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M. Orlando



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    MO06 - NSCLC - Chemotherapy I (ID 108)

    • Event: WCLC 2013
    • Type: Mini Oral Abstract Session
    • Track: Medical Oncology
    • Presentations: 1
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      MO06.04 - A Randomized Phase 3 Study Comparing First-line Pemetrexed plus Cisplatin Followed by Gefitinib as Maintenance with Gefitinib Monotherapy in East Asian Patients with Locally Advanced or Metastatic Nonsquamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (nSqNSCLC) (ID 1943)

      16:15 - 17:45  |  Author(s): M. Orlando

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background
      The IPASS study reported that in a clinically selected lung cancer patient population (East Asian, light ex-/nonsmokers with adenocarcinoma) gefitinib (G) provided superior progression-free survival (PFS) than chemotherapy with carboplatin/paclitaxel; however, the benefit was restricted to patients with epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR)-mutant tumors whereas patients with wild-type (WT) tumors had inferior outcomes. Pemetrexed, in combination with cisplatin, (PC) has demonstrated improved efficacy in first-line treatment of nSqNSCLC and is a preferred chemotherapy choice. The primary objective was to compare PC induction therapy followed by G as maintenance therapy to G monotherapy, in terms of PFS, as first-line treatment in a similar “IPASS” patient population.

      Methods
      Patients with unknown EGFR mutation status (N=236) were randomized 1:1 to PCG treatment for 6 cycles or G. Patients on Arm A without progressive disease after 6 cycles received G maintenance therapy. Stage IIIB/IV nSQ NSCLC, light ex-smokers or never-smokers, and ECOG PS 0-1 patients with no prior systemic therapy were eligible. Primary endpoint analysis was conducted using a Wilcoxon test after 169 PFS events. This assessment provided 80% power if the true hazard ratio (HR) was 0.65. Tissue samples from consenting patients were analyzed for EGFR mutation status.

      Results
      Baseline characteristics were balanced across treatment arms. One-hundred-forty-one patients provided tissue for EGFR mutation analysis (59.7%). Mutation status was determined for 74 samples (52.5%);50/74 samples (67.6%) had mutations (mutation type: EX19_DEL, n=25; L858R, n=23; other, n=2). The primary analysis of PFS showed no significant difference between treatment arms (Wilcoxon p=0.217). The unadjusted HR was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.13). During most of the study period, the KM curve for PC remained above the G curve. In a prespecified subgroup analysis, EGFR-by-treatment interaction was statistically significant (p=0.008), showing treatment effect significantly differed by EGFR mutation status. The HR for PFS favored PC in both EGFR-mutated and EGFR-WT patients, but the magnitude of benefit was greater in EGFR-WT patients [EGFR-mutated patients HR=0.83 ([95% CI: 0.42, 1.62], p=0.585); EGFR-WT HR 0.18 ([95% CI: 0.06, 0.51], p=0.001)]. HRs for ITT and EGFR-mutated patients should be interpreted with caution as they were not constant. Arm A had more patients with ≥1 possibly drug-related CTCAE grade 3/4 TEAEs but similar rates of all-grade TEAEs during induction. Selected grade 3/4 or all-grade TEAEs which occurred significantly more included anemia, neutropenia, emesis, and neuropathy in Arm A and AST/ALT elevations, diarrhea, pruritus, and skin rash in Arm B. The toxicity profile was similar in both arms during the G maintenance period.

      Conclusion
      In the ITT population, the PFS difference was not statistically significant. In the biomarker assessable population, results are consistent with the existing consensus that patients with WT EGFR do not benefit with front-line EGFR TKI treatment. Overall, the results show that identification of the EGFR mutational status is key in the management of advanced NSCLC. Even in the presence of clinically favorable predictors of EGFR mutation positivity (>60% in our population), “empirical” choice of EGFR TKIs as front-line therapy may be detrimental to NSCLC patients without EGFR mutations.

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    P1.10 - Poster Session 1 - Chemotherapy (ID 204)

    • Event: WCLC 2013
    • Type: Poster Session
    • Track: Medical Oncology
    • Presentations: 1
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      P1.10-034 - Weight Gain as a Prognostic Factor on Patient Outcomes<br /> In Advanced, Nonsquamous, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (ID 1905)

      09:30 - 16:30  |  Author(s): M. Orlando

      • Abstract

      Background
      Patients with advanced/metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have a poor prognosis and low survival rates. One of the first notable symptoms of advanced lung cancer is unexplained weight loss. We evaluated weight gain (> 5% post baseline), as an early prognostic factor for clinical outcome, in advanced nonsquamous, NSCLC patients.

      Methods
      This retrospective analysis reports on three randomized phase III studies with survival and response data from a total of 2301 advanced, nonsquamous NSCLC patients who received pemetrexed or other chemotherapy plus a platinum or targeted agent, as first-line therapy. Body weight was recorded before and after treatment by each study’s schedule. Baseline weight was defined as the last non-missing weight measure before first treatment. Post baseline weight was defined as the maximum weight measured after starting treatment. Patients were analyzed using log-rank test and adjusted Cox modeling to assess the relationship between weight gain and overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Logistic regression was used to assess the association between baseline covariates and post-baseline weight gain.

      Results
      Patients were a mean age of 61 years (range 26 – 86) and most were of Caucasian descent (77.0%). A majority of patients had adenocarcinoma (73.8%), were male (59.8%) with an ECOG performance status (PS) of 0/1/2 (38.5%/60.2%/1.4%). Many patients were smokers or former smokers (55.7%) with Stage IV disease (83.1 %), according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer, editions. 5/6 and had an average weight at baseline of 71.4 kg. A total of 421 (18.3%) patients had a >5% increase in weight (>5% subgroup) after baseline with a statistically significant increase in OS and PFS. Median OS was 16.7 months for patients in the >5% subgroup versus 10.7 months for patients who gained <5% weight (< 5% subgroup; [n=1880]; p<0.001). PFS was 6.9 months for the >5% subgroup versus 4.8 months for <5% subgroup; p<0.001). Differences in overall response rate (ORR = CR + PR) and disease control rate (DCR = CR + PR + SD) were also significant. ORR was 50.8% for >5% subgroup versus 25.4% for < 5% subgroup (p<0.001). DCR was 91.5% for >5% subgroup and 63.6% for <5% subgroup (p<0.001). Cox modeling revealed patients in the >5% subgroup had significantly longer survival (HR=0.56, [95% CI 0.49-0.64]; p<0.001) than patients with <5% subgroup, after adjusting for baseline age (<65 versus 65), sex, ECOG PS (0 versus 1/2), histology (adenocarcinoma versus others), and study. Similar significant results were also found for PFS. Logistic regression indicated a significant association between weight gain and age. More patients aged <65 had a >5% weight gain (p<0.001).

      Conclusion
      This exploratory analysis showed that substantial weight gain (>5%) occurred after initiation of platinum-based chemotherapy in approximately 20% of advanced/metastatic, nonsquamous NSCLC patients. There was a positive correlation between weight gain and improved, OS, PFS and response in patients treated in these phase III studies.

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    P3.10 - Poster Session 3 - Chemotherapy (ID 210)

    • Event: WCLC 2013
    • Type: Poster Session
    • Track: Medical Oncology
    • Presentations: 1
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      P3.10-003 - A randomized Phase 2 trial of pemetrexed (P) and gefitinib (G) versus G as first-line treatment for patients with stage IV non-squamous (NS) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations (ID 223)

      09:30 - 16:30  |  Author(s): M. Orlando

      • Abstract

      Background
      G has been established as a standard first-line therapy in patients with advanced NSCLC harboring activating EGFR mutations. Results from preclinical and clinical studies have shown synergistic cytotoxic effects of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and P, and that P is a key cytotoxic agent for NS NSCLC. Therefore, combination of P and G may offer benefits that exceed the inhibition of tumor progression with G monotherapy in patients with NS NSCLC harboring activating EGFR mutations.

      Methods
      This randomized, multicenter, open-label, parallel-arm, Phase 2 East-Asian study has been initiated to test the hypothesis that G + P will prolong progression-free survival (PFS) compared to G in patients with NS NSCLC with EGFR mutation. Eligible patients must have stage IV NS NSCLC, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) of 0-1 and an activating EGFR mutation. Approximately 188 patients will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio (G+P:G) stratified by gender, ECOG PS and prior neo-/adjuvant treatment. Study treatment will continue until progression, unacceptable toxicity or another discontinuation criterion is met. Patients in the G + P arm are required to take prophylactic folic acid and vitamin B~12~ supplementation as stated on the P label. With a one-sided significance level of 0.2, 145 events (objective disease progression/death) will provide 70% power, assuming a true hazard ratio of 0.79 (about 26% prolongation in PFS time). It is expected that 145 events will be observed if 188 pts are enrolled within an accrual period of 12 months and followed-up over 18 months. The primary endpoint of PFS will be analyzed after 145 events have been observed by using a multivariate Cox model. Secondary endpoints include time to progressive disease, overall survival (OS), overall response rate, disease control rate, duration of response, biomarkers and treatment-emergent adverse events. To ensure mature OS data, the criteria to end the study will be the earlier of 130 OS events or 30 months from the last patient entered treatment milestone. Enrollment started in early 2012. The trial is sponsored by Eli Lilly and Company (NCT01469000).

      Results
      Not Applicable.

      Conclusion
      Not Applicable.