. Treatment-related AEs (all grades) occurring in > 5% patients were: fatigue (19%), diarrhea (15%), nausea (14%), anemia (10%), arthralgia (7%), muscle spasms (10%), myalgia (7%), headache (7%). The majority of events were mild or moderate. Unlike other EGFR inhibitors, rash and diarrhea were not commonly seen. This AE profile is consistent with the expected lack of wild type EGFR inhibition with CO-1686. The PFS for T790M+ patients with CO-1686 plasma concentrations > 200ng/mL for > 16 hours was 194 days compared with 72.5 days for those that achieved these concentrations for < 16 hours (Figure 1). At the highest evaluated dose, 900mg BID, four T790M+ patients were evaluable for response; 3 of the 4 achieved PRs, one achieved SD. One patient at a lower dose cohort also achieved a PR. Further safety and efficacy data will be presented at the meeting. Figure 1

      Conclusion
      CO-1686 has demonstrated good tolerability and efficacy against proven T790M+ EGFR mutant NSCLC with a strong suggestion of a dose-response relationship. Additional evaluation of the optimal dose and formulation of CO-1686 are underway to further explore its potential for improved activity and better tolerability over other existing EGFR TKIs.

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    O16 - NSCLC - Targeted Therapies III (ID 115)

    • Event: WCLC 2013
    • Type: Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Medical Oncology
    • Presentations: 1
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      O16.08 - DISCUSSANT (ID 3956)

      10:30 - 12:00  |  Author(s): D..R. Camidge

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Abstract not provided

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    P2.11 - Poster Session 2 - NSCLC Novel Therapies (ID 209)

    • Event: WCLC 2013
    • Type: Poster Session
    • Track: Medical Oncology
    • Presentations: 1
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      P2.11-011 - A Phase Ib study of high-dose intermittent (HDI) afatinib in EGFR T790M mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer patients with acquired resistance to reversible EGFR TKIs (ID 1127)

      09:30 - 16:30  |  Author(s): D..R. Camidge

      • Abstract

      Background
      Afatinib, an irreversible ErbB Family Blocker, displayed nanomolar inhibitory activity in proliferation assays using lung adenocarcinoma cell lines expressing mutant EGFR[L858R/T790M] (NCI-H1975 EC~50~ 92 nM).[1] In NSCLC patients with prior erlotinib/gefitinib failure and one/two previous lines of chemotherapy, 50mg afatinib once daily produced confirmed objective responses in 7% of patients and a median PFS of 3.3 months.[2] Preclinical models suggested that administering afatinib using a high-dose intermittent (HDI) schedule, leading to higher maximal plasma concentrations, may provide an alternative means to block T790M-harbouring cells effectively. It may also potentially reduce wild-type EGFR-mediated adverse events noted with continuous dosing of EGFR TKIs. In this ongoing open-label study, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety and pharmacokinetics (PKs) of HDI afatinib are being assessed in Part A in patients with advanced solid tumours. The MTD of HDI afatinib will be evaluated in Part B in patients with T790M-mutated advanced NSCLC following prior EGFR TKI therapy. Preliminary results from Part A are presented.

      Methods
      In Part A, patients with metastatic/unresectable solid tumours and adequate organ function were administered 90–200mg afatinib on Days 1–3 every 14 days in each 28-day cycle using a 3+3 dose-escalation design. Doses are escalated until MTD (primary endpoint), defined as the dose at which less than two of up to six patients develop dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) in Cycle 1. PK sampling was conducted on Days 1–3, 8, 15–17, 29, 43 and 57, with C~max~ of afatinib on Day 3 of Cycle 1 being the secondary endpoint. In Part B, the MTD cohort will be expanded to specifically include EGFR TKI-pretreated advanced NSCLC patients with T790M mutations. Exploration of baseline and on-therapy plasma levels of detectable T790M is planned.

      Results
      To date, 16 patients have been recruited in Part A (90mg n=6; 120mg n=3; 150mg n=4; 200mg n=3; male/female n=8/8; median age 65 years; never smokers/ex-smokers n=10/6; primary tumour site lung n=9; known T790M mutation n=7). The most common drug-related adverse events (DRAEs) were diarrhoea, rash, dermatitis acneiform and nausea. DRAEs of Grade ≥3 were seen in one patient at 90mg (Grade 3 worsening cellulitis [Cycle 1; DLT] and urosepsis [Cycle 2]) and one patient at 150mg (Grade 3 dehydration, hypokalaemia, hypophosphataemia, diarrhoea [Cycle 2]). Preliminary response data on evaluable T790M-mutated NSCLC patients will be presented as available. Preliminary PK analyses suggest 150mg afatinib once daily for 3 days is sufficient to achieve total plasma C~max~ concentrations at or above the predicted IC~50~ value for T790M. Afatinib trough plasma concentrations will also be presented.

      Conclusion
      HDI afatinib elicited a manageable safety profile up to 200mg on Days 1–3 every 14 days. Total plasma C~max~ concentrations at or above the predicted efficacious threshold for T790M inhibition were already achieved in the 150mg cohort. Treatment in the 200mg cohort is ongoing. Additional cohorts may be included to explore shorter drug-free dosing periods. 1. Solca F, et al. JPET 2012;343:342–50. 2. Miller V, et al. Lancet Oncol 2012;13:528–38.

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    PL03 - Presidential Symposium Including Top Rated Abstracts (ID 85)

    • Event: WCLC 2013
    • Type: Plenary Session
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
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      PL03.07 - Treatment with Therapies Matched to Oncogenic Drivers Improves Survival in Patients with Lung Cancers: Results from The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium (LCMC) (ID 2444)

      08:15 - 09:45  |  Author(s): D..R. Camidge

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background
      Detecting and targeting the oncogenic drivers EGFR and ALK have transformed the care of patients with lung adenocarcinomas. The LCMC was established to use multiplexed assays to test tumors for alterations in 10 genes and provide the results to clinicians to select treatments and clinical trials matched to the driver detected.

      Methods
      Fourteen LCMC sites enrolled patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinomas and tested their tumors in CLIA laboratories for activating mutations in 10 oncogenic driver genes.

      Results
      Tumors were tested from 1,007 patients for at least one gene and 733 for all 10 genes. An oncogenic driver was found in 466 (64%) of fully-genotyped cases. Among these 733 tumors, drivers found were: KRAS 182 (25%), sensitizing EGFR 122 (17%), ALK rearrangements 57 (8%), “other” EGFR 29 (4%), two genes 24 (3%), HER2 19 (3%), BRAF 16 (2%), PIK3CA 6 (1%), MET amplification 5 (1%), NRAS 5 (1%), MEK1 1 (<1%), AKT1 0. For cases with any genotyping, we used results to select a targeted therapy or trial in 275 (28%). Among 938 patients with follow-up, the median survivals were 3.5 years for the 264 with an oncogenic driver treated with genotype-directed therapy, 2.4 years for the 318 with an oncogenic driver with no genotype-directed therapy, and 2.1 years for the 360 with no driver identified (p<0.0001).

      Conclusion
      Individuals with lung cancers with oncogenic drivers receiving a corresponding targeted agent lived longer than similar patients who did not. An actionable driver was detected in 64% of tumors from patients with lung adenocarcinomas; more than one was present in 3%. Multiplexed testing aided physicians in choosing therapies and targeted trials in 28% of patients. This paradigm for care and research will expand as genotyping becomes more efficient with Next-Gen platforms, additional drivers are identified (i.e.ROS1 and RET), and more targeted drugs become available in the pharmacy and through clinical trials. Supported by HSS NIH NCI 1RC2CA148394-01. Trial Registered with Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01014286.

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