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M. Ando



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    O03 - NSCLC - Targeted Therapies I (ID 113)

    • Event: WCLC 2013
    • Type: Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Medical Oncology
    • Presentations: 1
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      O03.07 - Investigation of risk factors for developing interstitial lung disease (ILD) and poor prognostic factors for ILD death in Japanese patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a final analysis of a large-scale erlotinib surveillance study (POLARSTAR) (ID 2208)

      10:30 - 12:00  |  Author(s): M. Ando

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background
      A large-scale surveillance study (POLARSTAR) was implemented to investigate erlotinib safety and efficacy in Japanese patients, focusing on the pattern of occurrence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and specific factors that may contribute to the onset of ILD in patients receiving erlotinib. The following risk factors for erlotinib-induced ILD have been previously reported: concurrent/previous ILD (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] =3.2), existing emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (HR=1.9) or lung infection (HR=1.6), smoking status (HR=2.2) and ECOG performance status 2–4 (HR=1.4). These were identified as the primary risk factors for ILD by multivariate analysis. The current analysis was carried out to identify factors linked with poor prognosis in terms of ILD-related death within the POLARSTAR surveillance study.

      Methods
      Enrolment of all patients in Japan receiving erlotinib for NSCLC took place between December 2007 and October 2009; the observation period was 12 months. All ILD-like events were assessed by an independent ILD review committee. ILD was defined as all ILD-like events excluding those events deemed non-ILD by the independent ILD review committee. Risk factors for poor prognosis concerning ILD death were analyzed by multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model.

      Results
      A total of 10,708 patients were enrolled by the data cut-off of 12 October 2009, with data available for 9,909 patients. The majority of ILD cases were reported within 4 weeks of receiving erlotinib. Among the 491 patients who experienced ‘ILD-like’ events, 93 could not be evaluated by the independent ILD review committee due to lack of imaging data; the remaining 398 patients were referred to the committee for evaluation. A total of 310 patients had confirmed ILD by the ILD review committee, based on image evaluation or clinical investigation; 125 had died as a result of ILD. These patients were assessed by multivariate analysis. Sixty-two events were deemed non-ILD and 26 events could not be evaluated due to a lack of clear clinical evidence (e.g. ILD could not be distinguished from progression or pneumonitis, or insufficient imaging data were available). The multivariate analysis identified ECOG performance status 2–4 (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =2.45 [95% CI 1.41–4.27]; p=0.0016), <50% remaining normal lung area (OR=3.12 [1.48–6.58]; p=0.0029) and interstitial pneumonia with concomitant honeycomb lung (OR=6.67 [1.35–32.94]; p=0.02) as poor prognostic factors for ILD death. However, pre-existing interstitial pneumonia by grade of severity was not identified as one of these factors. This result could be attributed to practical bias in this surveillance study, such as selection or treatment bias for patients with pre-existing interstitial pneumonia within the condition of careful dosage specified in the erlotinib label.

      Conclusion
      These final data from this large surveillance study in Japanese patients with recurrent and advanced NSCLC provide further information on the risk factors for poor prognosis with ILD, identifying those patients at greatest risk of ILD-related death. Improved awareness of these prognostic factors will help clinicians in monitoring those patients at highest risk.

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    O18 - Cancer Control and Epidemiology II (ID 133)

    • Event: WCLC 2013
    • Type: Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Prevention & Epidemiology
    • Presentations: 1
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      O18.02 - Impacts of environmental tobacco smoke on EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangements in never smokers with non-small cell lung cancer: Analyses on a prospective multinational ETS registry (ID 1255)

      10:30 - 12:00  |  Author(s): M. Ando

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background
      EGFR and ALK are important driver mutations in never smokers. While we reported the significant association of increased environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) with EGFR mutations in Japanese cohort (Kawaguchi, Clin Cancer Res, 2011), it has not been fully understood in other ethnicities and also the correlation of ETS with ALK has not been reported yet. In this study, we evaluated the association of ETS with the prevalence of EGFR mutations and ALK translocations in various ethnicities including East-Asia (Japan, Korea, China, and Singapore) and the USA.

      Methods
      ETS exposure on never smokers with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was evaluated using the standardized questionnaire including exposure period, place, and duration. Cumulative dose of ETS (CETS) was defined as a sum of the number of the exposure years in childhood/ adulthood and at home/ workplace, and was treated as a continuous variable or quintile. EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangements were tested by PCR-based detection and fluorescence in situ hybridization, respectively. Multivariate analyses were done using the generalized linear mixed model (GLIMMIX procedure, SAS v9.3).

      Results
      From March 2008 to December 2012, 498 never smokers with NSCLC were registered with the following patient characteristics: ethnicity (nationality) of Asian/ Caucasian/ others, 425 (Japanese 250, Korean 102, Chinese 46, others 2)/ 48/ 25; male/ female, 114/ 384; age <65/ >=65, 286/ 212; histology of adenocarcinoma/ BAC/ squamous cell carcinoma/ adenosquamous cell carcinoma/ other NSCLC, 459/ 12/ 13/ 5/ 9; frequency (%) of CETS < median CETS (40 years) in Japanese/ Korean/ Chinese/ Caucasian, 32.8/ 44.1/ 71.7/ 83.3. EGFR status was wild type 43.6%, exon 19 deletion 25.3%, L858R 21.5% and other mutations 9.6%. ALK status was wild type 52.0%, rearranged 10.6% and unknown 37.3%. Average CETS (years) of NS with EGFR (+), ALK (+) and wild type tumors were 45.4, 26.9 and 37.7, respectively. In multivariate generalized linear mixed model, incidence of activating EGFR mutations, not ALK rearrangements, was significantly associated with the increment of CETS in female, not in male gender. Odds ratios (OR) for EGFR mutations in female (n=384) were 1.084 (95% CI, 1.003-1.171; p=0.0422) for each increment of 10 years in CETS while OR in male (n=114) were not significant (OR 0.890; 95% CI, 0.725-1.093; p=0.2627). OR for ALK rearrangements in female (n=238) and those in male gender (n=74) were 0.930 (0.791-1.094; p=0.3814) and 0.854 (0.620-1.178; p=0.3319).

      Conclusion
      Increased ETS exposure was closely associated with EGFR mutations in never smokers with female gender and NSCLC in the expanded multinational cohort. However, the association of ETS and ALK rearrangements in never smokers with NSCLC was not significant.

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    P1.10 - Poster Session 1 - Chemotherapy (ID 204)

    • Event: WCLC 2013
    • Type: Poster Session
    • Track: Medical Oncology
    • Presentations: 1
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      P1.10-041 - A phase II trial of erlotinib for previously treated Japanese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer harboring EGFR mutations: results of the Central Japan Lung Study Group trial (CJLSG0904). (ID 2283)

      09:30 - 16:30  |  Author(s): M. Ando

      • Abstract

      Background
      Several prospective studies have demonstrated activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene are a predictor of response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Erlotinib is one of EGFR-TKIs available in Japan. However, there are a few prospective reports on the efficacy and safety of erlotinib therapy in Japanese patients with previously treated advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

      Methods
      We undertook a multicenter, open-label, single-arm, phase II study. Patients with performance statuses of 0 to 2 and stage IIIB/IV NSCLC with EGFR-sensitive mutations (exon19 and 21) were eligible if they were treated with one or two prior chemotherapy regimens containing at least one platinum-based doublet. They received oral erlotinib at a dose of 150mg daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR), while secondary endpoints included disease control rate (DCR), progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) as well as toxicity. This study is registered with UMIN (University Hospital Medical Information Network in Japan), number 000002716.

      Results
      Between November 2009 to July 2012, 29 patients (median age, 68 years; range, 40-77 years) were enrolled. No complete response and 17 partial responses were observed, giving the ORR was 58.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 38.9-76.5%). Ten patients had stable disease and 2 patients had progressive disease. Thus, the DCR was 93.1% (95% CI: 77.2-99.2%). After a median follow-up of 14.7 months (range, 5.3-37.0 months), the median PFS was 9.5 months (95% CI, 5.9-13.2 months). The median OS has not yet been reached. The most common adverse events were skin rash (96.6%; 13.8% grade ≥ 3), and hepatic function disorder including increased ALT (65.5%) and increased AST (48.3%). No interstitial lung disease events or cases of toxic death were reported.

      Conclusion
      These results indicate that erlotinib monotherapy could be a potential treatment option with favorable clinical outcomes for Japanese patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC with EGFR mutations.

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    P1.11 - Poster Session 1 - NSCLC Novel Therapies (ID 208)

    • Event: WCLC 2013
    • Type: Poster Session
    • Track: Medical Oncology
    • Presentations: 1
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      P1.11-017 - First-line gefitinib therapy for elderly patients with non-small cell lung cancer harboring EGFR mutation: Central Japan Lung Study Group 0901 (ID 1413)

      09:30 - 16:30  |  Author(s): M. Ando

      • Abstract

      Background
      Recently, the elderly population of lung cancer patients is increasing worldwide. Although first-line gefitinib is one of the standard treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, few data have been reported on elderly patients. Thus, we conducted a phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and quality of life of first-line gefitinib therapy for this specific population.

      Methods
      Chemotherapy-naïve patients aged 70 years or older with stage IIIB or IV non-small cell lung cancer harboring EGFR activating mutation were enrolled and treated with gefitinib 250 mg daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. Quality of life was assessed by the Lung Cancer Subscale of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung (FACT-LCS) questionnaire, before and during treatment (at 4, 8, and 12 weeks). The primary endpoint was response rate.

      Results
      Twenty patients were enrolled between June 2009 and March 2011. The median age was 79.5 years (range: 72-90). All the patients had adenocarcinoma, 13 patients (65%) were female, 12 had exon 19 deletion, and 8 had L858R mutation. Overall response rate was 70% (95% CI, 46 - 88%), and the disease control rate was 90% (95% CI, 68 - 99%). The median progression-free survival was 10.0 months and the 2-year survival rate was 55%. The median follow-up time was 26.4 months and median overall survival time has not been reached yet. The most common adverse events were rash and liver dysfunction, and grade 1 interstitial lung disease developed in one patient. No treatment-related death was observed. The scores of FACT-LCS improved significantly four weeks after the initiation of gefitinib and maintained a favorable tendency during 12 weeks (p = 0.037). Among the seven items of FACT-LCS, especially shortness of breath and cough improved significantly after 4 weeks of treatment (p = 0.046, p = 0.008, respectively).

      Conclusion
      The present study reveals that first-line therapy with gefitinib is effective and feasible for elderly patients harboring EGFR mutation and improves disease-related symptoms, especially shortness of breath and cough.

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    P1.24 - Poster Session 1 - Clinical Care (ID 146)

    • Event: WCLC 2013
    • Type: Poster Session
    • Track: Supportive Care
    • Presentations: 1
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      P1.24-019 - Therapeutic and preventive effects of aprepitant for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in Japanese patients with thoracic malignancies (ID 1510)

      09:30 - 16:30  |  Author(s): M. Ando

      • Abstract

      Background
      Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (NK1RA) in addition to 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists (5HT3RA) and dexamethasone (Dex) is recommended for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). It had been also reported that 40-60% of patients receiving HEC had not experienced significant nausea and/or vomiting before NK1RA became available. In 2010 NK1RA aprepitant was introduced for CINV prophylaxis in Japan. However, what proportion of patients receiving emetogenic chemotherapy need NK1RA, and whether all patients undergoing HEC truly need NK1RA remain unknown. Increasing medical costs due to uniform use of NK1RA is another concern. The primary objective of this study is the prevalence of patients who require aprepitant. Therapeutic and preventive effects of aprepitant on CINV induced by HEC or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC), and quality of life (QOL) regarding CINV are secondary objectives. We conducted this single-institute study before fully introducing aprepitant into clinical practice in our institute.

      Methods
      From July 2011 to January 2013, 96 consecutive patients receiving HEC or MEC, with age ≥ 20, able to use Japanese language, and with written informed consent, were enrolled onto the study, and 77 patients were analyzed who received ≥ 2 courses in the same chemotherapy regimen. 5-HT3RA and Dex were administered to prevent CINV. Aprepitant was administered to treat CINV in the first course when CINV occurred, or administered to prevent CINV in the second course. All patients who experienced CINV in the first course received prophylactic aprepitant from the second course. QOL regarding CINV was assessed by Functional Living Index of Emesis (FLIE). Numerical rating scale (NRS) was used to assess the severity of nausea. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Aichi Medical University.

      Results
      Patient characteristics were: median age (range), 67 (38-85); gender (male/female), 64/13; cancer type (lung cancer/thymic tumor/other), 72/3/2; chemotherapy regimen (HEC/MEC), 28/49. Aprepitant was not administered in 57% and 88% of patient who received HEC and MEC, respectively. In patients treated with aprepitant (n=18), therapeutic use of aprepitant after CINV occurred (n=9) decreased average NRS for nausea and average frequency of vomiting per day from 7.44 to 5.44 (p=0.10), and 2.11 to 0.11 (p=0.03), respectively. Prophylactic use of aprepitant in the second course (n=18) increased the proportion of patients with no significant nausea from 6% (first course) to 50% (second course, p=0.007), and those with no vomiting from 33% to 89% (p=0.002). In contrast, in patients who did not require aprepitant (n=59), proportion of patients with no significant nausea and those with no vomiting did not change during the 2 courses (76% to 76% [p=1.00] and 92% to 92% [p=1.00], respectively). In patients who required aprepitant, aprepitant use significantly improved FLIE scores in the second course while these did not change in patients who did not require aprepitant.

      Conclusion
      More than half of patients receiving HEC and 88% of patients receiving MEC did not require aprepitant. Aprepitant showed significant therapeutic and preventive effects on CINV in patients who truly need it.