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A. Schröder



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    O02 - NSCLC - Combined Modality Therapy I (ID 111)

    • Event: WCLC 2013
    • Type: Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Combined Modality
    • Presentations: 2
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      O02.01 - Geographic differences in the combined-modality treatment of stage III unresectable non-small cell lung cancer: Results from a global phase III trial of tecemotide (L-BLP25) (ID 2712)

      10:30 - 12:00  |  Author(s): A. Schröder

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background
      Chemo-radiotherapy (chemo/RT) is the standard of care for patients with unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but little is known about differences in clinical practice between regions of the world. The START trial is a global phase III trial of the MUC1-specific cancer immunotherapy tecemotide (L-BLP25), for which key efficacy and safety results have been reported previously. Here we report regional differences in diagnostic procedures and treatment of stage III NSCLC prior to enrolment in START.

      Methods
      The START trial recruited patients (performance status 0/1) with unresectable stage III NSCLC who had not progressed within 28–84 days of completing ≥2 cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy with concurrent or sequential radiotherapy (≥50 Gy). Baseline characteristics, diagnostic procedures and the initial chemo/RT administered of those recruited were compared between centers in different regions.

      Results
      From Jan 2007 to Nov 2011, 1513 patients were recruited at >250 centers in 33 countries: Western Europe 40.3%, Eastern Europe 26.0%, North America 21.8%, Latin America 5.7%, Asia 3.4%, Australia 2.8%. The majority of patients (92.1%) were Caucasian and median age was 61 years. Overall, 6.3% of patients were never-smokers with little inter-regional variation except for Asia (31.4%). The proportion of current smokers upon entry into the trial was highest in Eastern Europe (36.3%) and lowest in Australia (11.6%). Median tobacco consumption by region ranged from 36.2 (Eastern Europe) to 53.6 (Latin America) pack-years. The proportion of patients considered for the START trial who received concurrent rather than sequential chemo/RT varied widely between regions and was highest in North America and Australia, lower in Western Europe, Latin America and Asia, and lowest in Eastern Europe. There were also substantial variations in the diagnostic procedures between the regions, although pathological confirmation of N-status was infrequent in all regions. Detailed results by region for the time from diagnosis to randomization, duration of chemo- and radiotherapy, and chemotherapy agents used will be presented.

      Proportion of patients (%) with:
      Use of concurrent chemo/RT N-status determined with PET or PET/CT N-status determined with mediastinoscopy
      Australia (n=43) 100 74.4 2.3
      North America (n=330) 92.7 37.9 18.5
      Asia (n=51) 66.7 21.5 2.0
      Latin America (n=86) 65.1 7.0 5.8
      Western Europe (n=609) 67.2 32.2 6.9
      Eastern Europe (n=394) 28.9 7.3 3.6

      Conclusion
      Baseline data from the START trial suggest substantial variations in the management of unresectable stage III NSCLC between different regions of the world. While recruited patients from North American and Australian centers mostly received concurrent chemo/RT in accordance with current recommendations, a substantial proportion of patients in Europe, Latin America and Asia received sequential chemo/RT. More frequent use of concurrent chemo/RT as the recommended standard of care should be made across geographic regions.

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      O02.02 - Tecemotide (L-BLP25) in unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer in the phase III START study: Further endpoint and exploratory biomarker results (ID 2779)

      10:30 - 12:00  |  Author(s): A. Schröder

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background
      The phase III START study evaluated the mucin 1 (MUC1) antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy tecemotide (L-BLP25) vs. placebo in patients with stage III unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who did not progress following initial chemo-radiotherapy (chemo/RT). The primary objective of overall survival (OS) prolongation was not met, however, pre-defined subgroup analyses revealed a clinically meaningful prolongation of survival with tecemotide in patients previously treated with concurrent chemo/RT (p=0.016). Sensitivity analyses suggested the observed treatment effect may have been under-estimated due to a clinical hold, which resulted in a median suspension of recruitment and investigational treatment of about 4.4 months. Tecemotide was well tolerated and no safety concerns were identified.

      Methods
      From January 2007 to November 2011, 1513 patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC and stable disease or objective response following initial chemo/RT were randomized (2:1, double-blind) to subcutaneous tecemotide (806 µg lipopeptide) or placebo, weekly for 8 weeks and then 6-weekly until disease progression or withdrawal. A single dose of cyclophosphamide (300 mg/m2) or saline was given 3 days prior to first tecemotide/placebo dose. Primary endpoint, OS, and secondary endpoints progression-free-survival (PFS) and time-to-treatment-failure (TTF) used a Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusting for randomization strata. While RECIST 1.0 had to be observed for determination of disease progression, there was no formal imaging schedule to determine disease progression; this was done according to institutional practice. Exploratory analyses were done for treatment interaction for HLA-A02, -DRB4 and -B08. Baseline peripheral blood anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), serum MUC1 (sMUC1), lymphocyte count and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR) currently are being explored.

      Results
      The primary analysis population (N=1239) was defined prospectively to account for the clinical hold and prospectively excluded 274 patients randomized within 6 months prior to onset of the hold. Median PFS was 9.6 months with tecemotide vs. 7.7 months with placebo (HR 0.865, 95%CI 0.755–0.990, p=0.036). In keeping with OS data, tecemotide treatment effects on PFS were more pronounced in patients treated with concurrent chemo/RT (N=806; HR 0.826, 95%CI 0.696–0.980, p=0.029) vs. sequential chemo/RT (N=433; HR 0.947, 95%CI 0.756–1.187, p=0.638). Median TTF was 8.9 months with tecemotide vs. 7.2 months with placebo (HR 0.887, 95%CI 0.777–1.012, p=0.075). A prolongation of TTF with tecemotide was seen in patients with prior concurrent chemo/RT (HR 0.844, 95%CI 0.715–0.996, p=0.045), which was absent in the subgroup with prior sequential chemo/RT (HR 0.977, 95%CI 0.784–1.217, p=0.835). Detailed biomarker results will be presented.

      Conclusion
      While the primary endpoint of prolongation of OS was not met, secondary endpoints PFS and TTF support the previously-reported finding of a more favorable effect of tecemotide in patients treated with concurrent but not sequential chemo/RT. Any potential further clinical investigation of tecemotide in locally advanced NSCLC should focus on patients following concurrent chemo/RT therapy.

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    P3.06 - Poster Session 3 - Prognostic and Predictive Biomarkers (ID 178)

    • Event: WCLC 2013
    • Type: Poster Session
    • Track: Biology
    • Presentations: 1
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      P3.06-039 - Expression of Mucin 1 in non-small cell lung cancer: Relationship between immunohistochemistry, tumour characteristics and survival (ID 2765)

      09:30 - 16:30  |  Author(s): A. Schröder

      • Abstract

      Background
      Mucin 1 (MUC1), a glycoprotein highly expressed in many malignancies, is being explored as an antigen for immunotherapy. How best to measure MUC1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its prognostic value in NSCLC are under discussion.

      Methods
      Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed using triplicate 1mm cores of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour and stained with 214D4 (recognizes protein core) and MA695 (recognizes carbohydrate epitope) anti-MUC1 antibodies. TMAs were assessed for polarization, cytoplasmic and membranous staining intensity (scored 0–3) and proportion cells positive (0–100%; scored 0–5), averaged for multiple cores. A composite score (intensity x cells positive) was derived (range 0–15).

      Results
      TMAs from 518 patients were analyzed: 69% male, 95% Caucasian, 7% never-smoking; 49% adenocarcinoma, 35% squamous cell, 7% large cell; 43% stage I NSCLC, 33% stage II, 23% stage III. Immunohistochemistry staining intensity, proportion positive cells and depolarization were very similar between antibodies, with high concordance in composite score (R2=0.71, p<0.0001). Polarization was discordant in 8%. Similar scores were seen for N0, N1 and N2 when assessed by either antibody. For 77 cases with paired primary/N2 nodal tissue, mean 214D4 composite scores were 10.7 and 10.1 and MA695 scores 9.5 and 9.4, respectively. Discordant staining in primary but not node was seen in 5.2% and 10.4% with 214D4 and MA695, respectively. For 27 cases with neoadjuvant chemotherapy vs no chemotherapy, mean 214D4 scores were 10.2 vs 10.1 and MA695 9.3 vs 9.6, respectively. Higher scores with each antibody trended toward improved survival (non-significant). Polarization was associated with improved survival (whole cohort) with 214D4 (80.6 vs 47.8 months; HR 1.37 [95%CI 1.078–1.742], p=0.01 log rank test) and MA695 (95.8 vs 45.7 months; HR 1.48 [95%CI 1.159–1.878], p=0.002). Polarization with 214D4 was strongly associated with improved survival for adenocarcinoma (HR 1.92 [95%CI 1.385–2.668], p<0.0001) but not for non-adenocarcinoma. Similarly, polarization with MA695 conferred a survival advantage in adenocarcinoma (HR 1.68 [95%CI 1.225–2.311], p=0.001) but not non-adenocarcinoma cases. Data on MUC1 immunohistochemistry and circulating soluble MUC1 will be presented.

      214D4 MA695
      No staining 3.5% 6.2%
      Mean intensity
      - Cytoplasmic 1.8 1.7
      - Membranous 2.1 2.2
      Mean cells positive 3.9 3.6
      Mean composite score 10.1 9.6
      - Adenocarcinoma 13.1 12.0
      - Squamous cell 7.1 7.0
      - Large cell 7.2 7.7
      Depolarization 66.7% 62.4%

      Conclusion
      Over 93% were MUC1 immunohistochemistry positive, with higher scores in adenocarcinoma. Composite scores for the two antibodies were highly correlated and depolarization largely concordant. MUC1 expression was generally maintained in paired primary/nodal tumour and was similar across nodal stages and following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Polarization was associated with improved survival in adenocarcinoma. Further investigation is needed to determine which antibodies best predict outcomes.