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Q. Zhou



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    JCES01 - Joint IASLC - Chinese Society for Clinical Oncology - Chinese Alliance Against Lung Cancer Session (ID 413)

    • Event: WCLC 2016
    • Type: Joint Chinese / English Session
    • Track:
    • Presentations: 3
    • Now Available
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      JCES01.04 - Liquid Biopsy in Monitoring Dynamic Changes of Driver Genes in Advanced NSCLC (Now Available) (ID 6813)

      Q. Zhou

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Abstract:
      Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain serve as predictive biomarkers for EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) treatment outcome for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).[1] However, due to the invasive procedures required to obtain tumor tissues, not all patients can provide enough high-quality tissues for EGFR mutation analysis. Circulating free DNA (cfDNA) in plasma provides a noninvasive substitute for tumor tissues. Several studies have reported a concordance rate between tumor and plasma > 90%, even reaching 97%, demonstrating the feasibility of detecting EGFR mutations in cfDNA.[2-4]EGFR mutation status detection in cfDNA has been approved by the European Society for Medical Oncology and by China to be used with EGFR-TKI treatment for NSCLC.[5,6] In addition to providing pretreatment information, plasma-based EGFR mutation detection makes it possible to monitor dynamic changes in this mutation during treatment. Several studies have reported a quantitative change in EGFR mutations during EGFR-TKI treatment by comparing pre- and post-treatment plasma, in which various types of plasma EGFR mutations were found.[7,8] The quantity of the plasma EGFR mutation sometimes decreases, or sometimes decreases slowly or rapidly. Patients whose plasma EGFR mutations decrease rapidly usually exhibit a better response to EGFR-TKI treatment.[8] However, these studies were not based on prospective clinical trials, therefore the number of patients who had serial plasma specimens tested during EGFR-TKI treatments was limited, and very few plasma specimens were collected as part of a pre-planned schedule. The only recent study on plasma EGFR mutation changes based on a prospective clinical trial was reported by Mok et al.[9] In this phase III trial (FASTACT-2), patients received gemcitabine/platinum plus sequential erlotinib or placebo. EGFR mutation-specific cfDNA levels decreased at cycle 3 and increased at the time of disease progression. Positive plasma EGFR mutant DNA at cycle 3 predicted a worse clinical outcome. In this study, the treatment was chemotherapy plus EGFR-TKI or placebo, not EGFR-TKI, and there was no information on the plasma EGFR mutation at other time points except at baseline, cycle 3, and at disease progression. The dynamic changing types of plasma EGFR mutations during the whole course of EGFR-TKI treatment and its correlation with clinical outcomes were not determined. To measure changes of plasma EGFR L858R mutation during EGFR-TKI treatment, and to determine its correlation with the response and resistance to EGFR-TKI, we conducted a study. This study was a pre-planned exploratory analysis of a randomized phase III trial conducted from 2009 to 2014 comparing erlotinib with gefitinib in advanced NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations in tumor (CTONG0901). Serial plasma samples were collected as a pre-planned schedule. This trial was conducted in Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute, China. Totally, 256 patients were enrolled in CTONG0901. One hundred and eight patients harbored L858R mutation in tumors and 80 patients provided serial blood samples as pre-planned scheduled. Patients were randomized to receive erlotinib or gefitinib. Serial plasma L858R in 80 patients was detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Changing types of plasma L858R were analyzed using Ward's Hierarchical Clustering Method. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between different types. As a whole, the quantity of L858R decreased and reached the lowest level at the time of best response to EGFR-TKI. In 61 patients, L858R increased to its highest level when disease progressed (Ascend Type), while in 19 patients, L858R maintained a stable level when disease progressed (Stable Type). Median PFS was 11.1 (95%CI, 6.6–15.6) and 7.5 months (95%CI, 1.4–13.6) in patients with Ascend and Stable Types, respectively (P = .023). Median OS was 19.7 (95%CI, 16.5–22.9) and 16.0 months (95%CI, 13.4–18.5), respectively (P = .050). This is the first report finding two different changing types of plasma L858R mutation during EGFR-TKI treatment based on a prospective randomized study. Different changing types were correlated with benefits from EGFR-TKI. The impact of plasma L858R levels at disease progression on subsequent treatment strategy needs further exploration. This study was recently published in Journal of Hematology&Oncology.[10] In summary, liquid biopsy is very promising in monitoring dynamic changes of driver genes in advanced NSCLC, which promotes the development of precision medicine. References 1. Mok TS, Wu YL, Thongprasert S, et al. Gefitinib or carboplatin-paclitaxel in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 2009;361(10):947-957. 2. Kimura H, Suminoe M, Kasahara K, et al. Evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status in serum DNA as a predictor of response to gefitinib (IRESSA). Br. J. Cancer. 2007;97(6):778-784. 3. Douillard JY, Ostoros G, Cobo M, et al. Gefitinib treatment in EGFR mutated caucasian NSCLC: circulating-free tumor DNA as a surrogate for determination of EGFR status. J. Thorac. Oncol. 2014;9(9):1345-1353. 4. Couraud S, Vaca-Paniagua F, Villar S, et al. Noninvasive diagnosis of actionable mutations by deep sequencing of circulating free DNA in lung cancer from never-smokers: a proof-of-concept study from BioCAST/IFCT-1002. Clin. Cancer Res. 2014;20(17):4613-4624. 5. European Medicines Agency. Summary of Product Characteristics 2014 [EB/OL], 10/14 update. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/human/001016/WC500036358.pdf. 6. Iressa 250mg Leaflet professional China. CN52-086A. 20150203. . 7. Sacher AG, Oxnard GR, Mach SL, et al. Prediction of lung cancer genotype noninvasively using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) analysis of cell-free plasma DNA (cfDNA). Paper presented at: Journal Of Clinical Oncology 2014. 8. Marchetti A, Palma JF, Felicioni L, et al. Early Prediction of Response to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors by Quantification of EGFR Mutations in Plasma of NSCLC Patients. J. Thorac. Oncol. 2015;10(10):1437-1443. 9. Mok T, Wu YL, Lee JS, et al. Detection and Dynamic Changes of EGFR Mutations from Circulating Tumor DNA as a Predictor of Survival Outcomes in NSCLC Patients Treated with First-line Intercalated Erlotinib and Chemotherapy. Clin. Cancer Res. 2015;21(14):3196-3203. 10. Zhou Q, Yang JJ, Chen ZH, et al. Serial cfDNA assessment of response and resistance to EGFR-TKI for patients with EGFR-L858R mutant lung cancer from a prospective clinical trial. Journal of Hematology&Oncology. 2016;9:86.

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      JCES01.17 - A Phase I Dose Expansion Study of Epitinib to Evaluate Efficacy and Safety in EGFR Mutation Positive (EGFRm+) NSCLC Patients with Brain Metastasis (ID 7059)

      Q. Zhou

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      A significant portion of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) develop brain metastasis. Patients with brain metastasis suffer from poor prognosis with a median survival of less than 6 months and low quality of life with limited treatment options. First generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs) have demonstrated significant clinical benefit for patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC. However, their effect on brain metastasis is limited due to poor drug penetration into the brain. Epitinib is an EGFR TKI designed to improve brain penetration. A Phase I dose escalation study on epitinib has been completed and the recommended Phase 2 dose (RP2D) determined (Y-L Wu, 2016 ASCO). This Phase I dose expansion study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of epitinib in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients with brain metastasis.

      Methods:
      This is an ongoing open label, multi-center Phase I dose expansion study. EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients with confirmed brain metastasis, either prior EGFR TKI treated or EGFR TKI treatment naïve, were enrolled to receive oral epitinib 160 mg per day. Patients with extra-cranial disease progression while on treatment with an EGFR TKI were excluded. Tumor response was assessed per RECIST 1.1.

      Results:
      As of 31 May, 2016, 27 patients (13 EGFR TKI pretreated, 14 EGFR TKI treatment naïve) have been enrolled and treated with epitinib. The most frequent adverse events (AEs) were skin rash (89%), elevated ALT (41%)/AST (37%), hyper-pigmentation (41%) and diarrhea (30%). The most frequent Grade 3/4 AEs were elevations in ALT (19%), gamma-GGT (11%), AST (7%), hyperbilirubinemia (7%) and skin rash (4%). There have been no Grade 5 AEs to date. Among the 24 efficacy evaluable patients (11 TKI pretreated, 13 TKI naïve), 7 (7/24, 29%) achieved a partial response (PR), including 1 unconfirmed PR. All PRs occurred in EGFR TKI treatment naïve patients (7/13, 53.8%). Of the 24 evaluable patients, 8 (5 EGFR TKI treatment naïve, 3 EGFR TKI pretreated) had measurable brain metastasis (lesion diameter>10 mm per RECIST 1.1) with 2 PRs (both EGFR TKI treatment naïve patients, 2/5, 40%).

      Conclusion:
      Epitinib 160mg per day treatment in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients with brain metastasis demonstrated clinical activity both extra- and intra-cranial. Epitinib was well tolerated. The data to date appears encouraging and warrants further development of epitinib.

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      JCES01.24 - Molecular Mechanism of Transformation from Adenocarcinoma to Small-Cell Lung Cancer after EGFR-TKI (ID 7066)

      Q. Zhou

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      In patients with advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations, EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are recommended as first-line treatment due to favorable clinical efficacy. However, acquired resistance inevitably develops after median progression-free survival (PFS) of 9-14 months. Among the mechanisms of acquired resistance, small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) transformation was reported to account for nearly 5%. However, the molecular details underlying this histological change and resistance to EGFR-TKI therapy remain unclear.

      Methods:
      15 out of 233 (6.4%) patients were confirmed to develop SCLC transformation after failure to EGFR-TKI. We analyzed the clinical parameters of these patients by using chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier analysis. To explore gene alterations that might contribute to SCLC transformation, next generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on four pairs of matched pre- and post-transformation tumor tissue samples. We further performed NGS on 11 matched circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) to explore the potential mechanism of resistance to EGFR-TKI.

      Results:
      The median age of SCLC transformed patients was 53 years. 93.3% (14/15) patients harbored EGFR exon19 deletion. The median PFS and overall survival (OS) of SCLC-transformed patients treated with EGFR-TKI compared to those without transformation were 11.7 versus 11.9 months (P=0.473) and 29.4 versus 24.3 months (P=0.664), respectively. All 4 patients developed loss of heterozygosity of TP53/RB1 after transformation. Besides, increased copy number of five proto-oncogenes were identified in post-transformation tissue samples. Three patients developed EGFR T790M mutation in the post-transformation ctDNA rather than their tissue samples.

      Conclusion:
      SCLC transformation was commonly seen in patients harboring EGFR exon 19 deletion. The clinical outcomes of TKI and OS in SCLC transformed patients were similar to non-transformed patients. The loss of heterozygosity of TP53 and RB1along with increased copy number of proto-oncogenes may lead to the SCLC transformation. The mechanisms of acquired resistance to TKI during SCLC transformation might be the emergence of classic drug resistance mutations, which was undetectable due to the intra-tumor heterogeneity.

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    MA08 - Treatment Monitoring in Advanced NSCLC (ID 386)

    • Event: WCLC 2016
    • Type: Mini Oral Session
    • Track: Advanced NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
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      MA08.07 - Prospective Sequential Counts of Total CTC or cKIT+CTC in Advanced NSCLC with 1st Line Chemotherapy (POLICE) (Now Available) (ID 5857)

      Q. Zhou

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been reported prognostic and predictive in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and a few of other cancer types. In 1[st] line setting, whether EPCAM[+]CK[+]CD45[-] CTC and/or stem cell-like cKIT[+]EPCAM[+ ]CK[+]CD45[-] CTC enumeration and dynamic changes can be prognostic and/or predictive to standard chemotherapy need further investigation in Chinese patients with NSCLC.

      Methods:
      A prospective study on the CTC enumeration in advanced NSCLC with 1st line chemotherapy (POLICE) was started by China Thoracic Oncology Group (CTONG). Patients with NSCLC naïve for systemic regimens were enrolled since August 2013. CTCs were detected by Cell Search Platform and identified as positive for EPCAM[+]CK[+]CD45[-] phenotype. CD117 (cKIT) marker was added to test the frequency of stem cell-like cKIT[+]EPCAM[+]CK[+]CD45[- ]CTCs. Primary endpoints were CTC counts and its correlation with first line therapy.

      Results:
      Totally 180 patients were enrolled. In 174 case total CTC and cKIT[+]CTC positive (cutoff >=1) rates were 38.5% (67/172) vs 14.3% (24/168), 21.8% (31/142) vs 6.3% (9/142), 13.7% (13/95) vs 6.4% (6/94) and 40.4% (38/94) vs 15.0% (13/93) at time-points of baseline, after first-cycle-chemo, after four-cycles-chemo and disease progression. At time immediately after first-cycle-chemo, patients in CTC=0 group got statistically higher ORR (29.0% VS 7.1%, P=0.017) and DCR (74.2% VS 42.9%, P=0.002) than in CTC>=1 group. At time after four-cycles-chemo, patients in CTC=0 group got statistically higher DCR (88.3% VS 58.3%, P=0.026) than in CTC>=1 group. At time either after first-cycle-chemo or after four-cycles-chemo, patients in CTC>=1 group got worse PFS (5.7m VS 4.0m, P=0.025; 6.3m VS 4.0m, P=0.001 ) than in CTC=0 group. At time after first-cycle-chemo, patients in groups cKIT[+]CTC>=1 and cKIT[-]CTC>=1 got worse PFSs (3.1m vs 4.0m vs 5.7m, P=0.001) and worse DCRs (44.4% vs 42.1% vs 73.9%, P=0.009) than in CTC=0 group. For 142 patients categorized into three groups of dynamic CTC decrease (17), CTC unchanged (82), and CTC increase (43), there were significant differences in terms of DCR (71.8% vs 71.6% vs 33.3%, P=0.018) and PFS (5.2m vs 5.6m vs 3.1m, P=0.037).

      Conclusion:
      In first line setting of advanced NSCLC, at time-points after first-cycle-chemo other than baseline, total CTC or cKIT[+]CTC counts could be predictive for worse DCR or PFS. CTC increase from baseline to after-first-cycle-chemo might be a strong signal for the inefficacy of first line chemotherapy in the NSCLC patients.

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    MA16 - Novel Strategies in Targeted Therapy (ID 407)

    • Event: WCLC 2016
    • Type: Mini Oral Session
    • Track: Chemotherapy/Targeted Therapy/Immunotherapy
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
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      MA16.06 - Phase I/II Study of AC0010, Mutant-Selective EGFR Inhibitor, in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients with EGFR T790M Mutation (Now Available) (ID 5117)

      Q. Zhou

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      AC0010 was designed specifically to inhibit EGFR active mutations and the T790M acquired resistant mutation. The purpose of the study is to determine the safety, antitumor activity and recommended phase II dose of AC0010 in T790M-postitive NSCLC patients after the first generation EGFR TKIs treatment.

      Methods:
      This is a dose escalation and expansion phase I/II study. Oral AC0010 was administered on a 28-day cycle with the starting dose at 50 mg BID. In any given dose cohort, if 1 out of 3 patients was evaluated as PR at the first cycle, and no DLT determined, up to 20 patients will be enrolled. Plasma samples were collected to evaluate pharmacokinetics of AC0010. T790M in biopsy samples was detected by a central laboratory. NCT02330367.

      Results:
      As of 10 Jul 2016, 136 patients have been treated across 7 cohorts (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350 mg BID). At the 30 Jun 2016 cutoff, 124 pts were evaluable. MTD has not been reached. The most common adverse events (AE) regardless of study drug relationship were diarrhea (38%), rash (26%) and ALT/AST elevation. Most AEs were grade 1 and 2. The most common Grade 3/4 drug-related AE was diarrhea (2%) rash (2%) and ALT/AST elevation (4%, 2%). All patients with AEs of the grade 3/4 were recovered after either stopped the treatment or reduced the dose. As of the cutoff date, there is no Grade 2,3 hyperglycemia, and grade 3 QTc prolongation. RECIST responses were observed at all dose levels except 50 mg BID. Amongst 124 evaluable patients in all cohorts, ORR (including unconfirmed responses) and disease control rate (DCR) was 44% and 85% respectively. In the dose cohorts between 150 mg BID and 300 mg BID (n=95 pts), the ORR and DCR were 51% and 89%. PK shows rapid absorption with a T~max~ of 2-4h and a median T1/2 of 8 h. At 300 mg BID, total 32 patients were treated and ORR and DCR are 53% and 90% respectively. Based on the efficacy, safety and PK results, the 300 mg BID was selected as RP2D. The phase II, AEGIS-1 study has started.The Phase II result will be presented.

      Conclusion:
      AC0010 shows a safe profile and antitumor activity against T790M mt NSCLC. Phase II, AEGIS-1 study is ongoing to evaluate therapeutic outcomes as a second line treatment for T790M positive NSCLC patients. Clinical trial information: NCT02330367

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    MA17 - Genetic Drivers (ID 409)

    • Event: WCLC 2016
    • Type: Mini Oral Session
    • Track: Biology/Pathology
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
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      MA17.05 - Evolutionary Trajectories of Molecular Progression in Different Subtypes of Primary Lung Adenocarcinomas (Now Available) (ID 5712)

      Q. Zhou

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Morphological and genetic heterogeneity predict prognostics, impede continuous responses to systemic regimens and foster inevitable treatment failure. But how morphological and genetic features evolve in tumorigenesis still remains controversial.

      Methods:
      Single(n=1112) and multiple(n=91) primary adenocarcinoma patients receiving surgeries with specific prominent subtypes were screened. Six patients with mixed ground glass opacities and maximum cross-sections of primary tumors were randomly selected. Intra-tumoral regions with different subtypes and imaging densities related to relative distributions, were resected for target region sequencing and further molecular evolutionary analyses.

      Results:
      Clinical data revealed certain preferences of driver gene mutations and discrepant survival benefits. Driver gene heterogeneity was higher in multiple primary lung cancers(51.7%, 15/29) than single ones(1.4%, 1/70). Copy number alterations implied more consistence within the same subtype and tended to be higher in lepidic subtype. Somatic nucleotide variants revealed highest homogeneity between different regions within the same tumor lesion. Sequencing data indicated larger fractions of geographically ubiquitous mutations than pathologically ones, and higher mutation frequencies of shared mutations in the lepidic than acinar subtype. Phylogenetic trees exhibited higher geographically private mutation burdens of lepidic than acinar region in lesions with mixed subtypes; while in lesions with the same subtype, the central region bore higher mutation burdens than in the periphery, implying a linear accumulation of genetic mutations. Functional analyses of private mutations verified that lepidic subtypes promoted intracellular organism and structure development, promoting growth and proliferation. Acinar subtypes lead to metabolic and signaling transduction pathway. Preferences of divergent pathway alterations delineated branched evolutions from low to higher grade subtypes. Figure 1



      Conclusion:
      We propose a model that the same morphological subtype evolves with a linear accumulation and mixed subtypes in branched evolutionary trajectories with preferences to pathway alterations. Couple with relatively geological distributions of different subtypes, tumor microenvironment might contribute more to genetic instability and thus tumor evolutions.

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    P1.05 - Poster Session with Presenters Present (ID 457)

    • Event: WCLC 2016
    • Type: Poster Presenters Present
    • Track: Early Stage NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      P1.05-046 - Randomized Study of Adjuvant Docetaxel vs. Observation for Completely Resected StageⅠB-Ⅲa NSCLC with 11 Years' Median Follow-Up (ID 5722)

      Q. Zhou

      • Abstract

      Background:
      Although previous meta-analyses have verified the significance of adjuvant chemotherapy, the role of adjuvant carbopatin plus docetaxel(DC) among patients with completely resected NSCLC with long periods of follow-up remains unclear.

      Methods:
      Eligible patients were randomly assigned to 4 cycles of DC or observation after complete resection. The primary end point was DFS; secondary ones were OS, the toxicity and safety of drugs. An increase of 15% in 1-year survival rate (observation arm 70%) with a sample size of 270 patients was considered significant.

      Results:
      This trial was suspended prematurely in June 2005 due to the negative survival benefits from chemotherapy in stage IB patients in the JBR10 trial. 82 patients were enrolled between 2002 to 2005(43 and 39 in each arm).Two arms were well-balanced on age, gender, histology, smoking history and staging. Median follow-up was 11 years(10.5-13y). DFS was marginally significantly longer in DC arm than observation (10.4 vs. 3.7y; HR=0.58; 95% CI, 0.33-1.03; P=0.06), as was 5-year DFS rates(63% vs. 41%, P=0.057). No statistical significance existed in OS (NR vs. 7.1y; P=0.103) or 5-year survival rates(76% vs. 61%; P=0.148). Multivariable analysis revealed patients receiving adjuvant DC(HR=0.54,95%CI 0.30-0.96,P=0.036) and with stage IB disease(HR=0.34,95%CI, 0.19-0.61,P<0.001) bore lower recurrence risk. In DC arm, 84% of patients received at least one cycle of DC, and 53% of patients finished four. Grades 3 adverse events occurred in 5%(2/43) in chemotherapy group. The time-varying endpoints showed adjuvant DC could delay the recurrence and mortality in the first postoperative 5ys, while two arms tended to be equivalent after 5ys. Figure 1



      Conclusion:
      This is the first randomized trial used DC as adjuvant chemotherapy suggesting a potentially significant role for completely resected early stage NSCLC with safety and compliance. Additionally, at least 10ys’ follow-up for each patient was vital to investigate the long-term time-varying recurrence and mortality pattern.

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    P2.03b - Poster Session with Presenters Present (ID 465)

    • Event: WCLC 2016
    • Type: Poster Presenters Present
    • Track: Advanced NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
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      P2.03b-001 - A Phase I Dose Expansion Study of Epitinib to Evaluate Efficacy and Safety in EGFR Mutation Positive (EGFRm+) NSCLC Patients with Brain Metastasis (Now Available) (ID 4253)

      Q. Zhou

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      A significant portion of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) develop brain metastasis. Patients with brain metastasis suffer from poor prognosis with a median survival of less than 6 months and low quality of life with limited treatment options. First generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs) have demonstrated significant clinical benefit for patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC. However, their effect on brain metastasis is limited due to poor drug penetration into the brain. Epitinib is an EGFR TKI designed to improve brain penetration. A Phase I dose escalation study on epitinib has been completed and the recommended Phase 2 dose (RP2D) determined (Y-L Wu, 2016 ASCO). This Phase I dose expansion study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of epitinib in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients with brain metastasis.

      Methods:
      This is an ongoing open label, multi-center Phase I dose expansion study. EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients with confirmed brain metastasis, either prior EGFR TKI treated or EGFR TKI treatment naïve, were enrolled to receive oral epitinib 160 mg per day. Patients with extra-cranial disease progression while on treatment with an EGFR TKI were excluded. Tumor response was assessed per RECIST 1.1.

      Results:
      As of 31 May, 2016, 27 patients (13 EGFR TKI pretreated, 14 EGFR TKI treatment naïve) have been enrolled and treated with epitinib. The most frequent adverse events (AEs) were skin rash (89%), elevated ALT (41%)/AST (37%), hyper-pigmentation (41%) and diarrhea (30%). The most frequent Grade 3/4 AEs were elevations in ALT (19%), gamma-GGT (11%), AST (7%), hyperbilirubinemia (7%) and skin rash (4%). There have been no Grade 5 AEs to date. Among the 24 efficacy evaluable patients (11 TKI pretreated, 13 TKI naïve), 7 (7/24, 29%) achieved a partial response (PR), including 1 unconfirmed PR. All PRs occurred in EGFR TKI treatment naïve patients (7/13, 53.8%). Of the 24 evaluable patients, 8 (5 EGFR TKI treatment naïve, 3 EGFR TKI pretreated) had measurable brain metastasis (lesion diameter>10 mm per RECIST 1.1) with 2 PRs (both EGFR TKI treatment naïve patients, 2/5, 40%).

      Conclusion:
      Epitinib 160mg per day treatment in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients with brain metastasis demonstrated clinical activity both extra- and intra-cranial. Epitinib was well tolerated. The data to date appears encouraging and warrants further development of epitinib.

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    P3.02a - Poster Session with Presenters Present (ID 470)

    • Event: WCLC 2016
    • Type: Poster Presenters Present
    • Track: Advanced NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
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      P3.02a-020 - Clinical Failure to Crizotinib in Patients with Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancers (Now Available) (ID 4523)

      Q. Zhou

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Crizotinib, as the standard treatment for use in first-line treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), showed superiority over platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma.Undoubtedly, the resistance to crizotinib is a current bottleneck which limits its clinical application. However, there are few reports about clinical failure to crizotinib, especially the correlation between the failure patterns of crizotinib and survival benefit.

      Methods:
      Totally,171 ALK-positive NSCLC patients treated with crizotinib were reviewed at the Guangdong General Hospital in China from October 2010 to July 2016.The status of ALK rearrangement was assessed by Lysis ALK Break Apart fluorescence in situ hybridization,reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, or Ventana ALK immunohistochemistry.Chi-square test and Kapla-Meier survival curve were used to analyze the results statistically.

      Results:
      Among enrolled patients,47.5%(81/171) gained secondary resistance,10.5%(18/171) had primary resistance and 4 patients stopped taking crizotinib because of the occurrence of unacceptable toxicities including anasarca,ventricular tachycardia and hepatic insufficiency. Moreover,49 patients had no progression,in which 2 patients had taken crizotinib more than 5 years uninterruptedly.In the patients with secondary resistance (n=81),46 were male and 63 were never smokers.Brain metastases occurred in 27.1%(22/81) at the baseline,half of which(11/22) still had brain progression after the treatment of crizotinib.On the contrary,21 patients without brain metastases at the baseline were evaluated at disease progression because of brain metastases.We classified patients with secondary resistance into several categories according to the failure patterns of crizotinib, such as dramatic,gradual and local progression.There were 47(58.0%), 2(2.5%) and 32(39.5%) patients for dramatic, gradual and local progression respectively.The patients with dramatic progression had an inferior progression-free survival with crizotinib to those with gradual and local progression (9.8 vs 11.9 months),which did not achieve statistical significance.The post progression survival(PPS) of dramatic progression group is 10.4 months.The PPS of other group is 20.5 months comparatively.Patients with dramatic progression showed shorter overall survival when compared with other patients (26.7 vs 41.0 months, P=0.042).

      Conclusion:
      Dramatic progression was prevalent in ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma beyond failure to crizotinib, and predicted poor overall survival.

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    P3.02b - Poster Session with Presenters Present (ID 494)

    • Event: WCLC 2016
    • Type: Poster Presenters Present
    • Track: Advanced NSCLC
    • Presentations: 4
    • Now Available
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      P3.02b-016 - An Exploration Study of Mechanisms Underlying Primary Resistance to EGFR-TKIs in Patients Harboring TKI-Sensitive EGFR Mutations (Now Available) (ID 4280)

      Q. Zhou

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Primary resistance to EGFR-TKIs was generally defined as disease progression in less than 3 months without any evidence of objective response. Although possible mechanisms have been investigated in several preclinical and retrospective studies, little is known about the molecular backgrounds of primary resistance.

      Methods:
      Random Sample of Cases was used to screen TKI-sensitive patients to match with the primary resistant patients on the basis of clinical characteristics (smoking history, EGFR mutations etc.). DNA was extracted from the tumor and their matched normal material. The paired-end whole exome sequencing (WES) of DNA was performed on the Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing platform.

      Results:
      Totally, five patients exhibiting primary resistance to EGFR-TKIs were enrolled and each was randomly matched with one patient possessing TKI sensitivity (Table1). The mean depth of the WES was 100x. The mean number of nonsynonymous SNV per sample was 195 (range 97 to 348) in TKI-resistant group versus 84 (range 60 to 101) in TKI-sensitive group (P=0.059). Consistent with the initial result of Sanger sequencing, all 10 patients were found with EGFR sensitizing mutations (exon 19 deletions or L858R point mutation in exon 21), but no T790M mutation; the resistance group present with a lower EGFR mutant allele frequency than the sensitive group. Next generation sequencing of TKI-resistant specimens detected KRAS amplification (CN~tumor ~/ CN~normal ~= 2.6) in one of five patients, and MET amplification (CN~tumor ~/ CN~normal ~= 2.3) in another one. The recurrent mutation genes included FAT4, RBM10, TANC2, ACAN, PPFIA2, UBR4, XIRP2 and PRAMEF1. Figure 1



      Conclusion:
      Next-generation sequencing offers more complete genomic analysis to understand the mechanism of differential responses to EGFR-TKIs, which can lead to more precision therapy. KRAS amplification appears to be a newly mechanism underlying primary resistance to EGFR-TKIs in patients harboring TKI-sensitive EGFR mutations. However, it needs to be validated in a larger cohort.

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      P3.02b-059 - The Role of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in the Onset of Skeletal Related Events in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Now Available) (ID 6042)

      Q. Zhou

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Bone metastasis is frequent in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and subsequent skeletal related events (SREs) adversely deteriorate life quality and survival. Patients harboring sensitive epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation experience a prolonged life expectancy. However, it is unclear whether survival enhancement in NSCLC patients with sensitive EGFR mutation may encounter an increase in the onset of SREs or not. Also, it is still unknown whether time to SREs is impacted by EGFR mutation status. In this study, we evaluated the impact of EGFR mutation status and other clinic-pathological variables on the incidence of SREs and on survival outcomes of SREs in stage IV NSCLC patients.

      Methods:
      We conducted a retrospective study of medical records from patients who were diagnosed stage IV NSCLC in a single institute. EGFR mutation status, and other clinical-pathological variables, bone metastasis outcomes and survival data were collected and statistically analyzed.

      Results:
      410 patients with evident bone metastasis were enrolled in the study. 49.0% patients were detected with sensitive EGFR mutation, and 29.0% were prophylactically administered bisphosphonate. 42.7% experienced at least one SRE, the most common type of which was palliative radiotherapy. Patient harboring sensitive EGFR mutation hold a lower incidence of SREs than patients who were detected with wild type EGFR (37.3% vs 47.8%, p=0.031), and patients who received bisphosphonate confronted a lower incidence of SRE comparing with patients who didn’t receive bisphosphonate prophylactically (36.1% vs 45.4%, p=0.087). Median time from bone metastasis to first SRE was two months longer in patients with EGFR mutation, comparing to patients with wild type EGFR, with a marginal significance (5.0m vs 3.0m, p=0.08). The administration of bisphosphonate delayed the median time to first SRE for 5 months (7.0m vs 2.0m, p=0.037). In multivariate analysis using a Cox proportion model, wild type EGFR (HR=1.559, 95%CI 1.081-2.249), multiple bone lesions (HR= 1.991, 95%CI 1.217-3.258), mixed type bone lesions (HR=2.144, 95%CI 1.085-4.238) were independent risk factors of survival post first SRE, while a smoking history (HR=1.428, p=0.053) was shown marginally significant with an impaired survival post first SRE.

      Conclusion:
      This retrospective study shows that EGFR mutation has a propensity to impact the onset of SRE and prolong survival post first SRE in patients with stage IV NSCLC. For patients with higher risks to experience SREs, bisphosphonate is an alternative to impede the process.

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      P3.02b-095 - Tracing Spatiotemporal T790M Heterogeneity in Patients with EGFR-Mutant Advanced NSCLC after Acquired Resistance to EGFR TKIs (Now Available) (ID 6057)

      Q. Zhou

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      With the marketing of osimertinib, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation has become a clinically significant biomarker for advanced EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after acquired resistance to previous EGFR TKIs. However, T790M status might vary spatiotemporally and consequently hinder the initiation and clinical efficacy of third generation EGFR TKIs. Till now, the spatiotemporal traces of T790M under treatment pressure have not been fully elucidated.

      Methods:
      We retrospectively reviewed T790M status and clinical courses of 93 patients who underwent multiple (≥2) rebiopsies after acquired resistance to first or second generation EGFR TKIs from 2010 to 2015 in Guangdong General Hospital. Patients underwent synchronous rebiopsies at the same lesion or paired tissue and plasma rebiopsies were enrolled to evaluate the spatial T790M heterogeneity. Patients received heterochronous rebiopsies at the same lesion or different lesions were enrolled to evaluate the temporal and spatiotemporal T790M heterogeneity respectively.Tissue EGFR detection was performed by SNAPSHOT or Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS). Plasma EGFR was detected by ARMS.

      Results:
      A total of 99 evaluations were performed with 6 of 93 enrolled patients underwent both synchronous and heterochronous rebiopsies. Among 20 patients who underwent synchronous rebiopsies at the same lesion, 13 revealed T790M heterogeneity. Among 17 patients who had paired tissue and plasma rebiopsies, 8 showed T790M heterogeneity. Spatial T790M heterogeneity ratio was 57% (21/37) in general. 33% (10/30) patients who received heterochronous rebiopsies at the same lesion revealed temporal T790M heterogeneity. Spatiotemporal T790M heterogeneity was observed in 53% (17/32) of patients who received heterochronous multiple sites rebiopsies. Of abovementioned patients with heterochronous T790M heterogeneity, T790M status in 67% (18/27) switched from negative to positive after chemotherapy or continuation of EGFR TKIs and in 33% (9/27) switched from positive to negative after chemotherapy or combined regimens of chemotherapy and EGFR TKIs.

      Conclusion:
      T790M status could vary spatiotemporally at a ratio of 33-57% in patients with acquired resistance to previous EGFR TKIs. Repeated rebiopsies both at the same lesion and various lesions might be valued particularly in T790M-negative cases in this subset of patients.

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      P3.02b-116 - Molecular Mechanism of Transformation from Adenocarcinoma to Small-Cell Lung Cancer after EGFR-TKI (Now Available) (ID 4983)

      Q. Zhou

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      In patients with advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations, EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are recommended as first-line treatment due to favorable clinical efficacy. However, acquired resistance inevitably develops after median progression-free survival (PFS) of 9-14 months. Among the mechanisms of acquired resistance, small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) transformation was reported to account for nearly 5%. However, the molecular details underlying this histological change and resistance to EGFR-TKI therapy remain unclear.

      Methods:
      15 out of 233 (6.4%) patients were confirmed to develop SCLC transformation after failure to EGFR-TKI. We analyzed the clinical parameters of these patients by using chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier analysis. To explore gene alterations that might contribute to SCLC transformation, next generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on four pairs of matched pre- and post-transformation tumor tissue samples. We further performed NGS on 11 matched circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) to explore the potential mechanism of resistance to EGFR-TKI.

      Results:
      The median age of SCLC transformed patients was 53 years. 93.3% (14/15) patients harbored EGFR exon19 deletion. The median PFS and overall survival (OS) of SCLC-transformed patients treated with EGFR-TKI compared to those without transformation were 11.7 versus 11.9 months (P=0.473) and 29.4 versus 24.3 months (P=0.664), respectively. All 4 patients developed loss of heterozygosity of TP53/RB1 after transformation. Besides, increased copy number of five proto-oncogenes were identified in post-transformation tissue samples. Three patients developed EGFR T790M mutation in the post-transformation ctDNA rather than their tissue samples.

      Conclusion:
      SCLC transformation was commonly seen in patients harboring EGFR exon 19 deletion. The clinical outcomes of TKI and OS in SCLC transformed patients were similar to non-transformed patients. The loss of heterozygosity of TP53 and RB1 along with increased copy number of proto-oncogenes may lead to the SCLC transformation. The mechanisms of acquired resistance to TKI during SCLC transformation might be the emergence of classic drug resistance mutations, which was undetectable due to the intra-tumor heterogeneity.

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    SC23 - The Importance of Co-Operative Groups (ID 347)

    • Event: WCLC 2016
    • Type: Science Session
    • Track: Scientific Co-Operation/Research Groups (Clinical Trials in Progress should be submitted in this category)
    • Presentations: 1
    • Now Available
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      SC23.04 - Cooperative Groups in China: The CSCO Experience (Now Available) (ID 6697)

      Q. Zhou

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Abstract:
      In order to keep up with the rapid development of world cancer treatment exploring, Chinese clinical oncology professionals, relevant enterprises and public institutions voluntarily constituted a non-profit professional academic group which is known as The Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) in April 1997. The CSCO organization not only pay attention to international collaboration such as establishing reciprocal memberships with American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) , European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), Clinical Oncological Society of Australia (COSA) and participating rotation of presidency organization of Asia Clinical Oncology Society (ACOS), but also committed to Chinese Oncology development. The CSCO annual meeting delivered the latest advancements and research fruit from home and abroad which offered a great academic exchange platform for vast amount of Chinese oncologists. CSCO also organize experts to make tumor diagnosis and treatment standardized guideline. Up to date, CSCO has launched dozens of guidelines regarding many major cancers in china, including non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. The newly made guideline about non-small cell lung cancer has fully considered Chinese special situation, not only disease characteristics, but also social economic factors, which made a good example of better suiting Chinese oncologists and patients. Other than this, CSCO developed multi-center clinical researches which offered solid evidence for Chinese cancer patients and made contribution to world cancer diagnosis and treatment. Most of clinical researches were carried out by Study Group majored in different cancers, such as Chinese Thoracic Oncology Group (CTONG), Chinese Breast Cancer Study Group (CBCSG) and Chinese Gastrointestinal Oncology Group (CGOG). The CSCO also keeps an open mind and follows the trend of hot spot, such as building expert committee on cancer biomarkers and precise medicine, even making consensus on standard of driver gene mutation test, standard of operation procedure and so on. Of all the Study Groups in CSCO, CTONG is the most active and fruitful committee. CTONG is also the most active organization in lung cancer field in China. Through the great effort of four top experts majored in lung cancer (Yi-Long Wu, Li Zhang, Shun Lu and Cai-Cun Zhou), CTONG was successfully established in 2007. With the goal of designing and developing multi-center clinical trials in the field of chest tumor, especially for lung cancer, providing high level of evidence for clinical practice of thoracic tumor, promoting standardization, modernization and internationalization of clinical and research work in thoracic tumor area and finally improving the level of diagnosis and treatment of chest tumor in China, as well as international status, CTONG has actually made massive efforts and achieved great success. Up to date, CTONG has 31 members from 15 provinces and municipality cities and has successfully performed 47 clinical trials in China. Half of these clinical trials established China lung cancer treatment modalities. Take CTONG 0802 study (OPTIMAL) for example, the multicenter open-label randomized phase II study compared erlotinib with combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin in first-line treatment of patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC[1], Median progression-free survival was significantly longer in erlotinib-treated patients than in those on chemotherapy (13.1 [95% CI 10.58-16.53] vs 4.6 [4.21-5.42] months; hazard ratio 0.16, 95% CI 0.10-0.26; p<0.0001). Chemotherapy was associated with more grade 3 or 4 toxic effects than was erlotinib (including neutropenia in 30 [42%] of 72 patients and thrombocytopenia in 29 [40%] patients on chemotherapy vs no patients with either event on erlotinib), which suggested that erlotinib is important for first-line treatment of patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. The results of CTONG0802 was orally presented on ESMO2010, WCLC 2011, discussed on ASCO 2011 and published on Lancet Oncology. CTONG 0901 study compared erlotinib with gefitinib in patients with EGFR mutation positive stage IIIb/IV NSCLC and found no PFS or OS difference between these two regimens which offered solid evidence for clinical choice[2]. CTONG also paid attention to first-line maintenance therapy, second-line treatment, Another well-known study of CTONG is FASTACT-II (CTONG0902) proved that erlotinib maintenance therapy after first-line gemcitabine combined with cisplatin improves overall survival of stage IIIB/IV NSCLC patients[3]. CTONG 0806 study suggested improvement in PFS and an improved OS trend with pemetrexed compared with gefitinib as second-line setting treatment of EGFR wild-type advanced non-squamous NSCLC[4]. There were also many studies focused on palliative treatment, brain metastasis and peri-operative treatments and achieved meaningful results in these fields. Additionally, CTONG has initiated the very first real-world study in China targeting 1st line treatment pattern of advanced non-squamous NSCLC patients, the study concern difference between scientific achievements and clinical practice in China and set a great beginning of caring for patients’ actual profits. The currently ongoing reform for new drug approval of CFDA provides great chances for the development of clinical trials in China and domestic drug innovation such as icotinib and apatinib. CTONG and other study groups also face more opportunities. CTONG, as the successful example of CSCO study groups, is expected to make more contributions to china lung cancer treatment. Hopefully, CSCO achievements will finally benefit more Chinese cancer patients and make more contribution to world cancer control. Reference: 1. Zhou C, Wu YL, Chen G, et al. Erlotinib versus chemotherapy as first-line treatment for patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (OPTIMAL, CTONG-0802): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12(8):735-742. 2. Yang JJ, Zhou Q, Yan HH, et al. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Erlotinib versus Gefitinib in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Harboring EGFR Mutations (CTONG0901). J Thorac Oncol 2015;10(2), S321(ABSTRACT MINI 16.03) 3. Wu YL, Lee JS, Thongprasert S, et al. Intercalated combination of chemotherapy and erlotinib for patients with advanced stage non-small-cell lung cancer (FASTACT-2): a randomised, double-blind trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Jul;14(8):777-86. 4. Zhou Q, Cheng Y, Yang JJ, et al. Pemetrexed versus gefitinib as a second-line treatment in advanced nonsquamous nonsmall-cell lung cancer patients harboring wild-type EGFR (CTONG0806): a multicenter randomized trial. Ann Oncol. 2014 ;25(12):2385-2391.

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