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K.C. Banks



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    JCES01 - Joint IASLC - Chinese Society for Clinical Oncology - Chinese Alliance Against Lung Cancer Session (ID 413)

    • Event: WCLC 2016
    • Type: Joint Chinese / English Session
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
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      JCES01.10 - Serial Quantitative Assessment of Plasma Circulating Tumor DNA by Digital NGS in Patients with Lung Cancer (Now Available) (ID 7054)

      K.C. Banks

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used in oncology practice but proven practically difficult when serial tumor specimens are needed. The objectives of this study were to determine feasibility and explore clinical utility of serial NGS analyses of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in patients (pts) with advanced solid tumors undergoing treatment.

      Methods:
      ctDNA digital NGS was performed by a CLIA-certified lab (70-gene panel with mutant allele fraction (MAF) quantification). ctDNA results were retrospectively analyzed and decreases/increases/stability of molecular tumor load (MTL) defined here as MAFs of truncal driver mutations were correlated with clinical and radiographic response to treatment (response, progression, or stable disease, respectively).

      Results:
      From Jan 2015 to July 2016, 38 consecutive pts with advanced lung tumors (84% LUAD, 5% LUSC, 5% SCLC, 5% NOS) receiving treatment (Table) had serial ctDNA analyses (median 2, range 2-7). ctDNA alterations were detected at least once in 37 (97.4%) pts. Changes in MTL correlated with or predicted all (95% CI, 82.0-99.8%) radiological and/or clinical responses except for the patient with no genomic alteration detected. MTL results clarified response status when radiographic responses were difficult to assess in 9 (28%) of pts with either complex pleural disease (n=6), pneumonitis during PD-1 inhibitor therapy (2). Two MTL change patterns were observed: 1) clonal changes while receiving targeted therapy, including EGFR (12), ALK (3), MET (2), ERBB2 (2); 2) global changes to PD-1 inhibitors, chemotherapy or radiation. Representative tumor response maps will be presented. Table. Summary of tumor types and cancer treatment.

      Cancer Type Targeted Therapy Immunotherapy Chemotherapy Radiation TOTAL
      LUAD 14 8 7 3 32
      LUSC 1 1 0 0 2
      SCLC 0 0 2 0 2
      NOS 1 0 1 0 2
      All 16 9 10 3 38


      Conclusion:
      Serial liquid biopsies and ctDNA digital NGS are feasible and clinically useful in monitoring MTL and genomic alterations during cancer treatment, especially in situations when radiographic responses are equivocal. Prospective evaluation of impact on clinical decision making is warranted.

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    P1.02 - Poster Session with Presenters Present (ID 454)

    • Event: WCLC 2016
    • Type: Poster Presenters Present
    • Track: Biology/Pathology
    • Presentations: 1
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      P1.02-057 - Clinical Utility of ctDNA for Detecting ALK Fusions and Resistance Events in NSCLC: Analysis of a Laboratory Cohort (ID 6247)

      K.C. Banks

      • Abstract

      Background:
      Advanced NSCLC patients whose tumors harbor ALK fusions benefit from first line treatment with ALK inhibitors (ALKi). However, insufficient tissue for testing (QNS) occurs ~25% of the time. Patients treated with ALKi ultimately progress. Historically, identification of the resistance mechanism/s required repeat tumor biopsy. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may provide a non-invasive way to identify ALK fusions and actionable resistance mechanisms without a repeat biopsy.

      Methods:
      The Guardant360 (G360) de-identified database of NSCLC cases was queried to identify 57 patients (2/2015-6/2016) with 58 ctDNA-detected ALK fusions. G360 is a CLIA-laboratory ctDNA test that detects point mutations in 70 genes and select amplifications, fusions and indels. Available records were reviewed to characterize patients at baseline and at progression.

      Results:
      Identified fusion partners included EML4 (n=51, 88%), STRN (7%), KLC1 (3%), KIF5B (2%). Thirty patients had no history of targeted therapy (new diagnosis or no prior genotyping, “cohort 1”); 23 patients were drawn at ALKi progression (“cohort 2”). In 6 samples, the patients’ clinical status was unknown. Three additional cases had ALK resistance mutations (F1174C, F1269A/I1171T, D1203N) detected in ctDNA but no fusion detected; historical tissue testing was ALK+. Conversely, in cohort 1, 10 (33%) were tissue QNS (7) or tissue ALK negative (3) while 4 (13%) were tissue ALK+ and 16 (54%) had unknown tissue status. As expected, no documented or putative resistance mechanisms were identified in cohort 1, although TP53 mutations were identified in 43%. Among 18 patients progressing on an ALKi, 7 (39%) contained 1 (4 patients), 2 (1 patient) or 3 (2 patients) ALK resistance point mutations (F1174C/V: 3 occurrences; G1202R: 3; L1196M: 3; G1128A: 1; L1189F: 1; I1171T: 1). Additional events co-occurring in the resistance cohort included 1 each of: BRAF[V600E], MET[E14skip], KRAS[G12], KRAS[G13], HRAS[Q61], EGFR[E330K], KIT[amp], BRAF[amp]. 5 EGFR-mutant NSCLC cases at progression harbored ALK fusions (4 STRN, 2 EML4; 1 patient had both) representing 1% of all EGFR-mutant progressing NSCLC cases in the G360 database. Four of these patients also harbored EGFR[T790M], but the presence of an ALK fusion may represent further subclonal evolution following the selective pressure of an EGFR inhibitor.

      Conclusion:
      These results add to the growing body of literature demonstrating that comprehensive ctDNA assays provide a non-invasive means of detecting targetable alterations in the first line when tissue is QNS as well as detecting known and novel resistance mechanisms that may inform treatment decisions at progression.

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    P2.01 - Poster Session with Presenters Present (ID 461)

    • Event: WCLC 2016
    • Type: Poster Presenters Present
    • Track: Biology/Pathology
    • Presentations: 1
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      P2.01-009 - Serial Quantitative Assessment of Plasma Circulating Tumor DNA by Digital NGS in Patients with Lung Cancer (ID 6267)

      K.C. Banks

      • Abstract

      Background:
      Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used in oncology practice but proven practically difficult when serial tumor specimens are needed. The objectives of this study were to determine feasibility and explore clinical utility of serial NGS analyses of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in patients (pts) with advanced solid tumors undergoing treatment.

      Methods:
      ctDNA digital NGS was performed by a CLIA-certified lab (70-gene panel with mutant allele fraction (MAF) quantification). ctDNA results were retrospectively analyzed and decreases/increases/stability of molecular tumor load (MTL) defined here as MAFs of truncal driver mutations were correlated with clinical and radiographic response to treatment (response, progression, or stable disease, respectively).

      Results:
      From Jan 2015 to July 2016, 38 consecutive pts with advanced lung tumors (84% LUAD, 5% LUSC, 5% SCLC, 5% NOS) receiving treatment (Table) had serial ctDNA analyses (median 2, range 2-7). ctDNA alterations were detected at least once in 37 (97.4%) pts. Changes in MTL correlated with or predicted all (95% CI, 82.0-99.8%) radiological and/or clinical responses except for the patient with no genomic alteration detected. MTL results clarified response status when radiographic responses were difficult to assess in 9 (28%) of pts with either complex pleural disease (n=6), pneumonitis during PD-1 inhibitor therapy (2). Two MTL change patterns were observed: 1) clonal changes while receiving targeted therapy, including EGFR (12), ALK (3), MET (2), ERBB2 (2); 2) global changes to PD-1 inhibitors, chemotherapy or radiation. Representative tumor response maps will be presented. Table. Summary of tumor types and cancer treatment.

      Cancer Type Targeted Therapy Immunotherapy Chemotherapy Radiation TOTAL
      LUAD 14 8 7 3 32
      LUSC 1 1 0 0 2
      SCLC 0 0 2 0 2
      NOS 1 0 1 0 2
      All 16 9 10 3 38


      Conclusion:
      Serial liquid biopsies and ctDNA digital NGS are feasible and clinically useful in monitoring MTL and genomic alterations during cancer treatment, especially in situations when radiographic responses are equivocal. Prospective evaluation of impact on clinical decision making is warranted.

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    P2.03b - Poster Session with Presenters Present (ID 465)

    • Event: WCLC 2016
    • Type: Poster Presenters Present
    • Track: Advanced NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      P2.03b-030 - Retrospective Review Clinical Use of a cfDNA Blood Test for Identification of Targetable Molecular Alterations in Patients with Lung Cancer (ID 5969)

      K.C. Banks

      • Abstract

      Background:
      The availability of tumor genomic information from simple, minimally invasive blood collection may lead to significant impact in patient(pt) care. We report a retrospective review the clinical utility of a CLIA-certified cell-free DNA (cfDNA) next generation sequencing (NGS) blood test in our pts with lung cancers.

      Methods:
      From April 2015 to May 2016, blood samples from 250 consecutive pts were collected and sent for molecular profiling at a CLIA-certified lab (Guardant360, Guardant Health, Redwood City, CA) using cfDNA NGS with a panel of 70 cancer-related genes with reported high sensitivity (able to detect mutations of < 0.1% mutant allele fraction) with high specificity (> 99.9999%) (PLoS One, 10(10), 2015).

      Results:
      254 Guardant360 tests were completed in 250 pts (144/F:106/M); histology: adenocarcinoma(200), squamous(7), sarcomatoid(5), small cell(4) and others(34). Rationale for blood tests: addition to tissue analysis(39%), alternative to tissue biopsy(25%), treatment evaluation/resistant(18%), insufficient tissue(11%), no documentation(7%). Based on Guardant360 results, 77 pt samples (30.3%) demonstrated targetable alterations with FDA-approved agents; concordance with at least 1 genomic alteration (targetable with FDA-approved agent) from paired tissue analysis in 21pts; and in another 29 pts, new genomic alterations provided evaluation for potential change in therapies pts: EGFR T790M(n=21), EML4-ALK fusion(n=4), MET Exon 14 Skipping (3), EGFR ex19del(n=2), EGFR L858R(n=2), other targets(n=6). Significantly, detection of EGFR T790M in cfDNA lead to change in therapy with osimertinib 19 cases and eligibility to clinical studies in 2 cases with alterations in KIF5B-RET and NOTCH1,respectively. Additional clinical outcomes are pending and will be updated.

      Conclusion:
      Molecular testing of cfDNA is a simple, minimally invasive test. It has utility to obviate a repeat invasive tissue biopsy when the initial tissue sample is not available or inadequate for molecular analysis. It is particularly useful in the long-term management of patients at progression for detection of emergent resistance-associated molecular alterations; such as EGFR T790M.