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A. Adjei



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    ORAL 37 - Novel Targets (ID 146)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 1
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      ORAL37.05 - Prevalence and Clinical Association of MET Gene Amplification in Patients with NSCLC: Results from the ETOP Lungscape Project (ID 444)

      05:28 - 05:39 PM  |  Author(s): A. Adjei

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      The reported prevalence of MET gene amplification in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) varies from 0-21% and clinical correlations are emerging slowly. In a well-defined NSCLC cohort of the ETOP Lungscape program, we explore the epidemiology, the natural history of MET amplification and its association with MET overexpression, overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS) and time to relapse (TTR).

      Methods:
      Resected stage I-III NSCLC, identified based on the quality of clinical data and FFPE tissue availability, were assessed for MET gene copy number (GCN) and expression analysis using silver in-situ hybridization (SISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively, on TMAs (MET and centromere-specific probes; anti total c-MET antibody, clone SP44; Ventana immunostainer). MET amplification was defined as MET/centromere ratio ≥2 with average MET GCN ≥4, high MET GCN at two levels as ≥median CGN and ≥5 (irrespective of amplification) and MET IHC+ as 2+ or 3+ intensity in ≥50% of tumor cells. Sensitivity analysis to define the amplification’s thresholds was also performed. All cases were analysed at participating pathology laboratories using the same protocol, after successful completion of an external quality assurance (EQA) program.

      Results:
      Currently 2709 patients are included in the Lungscape iBiobank (median follow-up 4.8 years, 53.3% still alive). So far, 1547 (57%) have available results for MET GCN with amplification detected in 72 (4.7%; 95%CI: 3.6%, 5.7%) and high MET GCN (≥5) in 65 (4.2%; 95%CI: 3.2%, 5.2%). The median value of average MET GCN per cell is 2.3. IHC MET expression is available for 1515 (98%) of these cases, 350 (23%) of which are MET IHC positive [170 cases (49%) 3+, 180 (51%) 2+]. The median age, for the cohort of 1547 patients, is 66.2 years, with 32.8% women, and 13.5%, 29.7%, 54% never, current, former smokers, respectively. Stage distribution is: IA 23.6%, IB 24.6%, IIA 17%, IIB 12.1%, IIIA 20.9%, IIIB 1.8%, while 52.7%, are of adenocarcinoma and 40.0% of squamous histology. MET amplification and high MET GCN (≥5) are not significantly associated with any histological tumor characteristics or stage (multiplicity adjusted alpha: 0.005). High MET GCN (≥2.3) is less frequent in current smokers (38.3% vs. 55.6% for former or non-smokers, p<0.001). MET amplification and high MET GCN are significantly associated with IHC MET positivity (p<0.001 in all cases). MET amplification is present in 9.7% of IHC MET+ vs 3.1% of IHC MET- patients and high MET GCN (≥5) in 8.6% of IHC MET+ vs 2.8% of IHC MET- patients. MET amplification ranges from 0 to 16% between centers, while high MET GCN (≥5) and (≥2.3) from 0% to 12%, and 11.8% to 98.9%, respectively. MET amplification and both levels of high MET GCN are not associated with OS, RFS or TTR.

      Conclusion:
      The preliminary results for this large, predominantly European, multicenter cohort demonstrate that MET amplification assessed by SISH prevails in 4.7% of NSCLC, is associated with strong MET expression, and has no influence on prognosis. The large inter-laboratory variability in GCN despite EQA efforts may highlight a critical challenge of MET SISH analysis in routine practice.

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    P2.04 - Poster Session/ Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing (ID 234)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Poster
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 1
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      P2.04-049 - Efficacy of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) Inhibition in RAS Mutant and EGFR Mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) (ID 728)

      09:30 - 09:30 AM  |  Author(s): A. Adjei

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is overexpressed in many types of tumors, including lung cancer. We sought to determine the antitumor activity of various FAK inhibitors in NSCLC cell lines with RAS mutations as well as in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant cell lines with known resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).

      Methods:
      The effects of FAK inhibitors (NVP-TAE226, PF-562271, PF-573228, Y15) were tested against a variety of lung cancer cell lines (H157, H358, H460, H727, H1299, A549, H1650, H1975). Cell viability and clonogenic assays were performed to determine the IC50 of each agent. Western blot analysis was performed to determine alterations in relevant signaling proteins. RNA interference studies were done to elucidate mechanisms of action. Xenograft experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Y15 in vivo.

      Results:
      Y15 is more potent compared to the most selective FAK inhibitor PF-574228, with comparable to slightly more potent activity compared to PF-573228 and TAE-226 (Table 1). Y15 blocked autophosphorylation of FAK in a time- and dose-dependent manner. It caused dose-dependent decrease of lung cancer cell viability and clonogenicity. Apoptosis through Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL downregulation induced by Y15 occurs in an Akt-independent manner via JNK activation. Moreover, knockdown of Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL potentiated the effects of Y15. The combination of various inhibitors of the Bcl-2 family of proteins with FAK inhibitors demonstrated synergy in multiple lung cancer cell lines in vitro. Y15 blocked tumor growth of RAS mutant (A549 with KRAS mutation and H1299 with NRAS mutation) as well as EGFR mutant cell lines with known resistance to EGFR TKIs (H1650 and H1975) in xenograft experiments.

      Table 1. The IC50 values of FAK inhibitors in lung cancer cell lines as determined by MTS assay.
      H157 H358 H460 H727 H1299 A549 H1650 H1975
      TAE226 IC50 (uM) 7.46 3.18 4.32 0.30 2.98 2.59 2.30 2.88
      PF-562271 IC50 (uM) 5.76 6.38 4,26 2.26 3.94 5.41 5.31 5.47
      PF-573228 IC50 (uM) 11.39 27.49 6.17 2.80 9.18 9.08 20.70 13.20
      Y15 IC50 (uM) 2.1 2.72 3.16 1.30 3.88 3.49 1.9 1.56


      Conclusion:
      FAK inhibition using Y15 demonstrated efficacy both in vitro and in vivo in lung cancers with either oncogenic RAS or EGFR mutations. The combination of FAK inhibitors with inhibitors of the Bcl-2-family of anti-apoptotic proteins has synergistic activity in these RAS and EGFR mutant NSCLC cell line models.

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    P3.04 - Poster Session/ Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing (ID 235)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Poster
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 1
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      P3.04-009 - Evaluation of RT-PCR Methodology for ALK Assessment in Patients with NSCLC in Europe: Results from the ETOP Lungscape Project (ID 1506)

      09:30 - 09:30 AM  |  Author(s): A. Adjei

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      ALK rearrangement is documented in 2%-7% of NSCLC, depending on the population studied and detection method used. Although the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was the first used and published method, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become the primary standard diagnostic method. Recently, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has also proven to be a reproducible, faster and sensitive technique. This is one of the first studies concurrently comparing all three techniques in resected lung adenocarcinomas from the large ETOP Lungscape cohort.

      Methods:
      95 cases from the ETOP Lungscape iBiobank, selected based on any degree of IHC staining (clone 5A4 antibody, Novocastra, UK), were examined by ALK FISH (Abbott Molecular, Inc.; Blackhall, JCO 2014) and central RT-PCR. For the latter, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) unstained slides were collected from participating centers. Slides were de-paraffinized, Toluidine Blue stained, and tumors macro-dissected. Tissue digestion and RNA extraction were performed (Qiagen RNeasy FFPE Kit). Using primers described in the literature covering most of ALK known translocations, RT-PCR (Superscript One-Step RT-PCR with Platinum Taq – 40 loops) was performed, followed by capillary electrophoresis in two separate mixes. Co-amplification of B-actin was done to validate the procedure and RNA quality. All tests were duplicated.

      Results:
      76 of 95 RT-PCR had adequate RNA quality (B-actin co-amplification present). Among these, 18 were FISH positive, 16 were RT-PCR positive, including EML4-ALK V3a/b in 7, V1 in 5, V2 in one, and undetermined variants in 3 cases. 53 of 54 FISH negative cases were also RT-PCR negative (98%). 15 of 18 FISH positives harbored a translocation by RT-PCR (83%). Among the 4 discrepant cases, 2 FISH+/RT-PCR- cases had IHC H-scores of 180 and 260, and 98.3% and 95% of rearranged cells by FISH, probably corresponding to variants not covered by the RT-PCR. One had an IHC H-score of 5, and 16% cells rearranged on FISH, most probably corresponding to a FISH false positive case. The last had an IHC H-score of 200, 13% rearranged cells by FISH, and, thus is defined as a false negative FISH result. Provided IHC is defined as positive by an H-score above 120, all but one case (H-Score 20, FISH and RT-PCR positive) gave concordant results by a combination of FISH and RT-PCR. Overall, using as true negative or true positive the concordant result of two of the methods, the third method is characterized by high specificity and sensitivity with corresponding values of 100/98/100% and 94/94/89% for IHC/FISH/RT-PCR, respectively.

      Conclusion:
      RT-PCR is a very good tool for sorting discordant IHC/FISH cases, however, we do not recommend using this technique as single method due to the lower sensitivity of RT-PCR, as not all variants are covered, and also due to the limitations with RNA preservation.

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    PLEN 04 - Presidential Symposium Including Top 4 Abstracts (ID 86)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Plenary
    • Track: Plenary
    • Presentations: 1
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      PLEN04.03 - Randomized Phase III Trial of Adjuvant Chemotherapy with or without Bevacizumab in Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): Results of E1505 (ID 1608)

      11:07 - 11:19 AM  |  Author(s): A. Adjei

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected early stage NSCLC provides modest survival benefit. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against vascular endothelial growth factor, improves outcomes when added to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced stage non-squamous NSCLC. We conducted a phase 3 study to evaluate the addition of bevacizumab to adjuvant chemotherapy in early stage resected NSCLC. The primary endpoint was overall survival and secondary endpoints included disease-free survival and toxicity assessment.

      Methods:
      Patients with resected stage IB (>4 centimeters) to IIIA (AJCC 6th edition) NSCLC were enrolled within 6-12 weeks of surgery and stratified by chemotherapy regimen, stage, histology and sex. All patients were to receive adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of a planned 4 cycles of every 3 week cisplatin at 75 mg/m[2] with either vinorelbine, docetaxel, gemcitabine or pemetrexed. Patients were randomized 1:1 to arm A (chemotherapy alone) or arm B, adding bevacizumab at 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks starting with cycle 1 of chemotherapy and continuing for 1 year. Post-operative radiation therapy was not allowed. The study had 85% power to detect a 21% reduction in the overall survival (OS) hazard rate with a one-sided 0.025-level test.

      Results:
      From July 2007 to September 2013, 1501 patients were enrolled. Patients were 49.8% male, predominantly white (87.9%) with a median age of 61 years. Patients enrolled had tumors that were 26.2% stage IB, 43.8% stage II and 30.0% stage IIIA and 28.2% of patients had squamous cell histology. Chemotherapy options were utilized with the following distribution: vinorelbine 25.0%, docetaxel 22.9%, gemcitabine 18.9% and pemetrexed 33.2%. At a planned interim analysis, with 412 of 676 overall survival events needed for full information (60.9%), though the pre-planned futility boundary was not crossed, the Data Safety Monitoring Committee recommended releasing the trial results based on the conditional power of the logrank test. At the time of interim analysis, with a median follow-up time of 41 months, the OS hazard ratio comparing the bevacizumab containing arm (Arm B) to chemotherapy alone (Arm A) was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81-1.21, p=0.93). The DFS hazard ratio was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.84-1.14, p=0.75). Completion of treatment per protocol was 80% on Arm A and 36% on Arm B. Statistically significantly increased grade 3-5 toxicities of note (all attributions) included: overall worst grade (67% versus 84%); hypertension (8% versus 30%), and neutropenia (33% versus 38%) on Arms A and B, respectively. There was no significant difference in grade 5 adverse events per arm with 16 (2%) on arm A and 19 (3%) on arm B.

      Conclusion:
      The addition of bevacizumab to adjuvant chemotherapy failed to improve survival for patients with surgically resected early stage NSCLC.

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    YIS - Young Investigator Session incl. Q & A with Longstanding IASLC Members (ID 238)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Young Investigator Session
    • Track: Other
    • Presentations: 1
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      YIS.04 - How to Get Your Paper Published (ID 3514)

      09:00 - 09:30 AM  |  Author(s): A. Adjei

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Abstract not provided

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