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D.R. Gandara

Moderator of

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    ORAL 32 - EGFR WT and MT Targeting (ID 144)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 8
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      ORAL32.01 - Tumor Genomic Analysis from LUX-Lung 8: A Phase III Trial of Afatinib versus Erlotinib in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung (ID 1401)

      04:45 - 04:56 PM  |  Author(s): J. Soria, E. Felip, M. Cobo, S. Lu, V. Georgoulias, A. Ardizzoni, S. Gadgeel, N. Gibson, C. Ittrich, V.K. Chand, G. Goss

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Overexpression of EGFR and other ErbB receptors, and/or dysregulation of their downstream pathways are implicated in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung, generating interest in exploring EGFR/ErbB-targeted agents in this setting. Recent analyses from the global LUX-Lung 8 trial (n=795) in patients with SCC of the lung demonstrated that second-line afatinib (an irreversible ErbB family blocker) conferred overall survival (OS; median 7.9 vs 6.8 months; HR [95% CI] 0.81 [0.69‒0.95]; p=0.008) and progression-free survival (PFS; median 2.6 vs 1.9 months; HR [95% CI] 0.81 [0.69‒0.96]; p=0.010) benefit over erlotinib (a reversible EGFR inhibitor). To assess biomarkers for efficacy for these agents in SCC we conducted an exploratory analysis using archival tumor tissue collected at time of study entry.

      Methods:
      Among all randomized patients, samples were retrospectively enriched for those from patients with PFS >2 months and appropriate controls (PFS ≤2 months; Figure 1) and were selected for analysis using the Foundation Medicine (FM) FoundationOne™ next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform (n=433); 300 cancer-related genes were analyzed for copy number alterations (CNAs), rearrangements and single nucleotide variants (SVs). Preliminary results from the 238 samples analyzable so far (~30% of the randomized patients), focusing on genomic alterations of EGFR and their potential association to survival endpoints PFS and OS, are presented.

      Results:
      Fourteen EGFR SVs (5.8%) were detected of which 10 were novel with unknown clinical significance (Figure 1). Figure 1 Four had been previously reported; 2 (E114K [afatinib arm], Q1021* [erlotinib arm]) occurred in the non-kinase domains and 2 (L861Q [afatinib arm], L858R [erlotinib arm]) in the kinase domain. The frequency of EGFR CNAs (n=15 [6.3%]; afatinib: 9; erlotinib: 6) was also low. At the time of these ongoing analyses, these low frequencies of EGFR mutations/amplifications were deemed not to be associated with the observed improvements in PFS and OS. Genomic alterations aggregated across two key gene groups (ErbB and FGF families) and their association with survival outcomes will be presented.



      Conclusion:
      The frequency of EGFR genomic aberrations in the samples tested was low. Based on this analysis of a subgroup of patients, PFS and OS improvements conferred by afatinib in LUX-Lung 8 were not driven by the presence of activating EGFR mutations or amplifications and may be related to afatinib’s ability to inactivate multiple aberrant signaling cascades associated with, and downstream of, ErbB receptors.

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      ORAL32.02 - Long-Term Survivors with EGFR Wild-Type Advanced NSCLC Treated with Second-Line Erlotinib: Subgroup Analysis from WILT Study (ID 1661)

      04:56 - 05:07 PM  |  Author(s): J. De Castro, R. Bernabe, M.A. Sala, J. Puente, S. Vazquez, M. Majem, M.R. Garcia-Campelo, A. Paredes, R. Lopez, R. Girones, P. Diz, J. Gomez-Codina, A. Triguboff, A. Terrancle, R. Gordo

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      The overwhelming majority of advanced NSCLC p worldwide is wild-type (WT) EGFR. The results reported so far are difficult to interpret due to the heterogeneous nature of this large group of p. There is a variation in terms of efficacy considering known prognostic factors; however, other characteristics, as yet undefined, might further explain this variability. In the clinical setting, prolonged second-line treatment with Erlotinib (E) has been identified in a small group of p with WT EGFR leading to a long-term survival. The role of E in this special subset needs to be further determined in order to identify who might be most likely to benefit.

      Methods:
      WILT is a multicentre, open-label, observational study. WT EGFR (if rarely unknown, both squamous tumour and current/former smoking status as mandatory criteria) advanced NSCLC p treated with second-line E (150mg/d, until unacceptable toxicity/progressive disease) were included. Using a prognostic index model, the aim of this study is to identify subgroups of p with specific clinical and laboratory parameters that are likely to derive clinically meaningful and statistically significant benefit from E. Here we present the results of patients’ subgroups with long-term E treatment in second-line setting (PFS≥6 months and PFS≥9 months).

      Results:
      355 p were included in the study and preliminary reported data showed an overall median PFS of 2.3 months, finding 40% of p with a median PFS>2.5 months. Baseline subgroups characteristics of 52 p (14.6%) with a PFS≥6 months and 30 p (8.5%) with a PFS≥9 months are shown in Table 1. Efficacy data in PFS≥6 months subgroup: Median PFS of 10.8 months (95% CI: 9.2-12.3). Objective Response Rate of 21.6% and Disease Control Rate of 82.4%. Main related grade≥3 toxicities were rash (1.9%) and diarrhoea (3.8%). Efficacy data in PFS≥9 months subgroup: Median PFS of 13.5 months (95% CI: 12-15). Objective Response Rate of 17.2% and Disease Control Rate of 82.8%. Main related grade≥3 toxicities were rash (3.3%) and diarrhoea (6.7%). Table1: Patient characteristics

      SLP ≥6 months (N=52) SLP ≥9 months (N=30)
      Median age ( years) 65 67
      Male/Female (%) 69/31 67/33
      ECOG 0/1/2 (%) 21/62/17 23/64/13
      Histology (%) Adenocarcinoma/Squamous 48/39 43/50
      Stage (%) IV 75 67
      EGFR status (%) WT Unknown* 85 15 80 20
      Smoking status (%) Current/Never/Former 19/17/64 17/16/67
      Metastases (%) Yes Lung/Bone/CNS/Pleura/Liver 83 44/21/14/12/9 77 39/22/9/13/13
      Prior platinum-based doublet (%) Yes 94 93
      Prior Maintenance Treatment (%) Yes 27 17
      Best response to first-line (%) CR+PR/SD 48/31 40/37
      Weight loss during first-line (%) Yes 22 23
      Anaemia (%) Yes 69 63
      *Unknown: Squamous and current/former smokers

      Conclusion:
      Global efficacy results of E, in terms of PFS, match with previously reported data for second-line setting. A long-term survivors group has been identified, whom the administration of E resulted in an extraordinary prolonged response. Highlighting the heterogeneity of this subgroup, it was not possible the identification of standardized prognostic factors. Potentially molecular variables for long-term survival with E in WT EGFR NSCLC could play a role in the determination of different evolutions.

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      ORAL32.03 - Efficacy and Safety of Necitumumab Continuation Therapy in Phase 3 SQUIRE Study (ID 1391)

      05:07 - 05:18 PM  |  Author(s): T. Ciuleanu, M.A. Socinski, C. Obasaju, A.V. Luft, A. Szczesna, W. Szafrański, R. Ramlau, B. Bálint, A. Kazarnowicz, O. Molinier, H. Depenbrock, S. Nanda, P. Paterson, L. Paz-Ares, N. Thatcher

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      The SQUIRE study demonstrated that the addition of necitumumab (N) to gemcitabine-cisplatin (GC) improved survival in patients with stage IV sq-NSCLC. This retrospective analysis compares efficacy and safety outcomes for patients who received single-agent N as continuation therapy after completion of chemotherapy treatment (CT) in GC+N arm to the continuation therapy-eligible population of the GC arm.

      Methods:
      Patients were randomized 1:1 to GC (G=1250 mg/m² iv, days 1 and 8; C=75 mg/m² iv, day 1) plus N (800 mg iv, days 1 and 8), or GC alone every 21 days up to 6 cycles. Patients in GC+N with no progression continued on N alone until progressive disease. In this analysis, we consider patients in GC+N arm who were alive and progression-free before the start of N single-agent therapy (GC+N arm continuation therapy patients) and patients in GC arm who were alive, progression-free after completion of CT and did not discontinue treatment due to adverse event (AE) (GC arm non-progressor patients). This analysis included patients in both arms who received ≥4 cycles of CT. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were measured from the date of randomization, with parameters estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Hazard ratios and 95% CIs between subgroups were estimated from stratified Cox proportional hazards models. OS and PFS for post-induction period were measured from the completion of CT + 21 days. Selected treatment-emergent AEs (TEAEs) for patients in each arm are presented in the table.

      Results:
      261 patients were progression-free, received ≥4 cycles of CT, and received ≥1 dose of N alone in GC+N arm. 215 pts in GC arm completed ≥4 cycles of CT, were progression-free, and did not discontinue due to AE. Patient baseline characteristics and exposure to CT were well balanced between GC+N and GC arms. Median OS from randomization in GC+N vs GC was 15.9 vs 15.0 months; HR 0.85 (95% CI, 0.69, 1.05). Median OS for post-induction period in GC+N vs GC was 11.5 vs 10.9 months; HR 0.84 (95% CI, 0.68; 1.04). Median PFS from randomization in GC+N vs GC was 7.4 vs 6.9 months; HR 0.86 (95% CI, 0.70, 1.06). Median PFS from post-induction period in GC+N vs GC was 3.2 vs 2.3 months; HR 0.85 (95% CI, 0.70, 1.04). Selected TEAEs (Overall):

      GC+N Continuation PatientsN = 261, % GC Non-ProgressorsN = 215, %
      Category Any Grade Grade ≥3 Any Grade Grade ≥3
      Neutropenia 55.9 34.1 57.7 33.0
      Anemia 46.7 10.0 49.3 8.8
      Thrombocytopenia 26.1 9.6 29.3 12.6
      Hypomagnesemia 42.1 14.9 18.6 0.9
      Conjunctivitis 11.9 0.8 3.3 0
      Rash 87.4 8.8 10.2 0.5
      Arterial thromboembolic event 5.7 3.1 0.5 0
      Venous thromboembolic event 9.2 3.8 4.2 0.9


      Conclusion:
      There was a consistent treatment effect in favor of GC+N continuation patients as compared to GC non-progressors with no unexpected increases in AEs.

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      ORAL32.04 - Discussant for ORAL32.01, ORAL32.02, ORAL32.03 (ID 3369)

      05:18 - 05:28 PM  |  Author(s): Y. Wu

      • Abstract
      • Presentation

      Abstract not provided

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      ORAL32.05 - EGFR IHC and FISH Correlative Analyses (SQUIRE Trial): Necitumumab + Gemcitabine-Cisplatin vs Gemcitabine-Cisplatin in 1st-Line Squamous NSCLC (ID 2651)

      05:28 - 05:39 PM  |  Author(s): F.R. Hirsch, T.A. Boyle, N. Thatcher, L. Paz-Ares, M. Varella-Garcia, A.A. Kowalewski, R.R. Hozak, G. Mi, S.A. Melemed, C.W. Caldwell, R. Kurek, M.A. Socinski

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      SQUIRE, a randomized phase III study, demonstrated that the addition of necitumumab (N) (a second-generation, recombinant, human immunoglobulin G1 EGFR antibody) to gemcitabine-cisplatin (GC) improved overall survival (OS) in patients with stage IV squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Analyses of the relationship between efficacy and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression using the immunohistochemistry (IHC) H-score=200 cut-point were previously reported (Thatcher et al. Lancet Onc, 2015; doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00021-2). Here we report additional exploratory analyses of the relationship with EGFR protein, as well as analyses of EGFR gene copy number.

      Methods:
      SQUIRE included mandatory tissue collection from archived tumor. EGFR protein expression was assessed by IHC in a central lab, using the Dako EGFR PharmDx kit. Analyses of the relationships between efficacy outcomes with EGFR across the range of protein levels were performed, using methodologies including subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot (STEPP) with a sliding window target size of 200 patients. An exploratory assessment of EGFR gene copy number gain was performed in tissue sections using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (J Clin Pathol; 2009;62(11):970-7). Efficacy outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and hazard ratios estimated using an un-stratified Cox model. .

      Results:
      A total of 982 patients (89.8% of the ITT) had evaluable IHC assay results. The large majority of these patients (95.2%) had tumor samples expressing EGFR protein; only 4.8% had tumors without detectable EGFR protein (H-score=0). The STEPP analyses showed no consistent trend or obvious cut-point for the relationship between either OS or PFS with EGFR protein across the range of IHC values when comparing treatment arms. Archived tumor tissue with evaluable results for exploratory EGFR FISH analysis was available for 51.0% of patients (557 of 1093 ITT patients). Of these patients, 208 patients (37.3%) had increased EGFR gene copy number (FISH positive). A trend for greater necitumumab benefit was observed in EGFR FISH positive patients. Treatment HR (95% CI) for FISH positive and negative patients were 0.70 (0.52, 0.96) and 1.02 (0.80, 1.29) for OS, and 0.71 (0.52, 0.97) and 1.04 (0.82, 1.33) for PFS. However, the interaction of EGFR gene copy number gain with treatment was not statistically significant for either OS or PFS (p=0.066 and 0.057, respectively).

      Conclusion:
      The analysis of EGFR protein expression did not identify consistent trends related to efficacy outcomes across the range of IHC values. EGFR gene copy number gain showed a trend for a more favorable HR, but did not appear to be strongly predictive. However, both markers showed some evidence of potential trends that will be investigated further in future trials.

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      ORAL32.06 - Intercalating and Maintenance Use of Gefitinib plus Chemotherapy versus Chemotherapy Alone in Selected Advanced NSCLC: A Phase III Study (ID 2108)

      05:39 - 05:50 PM  |  Author(s): H. Jian, W. Li, Z. Ma, J. Huang, J. Feng, Y. Song, B. Gao, H. Zhu, M. Tao, C. Bai, S. Ma, H. Pan, S. Qin, D. Hua, Y. Yu, S. Lu

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      This study investigated whether intercalating and maintenance use of gefitinib with chemotherapy improves clinical outcomes versus chemotherapy alone in selected, chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after receiving two cycles of gemcitabine plus carboplatin with stable disease.

      Methods:
      We undertook an open-label, randomized, phase III trial at 14 centres in China. Non-smoking patients with previously untreated stage IIIB/IV lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutation status unknown (tissue not available) firstly received two cycles of gemcitabine (1,250 mg/m2 days 1 and 8) plus carboplatin (AUC=5, day 1). The patients with stable disease and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1 were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either gefitinib (250mg/d) on days 15 to 25 with a 4-week cycle of gemcitabine and carboplatin or a 4-week cycle of gemcitabine and carboplatin alone. A maximum of four cycles of chemotherapy was allowed in both arms after which time patients continued to receive gefitinib or observation until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS) and safety. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01404260, and has completed enrolment; patients are still in follow-up.

      Results:
      From June 2011 to August 2014, 219 patients with stable disease were randomized to intercalating and maintenance use of gefitinib with chemotherapy (n=109) or chemotherapy alone (n=110). The number of PFS events is 84 cases for the gefitinib plus chemotherapy group and 93 cases for the chemotherapy alone group. PFS was significantly longer in the patients receiving gefitinib and chemotherapy than in those receiving chemotherapy alone (median 10.0 vs 4.4 months, respectively; hazard ratio 0.475, 95% CI 0.349-0.646; p<0.0001). The median follow-up duration for OS is 24.5 months; OS of maturity 34.7% was not statistically different between these two arms (32.2 vs 32.5 months, respectively; hazard ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.64-1.58; p=0.97). The addition of gefitinib to chemotherapy was well tolerated, with no increase in haematologic toxicity and no treatment-related interstitial lung disease.

      Conclusion:
      Intercalating and maintenance use of gefitinib with gemcitabine/carboplatin led to a significant improvement in PFS versus gemcitabine/carboplatin alone for Chinese nonsmoking patients with advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma (EGFR mutation status unknown) who had previously achieved stable disease after receiving two cycles of gemcitabine/carboplatin; immature OS was not statistically different.

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      ORAL32.07 - Randomized Phase II Trial of Sequential Gefitinib and Pemetrexed/Cisplatin Chemotherapy for Stage IIIB/IV Lung Adenocarcinoma in Never Smokers (ID 1332)

      05:50 - 06:01 PM  |  Author(s): J.S. Lee, Y.J. Lee, H.Y. Kim, B. Nam, G.K. Lee, H.T. Kim, S.J. Yoon, J. Han

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      While concurrent administration of EGFR-TKI and chemotherapy failed to improve the survival outcome, preclinical and clinical data suggested that sequential administration of EGFR-TKI within a chemotherapy cycle might improve the clinical outcome by avoiding the putative antagonism of TKI-induced G1 arrest of the cell cycle phase-dependent activity of chemotherapy. This study was designed to evaluate this idea with gefitinib and Pemetrexed/Cisplatin (Pem/Cis), the best known regimen for lung adenocarcinoma (ADC), in never-smokers with chemo-naive ADC of the lung.

      Methods:
      Eligible patients (pts) were never-smokers with chemo-naive stage IIIB/IV ADC, performance status of 0-2 and adequate organ functions, who were randomized after stratification by the EGFR mutation status (positive vs. negative/unknown) to receive either gefitinib (G) 250 mg/day or placebo (P) on days 5-18 of a 3-weekly cycle of chemotherapy, which consisted of Pem 500 mg/m[2] and cisplatin(Cis) 75mg/m[2] given iv on day 1, every 3 weeks for a maximum of 9 cycles. Responding patients continued to receive either G or P every day until PD or unacceptable toxicity. After documentation of PD, pts who had been on P arm were crossed over to receive G. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS).

      Results:
      Between 06/2012 and 12/2014, 76 pts (M/F: 9/67) with median age of 58.0 years (range 32-75) were enrolled; 72 pts had stage IV and 4 had IIIB tumors. EGFR mutation was (+) in 29, (-) in 43, and unknown in 4. As of 03/17/2015, while randomization code is not broken yet, 53 pts are off treatment (48 due to PD, 2 deaths, 2 patient’s refusal, and 1 due to intercurrent brain tumor) and 19 pts are known dead (17 due to PD and 2 due to other causes). Overall, more pts with EGFR mt(+) tumor received 6 cycles of therapy than those with EGFR mt(-) tumor [28/29 (97%) vs. 32/43 (73%)] and completed 9 cycles of therapy as planned [19/29 (66%) vs. 14/43 (33%)]. The treatment was well tolerated with less G-associated skin toxicities, due to intermittent administration schedule of G per protocol. The most common G3/4 adverse events were: anemia (17.1%), neutropenia (15.8%), vomiting (5.3%), thrombocytopenia (3.9%), and peripheral neuropathy (3.9%). There was no unexpected safety issue except for more Cis-associated peripheral neuropathy which became more noticeable as the treatment continued beyond 6 cycles of therapy. Median PFS was 8.2 months (mos) for the entire group, and 10.6 mos and 6.6 mos for EGFR mt(+) and mt(-) groups, respectively. Overall median survival has not been reached yet with an estimated 2-year survival rate of 56.3%.

      Conclusion:
      First-line sequential administration of G with Pem/Cis chemotherapy was well tolerated with no undue side effects or any compromise in efficacy parameters. Detailed data will be presented to see whether this strategy warrants further investigation in a certain subset of pts with advanced NSCLC.

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      ORAL32.08 - Discussant for ORAL32.05, ORAL32.06, ORAL32.07 (ID 3370)

      06:01 - 06:11 PM  |  Author(s): D.R. Gandara

      • Abstract
      • Presentation

      Abstract not provided

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Author of

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    ED 07 - How to Treat Advanced Squamous Carcinoma of the Lung (ID 7)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Education Session
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      ED07.03 - Lung Master Protocol in Squamous Cell Lung Cancer (Lung-MAP, S1400) (ID 1800)

      03:00 - 03:20 PM  |  Author(s): D.R. Gandara

      • Abstract
      • Presentation

      Abstract:
      In recent years, our understanding of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has evolved from thinking of this malignancy as a single disease, or a small number of histologic subtypes, to now a multitude of genomically-defined subsets, both in adenocarcinoma and squamous lung cancer. In development of new targeted therapies against these abnormalities, so-called Master Protocols offer a number of advantages over traditional single study designs for drug-biomarker approval, including a common infrastructure, homogeneous patient populations with consistent eligibility across multiple independent sub-studies, and the ability to screen large numbers of patients in rapid fashion. Thus, the Lung-MAP project was designed to facilitate approval of targeted therapy-predictive biomarker combinations in squamous lung cancer, a recognized area of unmet need. Lung-MAP is constructed as a unique public-private partnership engaging the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and its Thoracic Malignancies Steering Committee (TMSC), the Foundation of the NIH (FNIH), the pharmaceutical industry and advocacy groups such as Friends of Cancer Research (FOCR), along with an advisory role by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA). The design is multiple simultaneously running Phase II/III trials, each capable of independently opening and/or closing without affecting the other sub-studies, in which patients eligible for 2[nd] line therapy for lung SCC have their cancers genomically screened through a next generation sequencing (NGS) platform (Foundation Medicine). Patients are then randomized into one of several sub-studies, each comparing an experimental targeted therapy with standard of care therapy, based on identification of candidate predictive biomarkers associated with each sub-study. At launch, drug targets under study consisted of “match sub-studies” for PI3K, FGFR, CDK 4/6 and HGF, and a non-match sub-study testing PD-L1-directed therapy, as described below. Rapid turn-around time of NGS screening results, within 2 weeks, allows real time assignment into the appropriate sub-study. For those patients with cancers that do not “match” into a biomarker-driven sub-study, there is a ‘non-match” sub-study, in which a predictive biomarker is not yet of sufficient validation to utilize it in a drug-biomarker registration strategy. Due to changes in the therapeutic landscape since the launch of Lung-MAP, a number of amendments and modifications have been implemented, which will be discussed during this presentation.

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    MINI 02 - Immunotherapy (ID 92)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 1
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      MINI02.06 - Humanized Immuno-Mouse for Study of Anti-PD-1 Therapy in KRAS-Mutated Lung Cancer Patient Derived Xenotransplant (PDX) (ID 3104)

      11:15 - 11:20 AM  |  Author(s): D.R. Gandara

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Preclinical modeling of immunotherapeutics in PDX-bearing mice has been limited by the absence of a relevant immune microenvironment, as a highly immunosuppressive environment is often required for the implanted tumor to grow. Checkpoint inhibitors including anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies (mAbs) are promising new treatments in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The creation of a PDX model system that supports human tumor growth and recapitulates the relevant genomics in NSCLC while providing the immune microenvironment necessary for anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 mAb activity is critical for validation of combination checkpoint inhibitor strategies in NSCLC.

      Methods:
      Hematopoietic CD34+ progenitor stem cells (CD34+ HPC) were engrafted into the tail vein of sublethally irradiated NSG mice. A KRAS G12D PDX was assayed for PD-L1 expression by FACS (Biolegend; clone 29E. 2A3, San Diego CA) and implanted into Hu-CD34 NSG mice with > 25% Hu-CD45+ cells 12 weeks post CD34+ HPC injection. Multilineage engraftment of immune cell subsets was assayed in peripheral blood, spleen and tumor by FACS (CD45, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19). PDX were treated with vehicle Q5D x 6, pembrolizumab (Merck, Whitehorse Station PA) 5 mg/kg Q5D x 6, and combination pembrolizumab and docetaxel (Hospira, Lake Forest) 10 mg/kg Q7D x4 at the same single agent dosages. Body weight and tumor growth were assessed twice weekly.

      Results:
      Hu-CD45+ cells were detected in peripheral blood, spleen and tumor by flow cytometry on single cell suspension. The majority of Hu-CD45+ cells were T-cells: CD3CD4+ (mean blood 50%, spleen 53%, tumor 52%) and CD3CD8+ (mean blood 14%, spleen 15%, tumor 39%). KRAS G12D tumor had 89% surface expression of PD-L1. No significant change in Hu-CD45+ cell composition was noted between the different treatment groups. Pembrolizumab both alone and in combination with docetaxel showed activity in KRAS G12D PDX with substantial tumor growth inhibition and decreased mean tumor volume at day 24 post-treatment.

      Conclusion:
      Multilineage engraftment of relevant immune cell subsets for PD-1 inhibition is present in the humanized immune-mouse (Hu-CD34 NSG). PD-1 inhibition in a KRAS G12D Hu-CD34 NSG with high PD-L1 expression demonstrated substantial tumor growth inhibition both alone and in combination with chemotherapy. Additional studies are underway exploiting the Hu-CD34 NSG mouse model for study of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies in KRAS mutant and other important molecular subsets of NSCLC.

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    MINI 14 - Pre-Clinical Therapy (ID 119)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 1
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      MINI14.01 - EGFR-Mutated PDX in NSCLC: Molecular Fidelity and Correlation of PDX and Patient Response to EGFR Inhibition (ID 2191)

      10:45 - 10:50 AM  |  Author(s): D.R. Gandara

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Inevitable emergence of resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy in EGFR-mutated NSCLC warrants development of pro-active therapeutic strategies to delay or circumvent this evolution. To model such approaches, we are employing a clinically and genomically annotated patient derived xenotransplant (PDX) resource designed to duplicate relevant known mechanisms of resistance to TKI therapy. This analysis examines molecular fidelity and correlates response between patient and PDX in EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

      Methods:
      Six EGFR-mutated NSCLC, 1 EGFR-TKI naïve and 5 after progressive disease on erlotinib, were implanted subcutaneously into the flank of NOD.Cg-Prkdc[scid] Il2rg[tm1Wjl]/SzJ (NSG) mice as previously described (DR Gandara, Clin Lung Cancer 2015). Models were considered established when PDX growth was confirmed in passage 1 (P1); tumor growth studies were conducted in P3-P5. The donor patient tumor (PT) and the resultant PDX were analyzed for driver mutations (Response Genetics Inc., and Illumina TSCAP), copy number variants (CNV) and global RNA expression (Affymetrix arrays). Informed consent was obtained from all patients. EGFR-mutant PDX treatments included: erlotinib, afatinib, cetuximab, and afatinib+cetuximab. Patient response was graded by RECIST 1.1 and measured in PDX by tumor shrinkage from pre-treatment baseline. In select models, pharmacodynamic studies (kinase arrays; immunoblotting) were also performed.

      Results:
      The EGFR mutation subtypes identified in the donor PT were preserved in all PDX models (4 EGFR E19del and 2 EGFR L858R). Corresponding putative mechanisms of resistance were identical in both PT and PDX in 3 cases: EGFR T790M (2 of 5) and MET amplification (1 of 5). Of 5 post-erlotinib progression PDX models, 3 had progressive disease (PD) and 2 had transient tumor shrinkage to erlotinib. The PDX derived from an erlotinib-naïve patient (EGFR E19del) demonstrated sustained tumor shrinkage to erlotinib. Patient-PDX treatment correlations were possible in 3 post erlotinib-progression models. Two of these patients received afatinib-cetuximab: 1 with partial response (PR) and 1 with PD. The two models corresponding to these patients, when treated with afatinib-cetuximab, underwent complete regression of tumor (CR) and PD, respectively. Pharmacodynamic assessment of the responding model at 24h showed near complete diminishment of pEGFR following afatinib-cetuximab, concomitant with decreased pHer2, pERK, pAKT and p38. Erlotinib showed transient inhibition on signaling in this model at 6h, returning to baseline by 24h. In contrast, the non-responding model showed minimal effects on target inhibition and signal transduction following treatment with any EGFR inhibitor.

      Conclusion:
      Genomic fidelity was preserved in EGFR-mutant PDX, including putative mechanisms of resistance in the post-erlotinib progression models. The majority (3/5) of the EGFR-mutant PDXs created after erlotinib resistance demonstrated PD. In the other post-erlotinib progression models transient tumor shrinkage was noted, which may reflect PDX passaging in the absence of selective pressure of EGFR-inhibition or pharmacokinetic considerations. Overall, the PDX response to treatment reflected the corresponding patient’s clinical course. Pharmacodynamic studies of select models informed PDX response to treatment.

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    MINI 17 - WT EGFR, Angiogenesis and OMD (ID 131)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
    • +

      MINI17.02 - SWOG 0709: Randomized Phase II Trial of Erlotinib vs. Erlotinib plus Carboplatin/Paclitaxel in Patients (Pts) with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and Impaired Performance Status (PS2) as Selected by Serum Proteomics (ID 658)

      04:55 - 05:00 PM  |  Author(s): D.R. Gandara

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Advanced NSCLC pts with Zubrod PS2 are often excluded from clinical trials and platinum-based therapy. In SWOG 0341, erlotinib in PS 2 pts yielded progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of 2.1 and 5 months respectively. In a trial of erlotinib versus carboplatin/paclitaxel in PS2 pts (Lilenbaum, JCO 2008), PFS for erlotinib and chemotherapy were 1.9 and 3.5 months, respectively. Early reports suggested a potential role for serum proteomics in predicting erlotinib benefit beyond that of EGFR mutational status. We therefore conducted a prospective trial of erlotinib +/- chemotherapy in NSCLC pts with PS2 enriched by serum proteomics (Veristrat assay).

      Methods:
      Metastatic NSCLC pts with PS2, acceptable end-organ function, and “good” classification by serum proteomics were randomized to either Arm A (erlotinib 150 mg orally QD) or Arm B (erlotinib 150 mg orally QD on days 2-16 plus carboplatin AUC 5 IV day 1 and paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 IV day 1 x 4 cycles, followed by erlotinib 150 mg orally QD). Cycle length was 3 weeks. Arm B agents were “pharmacodynamically separated” to mitigate potential antagonism. The arm with superior observed median PFS would be selected for further evaluation, but only if ≥ 3 months. A sample size of 98 pts was based on a variety of assumed PFS probabilities for each arm. The trial was prematurely closed after the FDA determined midway through accrual that an IDE application was required for the proteomics assay; however SWOG had limited resources available for such filing.

      Results:
      Of 156 pts screened, 83 (59%) were classified as “good” by serum proteomics. 59 of 83 pts (60%) met trial eligibility and were randomized. Treatment-related grade 4 adverse events were seen in 2 pts in Arm A (thrombosis, hypomagnesemia) and 5 pts in Arm B (neutropenia -5, febrile neutropenia-1, leukopenia -1), with no treatment related deaths. Figure 1



      Conclusion:
      In Zubrod PS2 pts with advanced NSCLC and “good” classification by serum preoteomics, pharmacodynamically-separated erlotinib plus chemotherapy had better observed median PFS/OS versus erlotinib alone and surpassed the protocol-specified benchmark of PFS >= 3 months required for further study. Updated data will be presented.

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    MTE 02 - Patients, Investigators and Pharmaceuticals Working Together to Accelerate Research and Access: The Lung Cancer Master Protocol (Lung-MAP) Clinical Trial (Ticketed Session) (ID 54)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Meet the Expert (Ticketed Session)
    • Track: Advocacy
    • Presentations: 1
    • Moderators:
    • Coordinates: 9/07/2015, 07:00 AM - 08:00 AM, 105
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      MTE02.01 - Patients, Investigators and Pharmaceuticals Working Together to Accelerate Research and Access: The Lung Cancer Master Protocol (Lung-MAP) Clinical Trial (ID 1979)

      07:00 - 07:30 AM  |  Author(s): D.R. Gandara

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Abstract:
      The traditional obstacles to approval of oncologic therapeutic agents, especially targeted therapies that address a rare-biomarker defined group of patients are the long processes from initial drug discovery to clinical implementation, the difficulties in recruitment for these clinical trials and high number of screen failures and the overall low rate of enrollment in clinical trials. The Lung Master Protocol (Lung-MAP, S1400) is a precedent-setting clinical trial designed to advance the efficient development of targeted therapies for squamous cell cancer of the lung (SCCA). There are few new effective therapeutic options for patients with advanced lung SCCA. Immunotherapies, including nivolumab, have already shown clear benefit for patients with SCCA in 2015 leading to approval by the FDA which has been an unprecedented step forward for the treatment of patients, however we are still lacking predictive markers for these therapies that are reliably selecting patients more likely to benefit. Lung-MAP (S1400) is aiming to identify biomarker-drug pairs that will lead to successful therapeutic outcomes and registration of new agents. It is a registration-intent master protocol that includes a screening component and clinical trial component; the clinical trial component includes multiple sub-studies which independently evaluate investigational therapies. The clinical trial component is designed to be modular such that new sub-studies can be added either as other sub-studies close or as new biomarker-drug pairs are identified for testing in this patient population. Lung-MAP is utlilizing a broad NGS screening platform capitalizing on the expanding application of genomic sequencing in oncology that has through the Cancer Genome Atlas and other sequencing initiatives revealed targetable genetic aberrations including gene mutations, rearrangements, amplifications, and deletions, and creating an immense opportunity to implement personalized therapy with a high potential to improve patients outcomes. Immunotherapy has been integrated in the design of Lung-MAP from its launch in June of 2014. The original study design and structure is shown in the figure. Figure 1 The modular design of the study has allowed for the flexibility to adapt to the approval of nivolumab and the hault in further development of AMG102 (rilotumumab) with discontinuation of the corresponding sub-study by implementing timely modifications which include the following:1)Eligibility has changed from exclusively second line therapy to second-or more line therapy 2)Pre-screening, while patient receive first line therapy has been added to boost accrual 3)the unmatched arm has been changed to a single (not randomized) arm study with the anti-PD-L1 agent MEDI-4736. Theses changes are reflected in the figure. Each independently conducted and analyzed sub-study specifies investigator-assessed progression-free survival (IA-PFS) and overall survival (OS) as the co-primary endpoints for the phase 3 primary objectives. The primary objectives for the phase 3 are to determine if there is a statistically significant difference in OS and to determine if there is both a clinically meaningful and statistically significant difference in IA-PFS. The conduct of Lung-MAP relies on close collaboration (a public-private partnership) among the NCI and NCTN (spearheaded by SWOG), the pharmaceutical industry, the Foundation for the NIH (FNIH), Friends of Cancer Research, advocates, and FDA. This Master Protocol will improve genomic screening of SCC patients for clinical trial entry, and improve time lines for drug-biomarker testing, allowing for inclusion of the maximum numbers of otherwise eligible patients. The clinical trial continues to be updated following science and alterations in the therapeutic landscape, with adaptations in design and incorporation of new agents against matched targets and the implementation of novel immunotherapy approaches for the unmatched arm. Figure 2





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    ORAL 02 - PD1 Axis Immunotherapy 2 (ID 87)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      ORAL02.03 - Longer-Term Follow-Up of a Phase 2 Study (CheckMate 063) of Nivolumab in Patients with Advanced, Refractory Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (ID 828)

      11:07 - 11:18 AM  |  Author(s): D.R. Gandara

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Patients with advanced, refractory squamous (SQ) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have historically poor outcomes and limited treatment options. Nivolumab (NIVO), a fully human IgG4 programmed death-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, has activity across NSCLC histologies and is FDA-approved for treatment of metastatic SQ NSCLC with progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy. We report efficacy, safety, and biomarker analyses from a phase 2, single-arm study of NIVO in patients with SQ NSCLC who progressed during/after prior platinum-based doublet chemotherapy and ≥1 additional systemic regimen.

      Methods:
      Patients (N=117) received NIVO 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks until progressive disease (PD)/unacceptable toxicity; treatment beyond PD was permitted per protocol. The primary endpoint was independent radiology review committee (IRC)-assessed objective response rate (ORR), per RECIST v1.1. Additional objectives included investigator-assessed ORR, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), safety, ORR by patient subgroups, efficacy by tumor PD-L1 expression (PD-L1[+]: ≥5% tumor cells expressing PD-L1), and blood-based biomarker analyses (measurement of circulating microRNA and cytokines).

      Results:
      IRC-assessed ORR was 15% (95% CI: 9, 22), with a minimum of 11 months follow-up. Median duration of response was not reached (range, 2+–12+ months); 76% (13/17) of patients had ongoing responses. Objective responses were observed across patient subgroups and regardless of PD-L1 expression (Table). Four of 22 patients treated beyond PD demonstrated a non-conventional pattern of benefit (ie, persistent reduction in target lesions in the presence of new lesions, regression following initial progression, or no further progression for ≥2 tumor assessments); OS for these patients was 6.6, 11.6+, 12.9+, and 13.5+ months. The 1-year OS rate was 41% (95% CI: 32, 50) and median OS was 8.2 months (95% CI: 6.1, 10.9). The 1-year PFS rate was 20% (95% CI: 13, 29); median PFS was 1.9 months (95% CI: 1.8, 3.2). Peripheral increases in serum IFN-γ-stimulated cytokines, including CXCL9 and CXCL10, were observed, and preliminary microRNA analyses identified altered gene expression following NIVO treatment. Grade 3–4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 17% of patients, including fatigue (4%), diarrhea (3%), and pneumonitis (3%). Pneumonitis was manageable with corticosteroids; median time to resolution was 3.4 weeks (range, 0.7–13.4). Two treatment-related deaths (1 hypoxic pneumonia, 1 ischemic stroke) occurred in patients with multiple comorbidities and concurrent PD. Figure 1



      Conclusion:
      NIVO demonstrated clinically meaningful efficacy and an acceptable safety profile in patients with advanced, refractory SQ NSCLC. Updated 18-month OS, safety, and biomarker analyses will be presented.

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    ORAL 17 - EGFR Mutant Lung Cancer (ID 116)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      ORAL17.06 - Phase I/II Study of INC280 plus Erlotinib in Patients with MET Expressing Adenocarcinoma of the Lung (ID 1064)

      11:39 - 11:50 AM  |  Author(s): D.R. Gandara

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      MET dysregulation is one mechanism responsible for EGFR-TKI (epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor) resistance in patients (pts) with EGFR mutated lung cancer. INC280 is a potent oral small molecular inhibitor of the c-MET kinase. We conducted a phase I/II study of INC280 plus erlotinib to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose limiting toxicity (DLT), pharmacokinetics (PK) and antitumor activity of this combination. Tumor analysis of the EGFR and MET pathways was exploratory.

      Methods:
      Using a 3 + 3, dose escalation design, INC280 was increased over 5 dose levels (DL) from 100 - 600 mg po bid. Daily erlotinib was given at 100 mg in DL1 and 150 mg in DL 2- 6. DL 6 is a transition cohort from INC280 capsules (600 mg) to tablets (400 mg). Both agents were given for 28 days (1 cycle). Key eligibility included: lung adenocarcinoma with MET expression by a CLIA certified lab, age > 18, ECOG PS of < 2, acceptable organ function, and > 1 systemic therapy for advanced disease.

      Results:
      18 pts were treated on 6 dose levels. Pt characteristics: median age 59 (range 52-78), M/F (7/11), ECOG 0-1/2 (16/2), MET expression by IHC/FISH/RT-PCR/NGS (6/2/9/1), EGFR mutated tumors (9) and previously treated with erlotinib (12). 17 patients completed at least 1 cycle. One DLT (grade 3 neutropenia) occurred in DL 5 (Table 1). Common drug-related adverse events (AE) of any grade were rash (50%) and diarrhea (45%), fatigue (39%), anorexia and nausea (28% each) and increased alkaline phosphatase, hypoalbuminemia and paronychia (22% each). Drug-related grade 3/4 AE were anorexia, increased amylase or lipase and neutropenia (all 6%). PK analysis revealed that INC280 exhibited a linear PK and no interaction with erlotinib. Of the 17 evaluable patients, 3 (18%) patients had partial responses, 10 (59%) had stable disease, 3 of whom had a minor response (10-29% decrease in target lesion) (Table 1). Eight pts have received treatment for >3 months. Figure 1



      Conclusion:
      In patients with MET-expressing lung adenocarcinoma, INC280 plus erlotinib is feasible, tolerable and demonstrates anti-tumor activity. The recommended phase 2 doses are INC280 400 mg (tablets) bid plus erlotinib 150 mg daily. Three expansion cohorts have been initiated: 1 - EGFR mutated tumors refractory to an EGFR-TKI, 2 - EGFR-TKI naïve in the first line setting and 3 - WT EGFR that are EGFR-TKI naïve as second or third line therapy. Updated trial results from the expansion cohorts will be presented. NCT01911507

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    ORAL 32 - EGFR WT and MT Targeting (ID 144)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      ORAL32.08 - Discussant for ORAL32.05, ORAL32.06, ORAL32.07 (ID 3370)

      06:01 - 06:11 PM  |  Author(s): D.R. Gandara

      • Abstract
      • Presentation

      Abstract not provided

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    ORAL 38 - Liquid Biopsies (ID 147)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 1
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      ORAL38.06 - Identification of Actionable Tumor Alterations in Circulating Cell-Free Tumor DNA (cf DNA) Using Digital Sequencing from NSCLC Patients (ID 1706)

      05:39 - 05:50 PM  |  Author(s): D.R. Gandara

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      To fully implement precision therapy in lung cancer, transition to a re-biopsy policy will be required at baseline and at progression after each line of therapy. The molecular testing paradigm is shifting toward next generation sequencing (NGS). As tissues are limited and repeat invasive biopsy introduces cost and risk, novel technologies sensitive and specific enough for multiplexed assessment in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) isolated from patient blood would represent a significant advance. Preliminary experience from investigators suggest a high degree of correlation between repeat tumor biopsy and plasma NGS. Here, we present the Guardant Health (GH) digital sequencing approach in a consecutive series of NSCLC cases.

      Methods:
      225 consecutive blood specimens from NSCLC patients, collected February–March 2015, were evaluated for cfDNA tumor alterations by digital sequencing using the GH panel of 68 genes. The test includes all reported fusion partners for ALK, RET, ROS1, and NTRK1 and cfDNA amplification for 16 genes. The mutant allele fraction (MAF) was calculated relative to WT in cfDNA. The test is sensitive to a single fragment of mutated cfDNA in a 10 ml blood sample and analytic specificity is >99.9999%.

      Results:
      Canonical EGFR activating mutations were detected in 20 cases (14 E19del, 3 L858R, 2 E20ins, 1 G719A). EGFR T790M co-occurred in 7 cases (6 E19del, 1 L858R), with EGFR amplification observed in 6 of the 20. Median age for patients with EGFR mut+ was 62.5; 18 female(90%), compared to nonEGFR-mutant cases. Four cases had driver fusions (2EML4-ALK, 2 KIF5B-RET) and five cases harbored an ERBB2 E20ins. KRAScodon 12/13 mutations were detected in 23 patients, while 3 harbored mutations in HRAS(Q61L) and NRAS(Q61L, G13R), and 6 had BRAF mutations (4 V600E, 2 G466X). All putative drivers were mutually exclusive. Mutations in signal transduction factors with confirmed gain-of-function activity included AKT1(E17K), MEK1(K57N, C121S), PIK3CA(E542K, E545K x2, H1047L, M1043V, R93W) and JAK2(V617F x2); truncating or missense mutations (>3% MAF) were observed in NF1 (6 cases), PTEN(1 case), SMAD4(4 cases) and STK11(4 cases). TP53 mutations were detected in 116/225 (51%). Evidence of gene amplification was seen in 32 cases, with 11 harboring multiple events. By function, amp events were observed for G1 cell cycle factors:11, RTKs: 17, MYC: 2; and signal transduction: 21. MAF ranged from 0.06% to 83.4% (av 5.1%; median: 9.8%), reflecting clinical and biologic diversity of patients. In a clinical subset at UC Davis, 27 patients were evaluated and alterations were detected in 18 (66.7%). Actionable findings were identified in 14 (77.8%) including 2 with EGFRL858R, 1 with EGFR E19del, and 1 interesting case with EGFR E19del at 45% MAF, EGFR amplification, and an emerging EGFR T790M clone at 0.54% MAF.

      Conclusion:
      In a series of NSCLC cases, high-sensitivity, high-specificity cfDNA analysis demonstrated the ability to identify somatic tumor alterations, including clinically actionable predictors, in a majority of patients via a simple blood draw, suggesting that this approach can be used for guiding therapeutic decision-making when repeat biopsy is high risk or not possible. Assuming validation, plasma cfDNA analysis may supplant invasive tumor biopsy in the near future.

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    P1.07 - Poster Session/ Small Cell Lung Cancer (ID 221)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Poster
    • Track: Small Cell Lung Cancer
    • Presentations: 1
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      P1.07-014 - Predictors of Survival in Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) Patients (pts) < 50 Years of Age: Results from the California Cancer Registry (CCR) (ID 2416)

      09:30 - 09:30 AM  |  Author(s): D.R. Gandara

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      SCLC is an often lethal disease that commonly occurs in older individuals with a history of heavy tobacco use. Limited epidemiologic and outcomes data are available for young SCLC pts (< 50 years of age). We analyzed the CCR to explore the clinical variables related to cause specific survival (CSS) of young pts.

      Methods:
      SCLC pts diagnosed between 1998-2012 were included. Primary outcome was CSS. Hazard ratios (HR) for CSS were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards (PH) models for all ages & for pts <50 years, adjusted for baseline variables: age, gender, stage, race, year of diagnosis, treatment, socioeconomic status (SES), and location (urban vs. rural).

      Results:
      We identified 22,863 SCLC pts, of which 975 were <50 years of age (4.2%). Demographics for pts <50 years: Males-51%; White-71%; Stage IV-60%; Chemotherapy-79%; Urban location-92%; high SES-28%. Fewer pts < 50 years were diagnosed in later years: from 40% in ‘98-’02 to 24% in ‘08-‘12. Results of multivariate Cox PH models are shown. (HR=Hazard Ratio).

      Select Variables All pts Pts<50 years of age
      HR P-value HR P-value
      Age at diagnosis (vs. ≥50yrs) 0.82 <0.0001 N/A N/A
      Female sex (vs.Male) 0.91 <0.0001 0.81 0.0045
      Race (vs.White)
      Asian 0.84 <0.0001 0.57 0.0075
      Year of Dx (vs.'88-'02)
      2003-'07 0.96 0.0096 0.95 0.5562
      2008-'11 0.94 0.0017 0.89 0.2796
      Stage (vs.I)
      Stage II 1.22 0.0111 1.20 0.7255
      Stage III 1.80 <0.0001 1.81 0.0282
      Stage IV 2.93 <0.0001 3.81 <0.0001
      Treatment (vs.None)
      Surgery 0.43 <0.0001 0.37 0.004
      Chemotherapy 0.44 <0.0001 0.49 <0.0001
      Radiation 0.66 <0.0001 0.71 <0.0001
      Rural (vs.Urban) 0.97 0.3042 0.75 0.0419
      Low SES {vs.High SES(4,5)} 1.05 0.0011 1.04 0.6306


      Conclusion:
      Age < 50 years was an independent predictor of improved CSS (HR 0.82, p<0.0001). In younger pts, female sex (HR 0.81, p=0.0045), Asian race (HR 0.57, p=0.0075), and rural residence (HR 0.75, p=0.042) were associated with better CSS, among other variables. Analyses for relevant interactions within subgroups will be presented.

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    P1.12 - Poster Session/ Community Practice (ID 232)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Poster
    • Track: Community Practice
    • Presentations: 1
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      P1.12-002 - International Online Tool for Therapeutic Decision Making in NSCLC (V2.0) (ID 2160)

      09:30 - 09:30 AM  |  Author(s): D.R. Gandara

      • Abstract

      Background:
      Practice guidelines in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) list multiple therapy choices based on levels of evidence but cannot account for variability in patient (pt)-tumor characteristics between individual patient cases. To provide oncologists with expert guidance and feedback on choice of treatment (Tx) for specific pt scenarios, we previously implemented an interactive Web-based decision support tool in 2012, in which oncologist users input specific pt characteristics and selected among treatment options, then compared their selection with that of an NSCLC expert panel for that scenario. (Chow JTO 2015). Here we report data from version 2.0 of this tool, capturing current Tx trends for advanced NSCLC and investigating the impact of this online tool on oncology practitioners.

      Methods:
      V2.0 was developed based on input from 6 international NSCLC experts who provided Tx recommendations for 1st-line treatment in 96 pt case variations based on histology (nonsquamous vs squamous), EGFR mutational status (positive [+] vs negative [-]), ALK rearrangement (+ vs -), age (< 70 vs ≥ 70 years), performance status (0, 1 vs 2), smoking history (never/former light vs former heavy/current), and pt primary Tx goal (response and survival vs quality of life and low adverse events). As in V1.0, oncologist users input specific pt scenarios, then were prompted for their treatment choice. Once completed, recommendations for that scenario from each of the experts were displayed, and users were prompted to indicate whether the expert recommendations changed their treatment choice. Statistical methods: as previously described (Chow JTO 2015).

      Results:
      V2.0 oncologist users (N = 218 unique users) contributing 314 unique cases were 87% non-USA, 13% USA. As in V1.0, experts agreed on selection of targeted therapies (TKIs) for cases with actionable EGFR mutations and ALK translocations. Choice of a specific EGFR inhibitor by experts varied depending on region and clinical factors. By comparison, among online users of V2.0, an EGFR inhibitor was selected for 67% of EGFR-mutated cases (n = 78), while an ALK inhibitor was selected for 61% of ALK cases (n = 31). For nonsquamous histology cases without actionable mutations, use of pemetrexed was more common among experts compared with oncologist users (91% vs 48% of case scenarios). In 182 cases entered by users who reported on the impact of expert recommendations, treatment choice was affected in 86% of cases (confirmed in 71%); 5.5% disagreed with expert recommendations and 8% indicated barriers to implementing the recommendations. In comparing overall results from V1.0 (2012) to V2.0 (2014), more oncologist users were likely to select TKIs in both EGFR mutation (49% vs 67%) and ALK translocation (35% vs 61%), with a corresponding decrease in use of chemotherapy. A detailed analysis of expert vs user data will be presented, comparing V1.0 (2012) and V2.0 (2014).

      Conclusion:
      Expert opinions were largely unchanged between V1.0 and V2.0, while oncologist users increased use of TKIs. Most oncologist users of V2.0 either confirmed or changed treatment choices based on expert recommendations. This online tool can aid decision making, serve an educational purpose, and capture practice trends.

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    P2.04 - Poster Session/ Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing (ID 234)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Poster
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 1
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      P2.04-040 - Impact of Ethnicity on Incidence of Brain Metastasis in Patients with EGFR-Mutant Lung Cancer (ID 2981)

      09:30 - 09:30 AM  |  Author(s): D.R. Gandara

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Better systemic control and longer survival have been cited as the reason for the higher incidence of brain metastasis observed in patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancer compared to patients with EGFR wild-type lung cancer. The prevalence of EGFR mutation is particularly dependent on patient’s ethnicity: 30-40% and 10-16% in East Asian and Caucasian patients, respectively. However, the incidence of brain metastasis in EGFR mutant lung cancer at initial diagnosis in these ethnic groups is less well defined. The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of brain metastasis at diagnosis in East Asian and Caucasian patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancer.

      Methods:
      This retrospective study included 163 consecutive patients with EGFR-mutant metastatic NSCLC from a Chinese (N=72) and a US academic (N=91) institution. The EGFR mutation status was determined by the institutional laboratory in China and CLIA-certified laboratory in the US. East Asians in Northern California and Chinese patients in China had a similar incidence of brain metastasis at diagnosis (10/23=43.5% and 30/72=41.7%, respectively), and were combined as East Asians in the analysis. Descriptive statistics were generated for demographics, smoking habits, histology, and EGFR mutation subtypes, stratified by status of brain metastasis at diagnosis. Chi-squared tests and t-tests were used for testing associations of categorical variables and continuous variables with brain metastasis at diagnosis, respectively. Logistic regression models were used to study the association between race and brain metastasis at diagnosis, with and without adjusting for age at initial diagnosis, gender, EGFR mutation type, smoking status, and histology. Odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. All analyses were two sided and a p value <0.05 were considered significant.

      Results:
      Three patients who were neither East Asian nor Caucasian were ineligible for analysis. Among the remaining 160 patients, 44.2% were Caucasians and 55.8% East Asians. Higher incidence of brain metastasis at diagnosis was detected in East Asian patients than Caucasian patients (42.1% vs 13.8%, p= 0.0001). There is no significant difference in the mean age (62 and 59 years old), smoking history (34.2% vs 26.5%), histology (93.8% adenocarcinoma in both groups), type of EGFR mutation (Exon 19 Deletion: 47.8% vs 48.0%; L858R: 35.4% vs 38.0%) between patients without brain metastasis and with brain metastasis at diagnosis. Comparing to Caucasians, East Asians had significantly higher incidence of brain metastasis at diagnosis (OR = 4.53, 95% CI: 2.01–10.20, p= 0.0003). The result remained significant after adjusting for other factors (aOR = 4.24, 95% CI: 1.76–10.18, p= 0.001).

      Conclusion:
      Regardless of place of residence (Northern California or China), East Asians were more likely to have brain metastasis at initial diagnosis than Caucasian patients, suggesting ethnicity-related genomic and pharmacogenomic differences and less impact of environmental factors on tumorigenesis and clinical course of EGFR-mutant lung cancer. Further study is indicated to understand the impact of ethnicity and population-related genomics and pharmacogenomics on tumor biology of EGFR-mutant lung cancer.

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    PLEN 04 - Presidential Symposium Including Top 4 Abstracts (ID 86)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Plenary
    • Track: Plenary
    • Presentations: 2
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      PLEN04.01 - A Randomized, Phase III Study Comparing Carboplatin/Paclitaxel or Carboplatin/Paclitaxel/Bevacizumab with or without Concurrent Cetuximab in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): SWOG S0819 (ID 3612)

      10:45 - 10:57 AM  |  Author(s): D.R. Gandara

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      This abstract is under embargo until September 9, 2015 and will be distributed onsite on September 9 in a Late Breaking Abstract Supplement.

      Methods:


      Results:


      Conclusion:


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      PLEN04.03 - Randomized Phase III Trial of Adjuvant Chemotherapy with or without Bevacizumab in Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): Results of E1505 (ID 1608)

      11:07 - 11:19 AM  |  Author(s): D.R. Gandara

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected early stage NSCLC provides modest survival benefit. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against vascular endothelial growth factor, improves outcomes when added to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced stage non-squamous NSCLC. We conducted a phase 3 study to evaluate the addition of bevacizumab to adjuvant chemotherapy in early stage resected NSCLC. The primary endpoint was overall survival and secondary endpoints included disease-free survival and toxicity assessment.

      Methods:
      Patients with resected stage IB (>4 centimeters) to IIIA (AJCC 6th edition) NSCLC were enrolled within 6-12 weeks of surgery and stratified by chemotherapy regimen, stage, histology and sex. All patients were to receive adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of a planned 4 cycles of every 3 week cisplatin at 75 mg/m[2] with either vinorelbine, docetaxel, gemcitabine or pemetrexed. Patients were randomized 1:1 to arm A (chemotherapy alone) or arm B, adding bevacizumab at 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks starting with cycle 1 of chemotherapy and continuing for 1 year. Post-operative radiation therapy was not allowed. The study had 85% power to detect a 21% reduction in the overall survival (OS) hazard rate with a one-sided 0.025-level test.

      Results:
      From July 2007 to September 2013, 1501 patients were enrolled. Patients were 49.8% male, predominantly white (87.9%) with a median age of 61 years. Patients enrolled had tumors that were 26.2% stage IB, 43.8% stage II and 30.0% stage IIIA and 28.2% of patients had squamous cell histology. Chemotherapy options were utilized with the following distribution: vinorelbine 25.0%, docetaxel 22.9%, gemcitabine 18.9% and pemetrexed 33.2%. At a planned interim analysis, with 412 of 676 overall survival events needed for full information (60.9%), though the pre-planned futility boundary was not crossed, the Data Safety Monitoring Committee recommended releasing the trial results based on the conditional power of the logrank test. At the time of interim analysis, with a median follow-up time of 41 months, the OS hazard ratio comparing the bevacizumab containing arm (Arm B) to chemotherapy alone (Arm A) was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81-1.21, p=0.93). The DFS hazard ratio was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.84-1.14, p=0.75). Completion of treatment per protocol was 80% on Arm A and 36% on Arm B. Statistically significantly increased grade 3-5 toxicities of note (all attributions) included: overall worst grade (67% versus 84%); hypertension (8% versus 30%), and neutropenia (33% versus 38%) on Arms A and B, respectively. There was no significant difference in grade 5 adverse events per arm with 16 (2%) on arm A and 19 (3%) on arm B.

      Conclusion:
      The addition of bevacizumab to adjuvant chemotherapy failed to improve survival for patients with surgically resected early stage NSCLC.

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    PRC 04 - Press Conference 4 (ID 199)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Press Conference
    • Track: Other
    • Presentations: 1
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      Daily Theme: Science Drives Lung Cancer Advances - Dr. David R. Gandara, Professor of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Director, Thoracic Oncology Program, Senior Advisor to the Director, UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (ID 3634)

      09:45 - 09:53 AM  |  Author(s): D.R. Gandara

      • Abstract
      • Presentation

      Abstract not provided

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