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H. Chen



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    JCES01 - Joint IASLC - Chinese Society for Clinical Oncology - Chinese Alliance Against Lung Cancer Session (ID 413)

    • Event: WCLC 2016
    • Type: Joint Chinese / English Session
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
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      JCES01.24 - Molecular Mechanism of Transformation from Adenocarcinoma to Small-Cell Lung Cancer after EGFR-TKI (ID 7066)

      H. Chen

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      In patients with advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations, EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are recommended as first-line treatment due to favorable clinical efficacy. However, acquired resistance inevitably develops after median progression-free survival (PFS) of 9-14 months. Among the mechanisms of acquired resistance, small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) transformation was reported to account for nearly 5%. However, the molecular details underlying this histological change and resistance to EGFR-TKI therapy remain unclear.

      Methods:
      15 out of 233 (6.4%) patients were confirmed to develop SCLC transformation after failure to EGFR-TKI. We analyzed the clinical parameters of these patients by using chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier analysis. To explore gene alterations that might contribute to SCLC transformation, next generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on four pairs of matched pre- and post-transformation tumor tissue samples. We further performed NGS on 11 matched circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) to explore the potential mechanism of resistance to EGFR-TKI.

      Results:
      The median age of SCLC transformed patients was 53 years. 93.3% (14/15) patients harbored EGFR exon19 deletion. The median PFS and overall survival (OS) of SCLC-transformed patients treated with EGFR-TKI compared to those without transformation were 11.7 versus 11.9 months (P=0.473) and 29.4 versus 24.3 months (P=0.664), respectively. All 4 patients developed loss of heterozygosity of TP53/RB1 after transformation. Besides, increased copy number of five proto-oncogenes were identified in post-transformation tissue samples. Three patients developed EGFR T790M mutation in the post-transformation ctDNA rather than their tissue samples.

      Conclusion:
      SCLC transformation was commonly seen in patients harboring EGFR exon 19 deletion. The clinical outcomes of TKI and OS in SCLC transformed patients were similar to non-transformed patients. The loss of heterozygosity of TP53 and RB1along with increased copy number of proto-oncogenes may lead to the SCLC transformation. The mechanisms of acquired resistance to TKI during SCLC transformation might be the emergence of classic drug resistance mutations, which was undetectable due to the intra-tumor heterogeneity.

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    MA08 - Treatment Monitoring in Advanced NSCLC (ID 386)

    • Event: WCLC 2016
    • Type: Mini Oral Session
    • Track: Advanced NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
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      MA08.07 - Prospective Sequential Counts of Total CTC or cKIT+CTC in Advanced NSCLC with 1st Line Chemotherapy (POLICE) (Now Available) (ID 5857)

      H. Chen

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been reported prognostic and predictive in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and a few of other cancer types. In 1[st] line setting, whether EPCAM[+]CK[+]CD45[-] CTC and/or stem cell-like cKIT[+]EPCAM[+ ]CK[+]CD45[-] CTC enumeration and dynamic changes can be prognostic and/or predictive to standard chemotherapy need further investigation in Chinese patients with NSCLC.

      Methods:
      A prospective study on the CTC enumeration in advanced NSCLC with 1st line chemotherapy (POLICE) was started by China Thoracic Oncology Group (CTONG). Patients with NSCLC naïve for systemic regimens were enrolled since August 2013. CTCs were detected by Cell Search Platform and identified as positive for EPCAM[+]CK[+]CD45[-] phenotype. CD117 (cKIT) marker was added to test the frequency of stem cell-like cKIT[+]EPCAM[+]CK[+]CD45[- ]CTCs. Primary endpoints were CTC counts and its correlation with first line therapy.

      Results:
      Totally 180 patients were enrolled. In 174 case total CTC and cKIT[+]CTC positive (cutoff >=1) rates were 38.5% (67/172) vs 14.3% (24/168), 21.8% (31/142) vs 6.3% (9/142), 13.7% (13/95) vs 6.4% (6/94) and 40.4% (38/94) vs 15.0% (13/93) at time-points of baseline, after first-cycle-chemo, after four-cycles-chemo and disease progression. At time immediately after first-cycle-chemo, patients in CTC=0 group got statistically higher ORR (29.0% VS 7.1%, P=0.017) and DCR (74.2% VS 42.9%, P=0.002) than in CTC>=1 group. At time after four-cycles-chemo, patients in CTC=0 group got statistically higher DCR (88.3% VS 58.3%, P=0.026) than in CTC>=1 group. At time either after first-cycle-chemo or after four-cycles-chemo, patients in CTC>=1 group got worse PFS (5.7m VS 4.0m, P=0.025; 6.3m VS 4.0m, P=0.001 ) than in CTC=0 group. At time after first-cycle-chemo, patients in groups cKIT[+]CTC>=1 and cKIT[-]CTC>=1 got worse PFSs (3.1m vs 4.0m vs 5.7m, P=0.001) and worse DCRs (44.4% vs 42.1% vs 73.9%, P=0.009) than in CTC=0 group. For 142 patients categorized into three groups of dynamic CTC decrease (17), CTC unchanged (82), and CTC increase (43), there were significant differences in terms of DCR (71.8% vs 71.6% vs 33.3%, P=0.018) and PFS (5.2m vs 5.6m vs 3.1m, P=0.037).

      Conclusion:
      In first line setting of advanced NSCLC, at time-points after first-cycle-chemo other than baseline, total CTC or cKIT[+]CTC counts could be predictive for worse DCR or PFS. CTC increase from baseline to after-first-cycle-chemo might be a strong signal for the inefficacy of first line chemotherapy in the NSCLC patients.

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    P3.02a - Poster Session with Presenters Present (ID 470)

    • Event: WCLC 2016
    • Type: Poster Presenters Present
    • Track: Advanced NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
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      P3.02a-020 - Clinical Failure to Crizotinib in Patients with Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancers (Now Available) (ID 4523)

      H. Chen

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Crizotinib, as the standard treatment for use in first-line treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), showed superiority over platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma.Undoubtedly, the resistance to crizotinib is a current bottleneck which limits its clinical application. However, there are few reports about clinical failure to crizotinib, especially the correlation between the failure patterns of crizotinib and survival benefit.

      Methods:
      Totally,171 ALK-positive NSCLC patients treated with crizotinib were reviewed at the Guangdong General Hospital in China from October 2010 to July 2016.The status of ALK rearrangement was assessed by Lysis ALK Break Apart fluorescence in situ hybridization,reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, or Ventana ALK immunohistochemistry.Chi-square test and Kapla-Meier survival curve were used to analyze the results statistically.

      Results:
      Among enrolled patients,47.5%(81/171) gained secondary resistance,10.5%(18/171) had primary resistance and 4 patients stopped taking crizotinib because of the occurrence of unacceptable toxicities including anasarca,ventricular tachycardia and hepatic insufficiency. Moreover,49 patients had no progression,in which 2 patients had taken crizotinib more than 5 years uninterruptedly.In the patients with secondary resistance (n=81),46 were male and 63 were never smokers.Brain metastases occurred in 27.1%(22/81) at the baseline,half of which(11/22) still had brain progression after the treatment of crizotinib.On the contrary,21 patients without brain metastases at the baseline were evaluated at disease progression because of brain metastases.We classified patients with secondary resistance into several categories according to the failure patterns of crizotinib, such as dramatic,gradual and local progression.There were 47(58.0%), 2(2.5%) and 32(39.5%) patients for dramatic, gradual and local progression respectively.The patients with dramatic progression had an inferior progression-free survival with crizotinib to those with gradual and local progression (9.8 vs 11.9 months),which did not achieve statistical significance.The post progression survival(PPS) of dramatic progression group is 10.4 months.The PPS of other group is 20.5 months comparatively.Patients with dramatic progression showed shorter overall survival when compared with other patients (26.7 vs 41.0 months, P=0.042).

      Conclusion:
      Dramatic progression was prevalent in ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma beyond failure to crizotinib, and predicted poor overall survival.

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    P3.02b - Poster Session with Presenters Present (ID 494)

    • Event: WCLC 2016
    • Type: Poster Presenters Present
    • Track: Advanced NSCLC
    • Presentations: 2
    • Now Available
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      P3.02b-059 - The Role of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in the Onset of Skeletal Related Events in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Now Available) (ID 6042)

      H. Chen

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Bone metastasis is frequent in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and subsequent skeletal related events (SREs) adversely deteriorate life quality and survival. Patients harboring sensitive epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation experience a prolonged life expectancy. However, it is unclear whether survival enhancement in NSCLC patients with sensitive EGFR mutation may encounter an increase in the onset of SREs or not. Also, it is still unknown whether time to SREs is impacted by EGFR mutation status. In this study, we evaluated the impact of EGFR mutation status and other clinic-pathological variables on the incidence of SREs and on survival outcomes of SREs in stage IV NSCLC patients.

      Methods:
      We conducted a retrospective study of medical records from patients who were diagnosed stage IV NSCLC in a single institute. EGFR mutation status, and other clinical-pathological variables, bone metastasis outcomes and survival data were collected and statistically analyzed.

      Results:
      410 patients with evident bone metastasis were enrolled in the study. 49.0% patients were detected with sensitive EGFR mutation, and 29.0% were prophylactically administered bisphosphonate. 42.7% experienced at least one SRE, the most common type of which was palliative radiotherapy. Patient harboring sensitive EGFR mutation hold a lower incidence of SREs than patients who were detected with wild type EGFR (37.3% vs 47.8%, p=0.031), and patients who received bisphosphonate confronted a lower incidence of SRE comparing with patients who didn’t receive bisphosphonate prophylactically (36.1% vs 45.4%, p=0.087). Median time from bone metastasis to first SRE was two months longer in patients with EGFR mutation, comparing to patients with wild type EGFR, with a marginal significance (5.0m vs 3.0m, p=0.08). The administration of bisphosphonate delayed the median time to first SRE for 5 months (7.0m vs 2.0m, p=0.037). In multivariate analysis using a Cox proportion model, wild type EGFR (HR=1.559, 95%CI 1.081-2.249), multiple bone lesions (HR= 1.991, 95%CI 1.217-3.258), mixed type bone lesions (HR=2.144, 95%CI 1.085-4.238) were independent risk factors of survival post first SRE, while a smoking history (HR=1.428, p=0.053) was shown marginally significant with an impaired survival post first SRE.

      Conclusion:
      This retrospective study shows that EGFR mutation has a propensity to impact the onset of SRE and prolong survival post first SRE in patients with stage IV NSCLC. For patients with higher risks to experience SREs, bisphosphonate is an alternative to impede the process.

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      P3.02b-116 - Molecular Mechanism of Transformation from Adenocarcinoma to Small-Cell Lung Cancer after EGFR-TKI (Now Available) (ID 4983)

      H. Chen

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      In patients with advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations, EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are recommended as first-line treatment due to favorable clinical efficacy. However, acquired resistance inevitably develops after median progression-free survival (PFS) of 9-14 months. Among the mechanisms of acquired resistance, small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) transformation was reported to account for nearly 5%. However, the molecular details underlying this histological change and resistance to EGFR-TKI therapy remain unclear.

      Methods:
      15 out of 233 (6.4%) patients were confirmed to develop SCLC transformation after failure to EGFR-TKI. We analyzed the clinical parameters of these patients by using chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier analysis. To explore gene alterations that might contribute to SCLC transformation, next generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on four pairs of matched pre- and post-transformation tumor tissue samples. We further performed NGS on 11 matched circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) to explore the potential mechanism of resistance to EGFR-TKI.

      Results:
      The median age of SCLC transformed patients was 53 years. 93.3% (14/15) patients harbored EGFR exon19 deletion. The median PFS and overall survival (OS) of SCLC-transformed patients treated with EGFR-TKI compared to those without transformation were 11.7 versus 11.9 months (P=0.473) and 29.4 versus 24.3 months (P=0.664), respectively. All 4 patients developed loss of heterozygosity of TP53/RB1 after transformation. Besides, increased copy number of five proto-oncogenes were identified in post-transformation tissue samples. Three patients developed EGFR T790M mutation in the post-transformation ctDNA rather than their tissue samples.

      Conclusion:
      SCLC transformation was commonly seen in patients harboring EGFR exon 19 deletion. The clinical outcomes of TKI and OS in SCLC transformed patients were similar to non-transformed patients. The loss of heterozygosity of TP53 and RB1 along with increased copy number of proto-oncogenes may lead to the SCLC transformation. The mechanisms of acquired resistance to TKI during SCLC transformation might be the emergence of classic drug resistance mutations, which was undetectable due to the intra-tumor heterogeneity.

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