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J.A. Engelman



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    MINI 02 - Immunotherapy (ID 92)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 1
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      MINI02.02 - Programmed Cell Death Ligand (PD-L1) Expression in Stage II and III Lung Adenocarcinomas and Nodal Metastases (ID 1519)

      J.A. Engelman

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Inhibition of PD-L1 can lead to reactivation of tumor immunity and assist in cancer therapy. PD-L1 expression in tumor cells has been reported to correlate with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in a variety of cancers including lung adenocarcinomas (ADC). However, it has not been well studied whether PD-L1 expression is altered along with tumor progression. In addition, little is known about the role of PD-L1 expression in predicting response to chemotherapy in ADC. Thus, we sought to compare PD-L1 expression in the main tumor and lymph node metastases of stage II and III ADC, and correlate PD-L1 expression with survival in patients who underwent adjuvant chemotherapy.

      Methods:
      The study cohort consisted of 109 ADC who underwent curative resection without neoadjuvant therapy and were diagnosed to have stage II or III disease. Of those, 60 cases received platinum-based adjuvant therapy and were followed at our institution. Immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 (E1L3N, 1:200, CST) was performed on sections of the primary tumor and/or metastatic lymph nodes and the primary tumor sections were also stained with CD8 (4B11, RTU, Leica Bond). Membranous staining of any intensity present in 5% or more of the tumor cells was deemed positive for PD-L1 expression. CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were evaluated using a 4-tier grading system (0-3). The PD-L1 expression in the primary tumor was correlated with that in lymph node metastases as well as clinicopathological parameters, including CD8+ TILs, and recurrence free survival (RFS).

      Results:
      Of the 109 cases, 53 (48.6 %) exhibited PD-L1 expression in the primary tumor, which was significantly associated with smaller tumor size, lower pT stage, nodal disease, solid-predominant pattern, the presence of tumor islands, necrosis and lymphovascular invasion, and increased CD8+ TILs (grade 2-3). Upon multivariate analysis, only increased CD8+ TILs remained significant (p=0.039). As for the primary – lymph node correlation, PD-L1 expression was seen in 57.6% of 59 N1 nodes, 53.1% of 32 N2 nodes, and 100% of one N3 node available for evaluation. The PD-L1 expression status was the same between the primary tumor and nodal metastases in the majority (76.3 % of N1 nodes, and 75.0% of N2; p<0.001 and p=0.005, respectively), and the upregulation of PD-L1 expression (positive expression was present in nodal metastasis with negative primary) was seen in only small fractions of the cohort (6.8% of N1 nodes and 9.3% of L2 nodes). Interestingly, PD-L1 expression in the primary tumor was associated with longer RFS in patients who underwent platinum-based adjuvant therapy (mean 84 months vs. 41 months in PD-L1 negative patients, p=0.016), but not in those without adjuvant therapy.

      Conclusion:
      PD-L1 expression in the primary tumor was associated with prominent CD8+ TILs as well as several adverse clinicopathological parameters including nodal disease, but PD-L1 expression in the nodal metastasis was similar to that in the primary tumor in the majority of cases. Although the evaluation was limited due to a small size of the cohort, PD-L1 expression in the primary tumor appears to be predictive of response to platinum-based adjuvant therapy.

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    MINI 08 - Prognostic/Predictive Biomarkers (ID 106)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 1
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      MINI08.04 - VeriStrat® and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation Status in a Phase 1b/2 Study of Cabozantinib +/- Erlotinib in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (ID 552)

      J.A. Engelman

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      VeriStrat is a blood-based multivariate proteomic test that predicts response to second line epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR TKI) therapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report a retrospective blinded analysis of VeriStrat classification in plasma samples from a phase 1b/2 trial of cabozantinib (C) +/- erlotinib (E) in metastatic NSCLC patients who had all progressed after benefiting from EGFR TKI therapy. Cabozantinib inhibits the MET/hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) pathway, and VeriStrat may be a surrogate marker for this pathway.

      Methods:
      Patients enrolled into phase 1b (1A:60 mg C+150 mg E, 2A:60 mg C+100 mg E, 3A:100 mg C+100 mg E, 4A:100 mg C+50 mg E, 2B:40 mg C+150 mg E) and phase 2 (Arm A:100 mg C, Arm B:100 mg C+50 mg E). EGFR mutation (EGFRm) status was tested on archival tissue and/or plasma when available. The primary objective was to determine if pre-treatment VeriStrat (VS) classification, good or poor, was prognostic for patients treated with cabozantinib +/- erlotinib. Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test was used to compare progression-free survival (PFS) of VS-good v. VS-poor patients. Outcomes were stratified by EGFRm status (mutated v. wild type WT/unknown UNK).

      Results:
      Of 79 evaluable patients, 71 were classified as VS-good and 8 as VS-poor. 55.7% had an activating EGFRm (majority exon 19 del/exon 21 L858R) and 12.7% had UNK EGFRm status. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics between VeriStrat-groups. VS-good patients had a statistically improved PFS: VS-good 3.7 mo. (95% CI 3.5-5.4) v. VS-poor 1.9 mo. (95% CI 1.1-3.4), p=0.014. This was still true after excluding 14 patients who had received cabozantinib alone (p=0.005). There was no difference in PFS for VS-good patients when stratified by EGFRm status. There was also no difference in PFS for VS-poor patients with WT/UNK EGFR v. VS-good patients irrespective of EGFRm status. However, VS-poor patients with WT/UNK EGFR had improved PFS compared to VS-poor patients with an EGFRm (3.1 mo. v. 1.6 mo., HR 0.15, 95% CI 0.03-0.68).

      Conclusion:
      VeriStrat is a strong prognostic marker in this study. This study suggests cabozantinib neutralized the worse prognosis of VS-poor patients with WT/UNK EGFR. Given the heterogeneity of treatment dosing, the small number of VS-poor patients, and a high proportion of unknown EGFRm (including T790M) status, this analysis should be considered exploratory.

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    MINI 30 - New Kinase Targets (ID 157)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      MINI30.06 - Activity of AUY922 in NSCLC Patients With EGFR Exon 20 Insertions (ID 1744)

      J.A. Engelman

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      EGFR exon 20 insertions (ins20) represent a rare subtype (4%) of EGFR mutations and are refractory to EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). No effective targeted therapies exist for patients (pts) with ins20; median PFS on the irreversible EGFR TKI Afatinib is 2.8 months (mos). Based on a durable RECIST partial response (PR) to AUY922, a Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, observed in an EGFR ins20 patient in a previous study (NCT01124864), we designed a phase II investigator-initiated trial to assess the activity of AUY922 in NSCLC pts with EGFR ins20. Since pts with these mutations are rare, we identified other international investigators who have treated ins20 patients with AUY922. Here, we present the results of a pooled international experience of 21 patients with EGFR ins20 treated with AUY922 in the United States, Taiwan and the Netherlands.

      Methods:
      A total of 21 patients with EGFR in20 are included in this analysis. 14 were treated on a single-arm, multi-center, open-label study of AUY922 in advanced NSCLC pts with EGFR ins20 mutations in the US (NCT01854034). Five were treated on a multicenter Taiwanese trial of AUY922 across a variety of molecular NSCLC subtypes (NCT01922583) and two were treated on a compassionate-use basis in the Netherlands. The starting dose of AUY922 was 70mg/m2 IV weekly for all patients.

      Results:
      21 pts, including 14 females and 7 males, average age 55 (range, 27-75) were included in this analysis. The median number of prior therapies was 2 (range, 1-6.) 6 pts received a prior EGFR TKI; none responded to TKI monotherapy. The most common AUY922-related toxicities were grade 1-2 visual changes (18/21; 86%) diarrhea (18/21; 86%) and fatigue (15/21; 71%). The only treatment-related grade 3 toxicities was hypertension (2/21; 1%) and AST elevation (1/21; 0.5%). There was one death on study, related to pre-existing comorbidity/unrelated to AUY922. Among the 21 patients treated, 5 achieved a partial response by RECIST 1.1 (ORR 24%) (Figure 1.) The median PFS estimate is 3.9 mos (95% CI, 2.9 to 10.7.) 6 patients remain on treatment at the time of abstract submission. Updated results and correlation with specific ins20 mutations will be presented. Figure 1



      Conclusion:
      This international experience suggests that AUY922 may be an active therapy for advanced NSCLC pts with EGFR ins20 mutations with an ORR 24% and median PFS 3.9 mo. AUY922 is generally well-tolerated, though reversible low-grade ocular toxicity is common. Further study of AUY922 in this population is warranted.

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    MTE 02 - Patients, Investigators and Pharmaceuticals Working Together to Accelerate Research and Access: The Lung Cancer Master Protocol (Lung-MAP) Clinical Trial (Ticketed Session) (ID 54)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Meet the Expert (Ticketed Session)
    • Track: Advocacy
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/07/2015, 07:00 AM - 08:00 AM, 105
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      MTE02.01 - Patients, Investigators and Pharmaceuticals Working Together to Accelerate Research and Access: The Lung Cancer Master Protocol (Lung-MAP) Clinical Trial (ID 1979)

      J.A. Engelman

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Abstract:
      The traditional obstacles to approval of oncologic therapeutic agents, especially targeted therapies that address a rare-biomarker defined group of patients are the long processes from initial drug discovery to clinical implementation, the difficulties in recruitment for these clinical trials and high number of screen failures and the overall low rate of enrollment in clinical trials. The Lung Master Protocol (Lung-MAP, S1400) is a precedent-setting clinical trial designed to advance the efficient development of targeted therapies for squamous cell cancer of the lung (SCCA). There are few new effective therapeutic options for patients with advanced lung SCCA. Immunotherapies, including nivolumab, have already shown clear benefit for patients with SCCA in 2015 leading to approval by the FDA which has been an unprecedented step forward for the treatment of patients, however we are still lacking predictive markers for these therapies that are reliably selecting patients more likely to benefit. Lung-MAP (S1400) is aiming to identify biomarker-drug pairs that will lead to successful therapeutic outcomes and registration of new agents. It is a registration-intent master protocol that includes a screening component and clinical trial component; the clinical trial component includes multiple sub-studies which independently evaluate investigational therapies. The clinical trial component is designed to be modular such that new sub-studies can be added either as other sub-studies close or as new biomarker-drug pairs are identified for testing in this patient population. Lung-MAP is utlilizing a broad NGS screening platform capitalizing on the expanding application of genomic sequencing in oncology that has through the Cancer Genome Atlas and other sequencing initiatives revealed targetable genetic aberrations including gene mutations, rearrangements, amplifications, and deletions, and creating an immense opportunity to implement personalized therapy with a high potential to improve patients outcomes. Immunotherapy has been integrated in the design of Lung-MAP from its launch in June of 2014. The original study design and structure is shown in the figure. Figure 1 The modular design of the study has allowed for the flexibility to adapt to the approval of nivolumab and the hault in further development of AMG102 (rilotumumab) with discontinuation of the corresponding sub-study by implementing timely modifications which include the following:1)Eligibility has changed from exclusively second line therapy to second-or more line therapy 2)Pre-screening, while patient receive first line therapy has been added to boost accrual 3)the unmatched arm has been changed to a single (not randomized) arm study with the anti-PD-L1 agent MEDI-4736. Theses changes are reflected in the figure. Each independently conducted and analyzed sub-study specifies investigator-assessed progression-free survival (IA-PFS) and overall survival (OS) as the co-primary endpoints for the phase 3 primary objectives. The primary objectives for the phase 3 are to determine if there is a statistically significant difference in OS and to determine if there is both a clinically meaningful and statistically significant difference in IA-PFS. The conduct of Lung-MAP relies on close collaboration (a public-private partnership) among the NCI and NCTN (spearheaded by SWOG), the pharmaceutical industry, the Foundation for the NIH (FNIH), Friends of Cancer Research, advocates, and FDA. This Master Protocol will improve genomic screening of SCC patients for clinical trial entry, and improve time lines for drug-biomarker testing, allowing for inclusion of the maximum numbers of otherwise eligible patients. The clinical trial continues to be updated following science and alterations in the therapeutic landscape, with adaptations in design and incorporation of new agents against matched targets and the implementation of novel immunotherapy approaches for the unmatched arm. Figure 2





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    ORAL 13 - Immunotherapy Biomarkers (ID 104)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 1
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      ORAL13.01 - PD-L1 Expression in Lung Adenocarcinomas Correlates with KRAS Mutations and Th1/Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Microenvironment (ID 2496)

      J.A. Engelman

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      The interaction of PD-1, with its ligand, PD-L1 induces apoptosis of T cells and inhibits cytokine production, allowing tumor cells to bypass immune surveillance. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells can be upregulated via interferon gamma that is secreted by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and/or Th1 pathway activation, counterbalancing the Th1/CTL microenvironment. Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint in solid tumors has resulted in durable responses in early phase clinical trials. Moreover, protein expression of PD-L1 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) reportedly predicts patient response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies. Multiple studies have reported associations of PD-L1 expression with clinicopathological variables in lung adenocarcinomas (ADC), but such studies have produced conflicting results, possibly due to use of different antibody clones and cutoffs and possibly different ethnicities of the cohort. Thus, we correlated PD-L1 expression with clinicopathological and molecular profiles including subtypes of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in a large lung ADC cohort using a cut-off commonly used in clinical trials.

      Methods:
      PD-L1 (E1L3N, 1:200, CST), CD8 (4B11, RTU, Leica Bond), T-bet (Th1 transcription factor, D6N8B, 1:100, CST), and GATA3 (Th2 transcription factor, L50-823, 1:250, Biocare) IHC were performed on tissue microarrays constructed of 242 resected lung ADC. All cases underwent detailed histological analysis and a subset (n=128) of cases underwent clinical molecular testing. Membranous expression (regardless of intensity) in 5% or more tumor cells was deemed positive for PD-L1 expression. CD8+, T-bet+ and GATA3+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were evaluated using a 4-tier grading system (0-3).

      Results:
      Our study cohort consisted of 242 patients with a pathologic stage of 0 in 1 case, I in 188, II in 37, III in 9, and IV in 7. Among those, 38 (15.7%) exhibited PD-L1 expression which was significantly associated with smoking history (p=0.008), large tumor size (p=0.007), solid predominant pattern (p<0.001), high nuclear grade (grade 3, p<0.001), vascular invasion (p=0.012), increased T-bet+ TILs (grade 2, p<0.001) and CD8+ TILs (grade 2, p<0.001), and KRAS mutations (p=0.001). High nuclear grade (p=0.011), KRAS mutations (p=0.004), and increased CD8+ TILs (p=0.005) remained significant predictors of PD-L1 expression in multivariate analysis, while advanced stage (II or higher vs. I, p=0.056) showed a trend towards PD-L1 expression. There was no difference in the 5-year progression free survival (PFS) between the PD-L1 positive and negative patients. In contrast, increased CD8+ TILs showed a borderline significance with favorable outcome (p=0.082), with the 5-year PFS being 87% for the CD8 positive group and 68% for the CD8 negative group, but neither PD-L1 nor CD8+ TILs was a significant predictor of survival by the cox proportional-hazards regression model.

      Conclusion:
      PD-L1 expression in ADC significantly correlates with KRAS mutations and several clinicopathological signatures of KRAS-mutants, including significant smoking history. The latter may have resulted in development of multiple passenger mutations that serve as neoantigens promoting the Th1/CTL microenvironment. These results suggest that blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis may be a promising treatment strategy to reinstitute the Th1/CTL microenvironment for patients with KRAS-mutated ADC, in which there are currently no available treatment options.

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