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S.S. Ramalingam

Moderator of

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    ORAL 37 - Novel Targets (ID 146)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 8
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      ORAL37.01 - FISHing TRK Activation by Gene Rearrangements in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (ID 834)

      04:45 - 04:56 PM  |  Author(s): M. Varella-Garcia, S.L. Kako, C.M. Nguyen, S. Saichaemchan, W. Ariyawutyakorn, S. De, S.B. Keysar, A. Jimeno, M. Roncalli, A. Santoro, L. Toschi, A.T. Le, D.L. Aisner, R.C. Doebele

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      The tropomyosin-receptor kinase (TRK) family includes genes important in nervous system development, NTRK1 (N1), NTRK2 (N2) and NTRK3 (N3). Oncogenic activation was identified long ago as N1 fusions in colon cancer and numerous fusions have been recently identified affecting all family members in multiple tumor types. This study developed FISH reagents for molecular diagnosis of NTRK rearrangements and investigated their prevalence in NSCLC. The ultimate goal is to validate a clinical assay for selection of patients who may benefit from novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting these fusion proteins.

      Methods:
      Three FISH break-apart (BA) probe sets (LDTs) were tailored for diagnosis of rearrangements in N1, N2 and N3 and tested in specimens with known genomic status for these genes: cell lines KM12 (N1), CUTO3 (N1), MO-91 (N3), xenograft CULC001 (N1), and clinical specimens, and used to screen resected NSCLC. The LSI NTRK1 Cen and Tel probes (Abbott Molecular) were also tested. A specimen was positive for individual rearrangement when ≥15% tumor cells had split or single 3’,5’ signals. Moreover, a 6-target, 2-color FISH probe including the 3’N1, 3’N2 and 3’N3 sequences labeled in red and the 5’N1, 5’N2 and 5’N3 sequences labeled in green (TRKombo) was designed for rapid screening of TRK rearrangements in clinical specimens.

      Results:
      Results were obtained in 443, 410, and 434 examined NSCLC and positive patterns were detected in 5, 5 and 1 specimens, respectively for N1, N2, and N3. These 11 positive patients had age ranging from 38y to 76y, gender 6 male:5 female, and were current (4), former (5) or never (2) smokers. Histology was predominantly adenocarcinoma (7) but also included squamous cell (3) and neuroendocrine morphology (1). Unique to the N1 assay was the observance of FISH signal fusions where the 5’N signals appeared as doublet in >20% of the NSCLC specimens, which was determined to be copy number variation due to segmental duplication. Other atypical patterns were observed for all three targets and included doublets of the FISH fusion signals (18%, 14% and 9% respectively) and gene clusters (~5% for each). Twenty specimens (pre-clinical models and clinical cases) characterized as positive by the LDT N1 and by next generation sequencing (NGS) or atypical by the LDT NTRK1 BA were blindly analyzed with the LSI NTRK1 probe set and the results were reproducible, with brighter intensity of the fluorescent signals for the LSI probe. These specimens (positive by FISH and several atypicals) are currently under investigation to characterize the sequence specific genomic rearranged region by using a custom targeted, capture-based NGS panel (NimbleGen, Roche). The TRKombo screening probe performed well in blinded experiment using validation set including pre-selected positive and negative specimens and is under testing in clinical tissue sections.

      Conclusion:
      N1, N2 and N3 fusions were detected by FISH in a subset of lung carcinomas including adeno, squamous and neuroendocrine tumors. Optimization of molecular panels for diagnosis of these rearrangements is relevant since they represent a sizeable number of cases across multiple tumor types and there are numerous targeted inhibitor agents under development.

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      ORAL37.02 - Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Non Receptor 11 PTPN11/Shp2 as a Driver Oncogene and a Novel Therapeutic Target in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer NSCLC (ID 1590)

      04:56 - 05:07 PM  |  Author(s): Y. Elamin, S. Toomey, A. Carr, K. Gately, S. Rafee, P. Morris, J. Crown, O. Breathnach, K.J. O'Byrne, B. Hennessy

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      PTPN11/Shp2 somatic mutations occur in 25% of Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemias (JMML) and less commonly in adult solid tumors. PTPN11/Shp2 activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways. Accordingly, PTPN11/Shp2 mutations were shown to sensitize leukemia cells to MEK and PI3K inhibitors.

      Methods:
      We applied mass-spectrometry based genotyping (Sequenom Inc., Germany) to DNA extracted from tumor and matched normal tissue of 356 NSCLC patients (98 adenocarcinomas and 258 squamous cell (SCC)). PTPN11/Shp2 constructs with mutations (E76A, A72D) were generated and stably expressed in IL-3 dependent BaF3 cells and NSCLC cell lines (H1703, H157). The acquisition of MAPK and PI3K pathways activation was evaluated using western blotting and reverse phase protein array (RPPA). PTPN11/Shp2 phosphatase activity was measured in whole cell protein lysates using Shp2 assay kit (R&D Systems).

      Results:
      Somatic PTPN11/Shp2 hotspot mutations occurred in 3 (3.1%) and 9 (3.4%) of adenocarcinomas and SCCs, respectively. Mutant PTPN11/Shp2, compared to PTPN11/Shp2 wild type, promoted ten-fold IL-3 independent BaF3 cell survival. BaF3, H1703, and H157 cells expressing mutant PTPN11/Shp2 exhibited increased PTPN11/Shp2 phosphatase activity, phospho-ERK1/2, and phospho-AKT levels. Sequencing of NSCLC cell lines revealed that NSCLC H661 cell line has a PTPN11/Shp2 activating mutation (N58S). H661 had significantly higher PTPN11/Shp2 phosphatase activity when compared to PTPN11 wild-type H1703 and Calu3 NSCLC cells. Since the biological functions of PTPN11/Shp2 are mediated through its phosphatase domain, we stably expressed the inactivating PTPN11/Shp2 phosphatase domain mutation (C459S) in H661, H1703 and H157 cells resulting in catalytically inactive PTPN11/Shp2. This led to decreased phospho-ERK1/2 levels in all three cell lines. Importantly, the inactivation of PTPN11/Shp2 resulted in decreased phospho-AKT levels in H661 cells (PTPN11-mutated) and had no effect on phospho-AKT levels in the PTPN11/Shp2-wild type H1703 and H157 cells. Taken together, this data suggests that PTPN11/Shp2 activating mutations are oncogenic in NSCLC cells. Moreover, these findings reveal that PTPN11/Shp2 mutations may selectively activate the PI3K pathway in NSCLC cells. Parental H661 (PTPN11-mutated, KRAS and PIK3CA-wild type), parental H1703 (PTPN11, KRAS and PIK3CA-wild type) and parental H157 (KRAS-mutated, PTPN11 and PIK3CA-wild type) cells were treated with the novel MEK (BAY86-9766) and PI3K (BAY80-6946) inhibitors. IC50 values (table 1) suggest that PTPN11-mutated NSCLC cells have modest sensitivity to MEK inhibitors and profound sensitivity to PI3K inhibitors.

      Table 1 IC 50 valuse
      Cell Line BAY86-9766 (nM) BAY80-6946 (nM)
      H661 2880 ± 600 13 ± 4.7
      H157 1450 ± 520 < 50% inhibition @ 200
      H1704 < 50% inhibition @ 10000


      Conclusion:
      PTPN11/Shp2 demonstrates the in vitro features of a driver oncogene, and potentially represents a new target in NSCLC.

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      ORAL37.03 - Discussant for ORAL37.01, ORAL37.02 (ID 3464)

      05:07 - 05:17 PM  |  Author(s): L.E. Raez

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Abstract not provided

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      ORAL37.04 - Comprehensive Genomic Profiling (CGP) of Advanced Cancers Identifies MET Exon 14 Alterations That Are Sensitive to MET Inhibitors (ID 3156)

      05:17 - 05:28 PM  |  Author(s): G.M. Frampton, S.M. Ali, J.W. Goldman, C. Lee, J. Weiss, J.A. Bufill, R. Salgia, M. Jahanzeb, K. Konduri, P. Forde, D. Morosini, J.S. Ross, P.J. Stephens, V. Miller, I. Ou

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Amplifications and activating mutations in the c-MET proto-oncogene are known oncogenic drivers that have proven responsive to targeted therapy. Mutations causing skipping of MET exon 14 are also oncogenic, but less well characterized. We undertook comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) of a large series of advanced cancers to further characterize MET exon 14 alterations.

      Methods:
      DNA was extracted from 40 microns of FFPE sections from 38,028 advanced cancer cases. CGP was performed on hybridization-captured, adaptor ligation based libraries to a mean coverage depth of >500x using three versions of the FoundationOne test. Hybridization capture baits for the MET gene were identical for all three versions of the test. Base substitution, indel, copy number alteration, and rearrangement variant calls were examined to identify those nearby to the splice junctions of MET exon 14. These genomic alterations were then manually inspected to identify those likely to affect splicing of exon 14, or delete the exon entirely.

      Results:
      221 cases harboring MET ex14 alterations were identified. These patients had a median age of 70.5 years (range 15-88), with 97 males and 124 females. The cases were lung carcinoma (193), carcinomas of unknown primary (15), brain glioma (6), and one each of adrenal cortical carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, histiocytic sarcoma, renal cell carcinoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, skin merkel cell carcinoma, and synovial sarcoma. The majority were stage IV. Identification of this alteration has lead to treatment with MET inhibitors such as crizotinib, and to durable partial responses or better exceeding 3 months in histiocytic sarcoma (1), sarcomatoid lung carcinoma (1), and nsclc (1+). Multiple patients (5+) have initiated treatment on either crizotinib or MET inhibitors in clinical development, and additional outcome data will be reported. One patient with locally advanced unresectable disease harbored a MET exon 14 skipping alteration. On initiation with treatment with an MET inhibitor, symptomatic relief was observed in 3 days, radiographic response was observed at two weeks, and resection was performed 8 weeks after initiation of the MET inhibitor.

      Conclusion:
      MET exon 14 alterations define a hereto unrecognized population of advanced cancer cases, particularly in NSCLC. Multiple case reports demonstrate that these alterations confer sensitivity to multiple small molecule MET inhibitors. This finding expands the population of advanced NSCLC patients who can derive benefit from MET-targeted therapies.

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      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      The reported prevalence of MET gene amplification in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) varies from 0-21% and clinical correlations are emerging slowly. In a well-defined NSCLC cohort of the ETOP Lungscape program, we explore the epidemiology, the natural history of MET amplification and its association with MET overexpression, overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS) and time to relapse (TTR).

      Methods:
      Resected stage I-III NSCLC, identified based on the quality of clinical data and FFPE tissue availability, were assessed for MET gene copy number (GCN) and expression analysis using silver in-situ hybridization (SISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively, on TMAs (MET and centromere-specific probes; anti total c-MET antibody, clone SP44; Ventana immunostainer). MET amplification was defined as MET/centromere ratio ≥2 with average MET GCN ≥4, high MET GCN at two levels as ≥median CGN and ≥5 (irrespective of amplification) and MET IHC+ as 2+ or 3+ intensity in ≥50% of tumor cells. Sensitivity analysis to define the amplification’s thresholds was also performed. All cases were analysed at participating pathology laboratories using the same protocol, after successful completion of an external quality assurance (EQA) program.

      Results:
      Currently 2709 patients are included in the Lungscape iBiobank (median follow-up 4.8 years, 53.3% still alive). So far, 1547 (57%) have available results for MET GCN with amplification detected in 72 (4.7%; 95%CI: 3.6%, 5.7%) and high MET GCN (≥5) in 65 (4.2%; 95%CI: 3.2%, 5.2%). The median value of average MET GCN per cell is 2.3. IHC MET expression is available for 1515 (98%) of these cases, 350 (23%) of which are MET IHC positive [170 cases (49%) 3+, 180 (51%) 2+]. The median age, for the cohort of 1547 patients, is 66.2 years, with 32.8% women, and 13.5%, 29.7%, 54% never, current, former smokers, respectively. Stage distribution is: IA 23.6%, IB 24.6%, IIA 17%, IIB 12.1%, IIIA 20.9%, IIIB 1.8%, while 52.7%, are of adenocarcinoma and 40.0% of squamous histology. MET amplification and high MET GCN (≥5) are not significantly associated with any histological tumor characteristics or stage (multiplicity adjusted alpha: 0.005). High MET GCN (≥2.3) is less frequent in current smokers (38.3% vs. 55.6% for former or non-smokers, p<0.001). MET amplification and high MET GCN are significantly associated with IHC MET positivity (p<0.001 in all cases). MET amplification is present in 9.7% of IHC MET+ vs 3.1% of IHC MET- patients and high MET GCN (≥5) in 8.6% of IHC MET+ vs 2.8% of IHC MET- patients. MET amplification ranges from 0 to 16% between centers, while high MET GCN (≥5) and (≥2.3) from 0% to 12%, and 11.8% to 98.9%, respectively. MET amplification and both levels of high MET GCN are not associated with OS, RFS or TTR.

      Conclusion:
      The preliminary results for this large, predominantly European, multicenter cohort demonstrate that MET amplification assessed by SISH prevails in 4.7% of NSCLC, is associated with strong MET expression, and has no influence on prognosis. The large inter-laboratory variability in GCN despite EQA efforts may highlight a critical challenge of MET SISH analysis in routine practice.

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      ORAL37.06 - Defining MET Copy Number Driven Lung Adenocarcinoma Molecularly and Clinically (ID 2379)

      05:39 - 05:50 PM  |  Author(s): S.A. Noonan, L. Berry, D. Gao, X. Lu, A.E. Barón, P. Chesnut, N. Hart, J. Sheren, D.L. Aisner, D.T. Merrick, R.C. Doebele, M. Varella-Garcia, R. Camidge

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Increases in MET copy number define an oncogenic driver state sensitive to MET inhibition (Camidge et al, ASCO 2014). However, the level at which the genomic gain is relevant remains uncertain. When testing is performed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), variable cut-points in both mean MET/cell and MET/CEP7 ratio have been used. Partially overlapping datasets from the Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium (LCMC1) and Colorado Molecular Correlates (CMOCO) Laboratory were explored for a distinct MET-copy number driven lung adenocarcinoma subtype.

      Methods:
      MET was assessed by FISH. Data from non-adenocarcinomas and EGFR mutant patients with acquired resistance to an EGFR inhibitor were excluded. Positivity criteria were mean MET/cell ≥5 (low ≥5-<6, intermediate ≥6-<7, high ≥7) or MET/CEP7 ≥1.8 (low ≥1.8-≤2.2, intermediate >2.2-< 5, high ≥5). MET metrics were compared by race, sex, smoking status, stage at diagnosis, number of metastatic disease sites, site of metastases, presence of other known drivers (EGFR, KRAS, ALK, ERBB2, BRAF, NRAS, ROS1 and RET), response to first line chemotherapy and overall survival using Fisher’s exact tests, chi-square tests, Spearman correlations and log-rank tests, as appropriate. Statistical significance was set at the 0.05 level without adjustment for multiple comparisons.

      Results:
      1164 unique adenocarcinomas were identified (60% female, 85% Caucasian, 66% ex/current smokers). MET/CEP 7 data was available on 1164 and mean MET/cell on 700. 52/1164 (4.5%) had MET/CEP7 ≥1.8 (48% female, 83% Caucasian, 69% smokers). 50/52 (98%) had ≥1 other oncogenic driver tested (25/50 (50%) positive). 113/700 (16%) had mean MET/cell ≥ 5 (57% female, 82% Caucasian, 58% smokers). 109/113 (96%) had ≥ 1 other oncogenic driver tested (73/109 (67%) positive). Among patients with ≥1 additional driver oncogene tested, alternate drivers in low, indeterminate and high categories of mean MET/cell were 44/60 (67%), 17/24 (70%) and 12/28 (43%) respectively and for MET/CEP7: 16/29 (55%), 9/18 (50%) and 0/4 (0%) respectively. MET positive with additional drivers were excluded from further analyses. Men exceeded women in MET/CEP7 (men 4% vs women 1.6%, p = 0.019) and mean MET/cell positive cases (men 9.6% vs women 5.4%, p = 0.058). 6.4% of adrenal metastasis cases were MET/CEP7 positive vs 2% all other sites, p=0.031. Mean MET/cell: 12% adrenal vs 5% other sites, p=0.082. MET/CEP7 or mean MET/cell positive and negative groups did not differ by other variables (p > 0.05).

      Conclusion:
      The proportion of ‘MET positive’ adenocarcinomas varies by definition and positivity cut-point. Mean MET/cell ≥5 defines nearly 4x more positives than MET/CEP7 ≥1.8 and no mean MET/cell positive category was free from overlap with other drivers. As only high MET/CEP7 had no overlap with other drivers, MET/CEP7 ≥ 5 is the clearest candidate for a pure MET-copy number driven state, however cases free from other drivers do exist at lower MET positivity levels. MET/CEP7 positive cases free from other known drivers are more likely to be male, but unlike other known oncogenic states, race and smoking status are not significant in determining positivity. MET positivity may have a specific biological phenotype, being more likely to present with adrenal metastases.

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      ORAL37.07 - Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium Pathologist Panel Evaluation of MET Protein (ID 2129)

      05:50 - 06:01 PM  |  Author(s): T.A. Boyle, F. Khalil, M. Mino-Kenudson, A. Moreira, L. Sholl, G. Sica, M.Z. Knight, A.A. Kowalewski, K. Ellison, C.J. Rivard, L. Berry, H. Chen, K. Kugler, B.E. Johnson, D.J. Kwiatkowski, P.A. Bunn, Jr, F.R. Hirsch

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      MET is a receptor tyrosine kinase with frequently activated signaling in lung cancers. Multiple studies indicate that MET overexpression correlates with poor clinical prognosis. Tumors with MET amplification and overexpression may respond better to MET inhibitors than tumors with low expression. The prevalence of MET overexpression in lung cancer cohorts has varied from 20%-80%, as has the proportion of patient’s testing positive for prospective clinical trials with entry based on MET overexpression. The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium (LCMC) Pathologist Panel endeavored to standardize evaluation of MET protein expression with “Round Robin” conferences.

      Methods:
      508 FFPE non-small cell lung cancer specimens were stained by immunohistochemistry for MET protein expression (SP44 antibody, Ventana). Seven pathologists from LCMC sites with specialized training in MET scoring evaluated 78 Aperio-scanned images of MET-stained slides in two successive rounds of 39 different cases per round. The percentage of tumor cells with membranous and/or cytoplasmic staining at different intensities were evaluated with H-scores ranging from 0 to 300. Overall group and individual pathologist’s scores were compared with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Between rounds, a “Round Robin” teleconference was conducted to review discordant cases and improve consistency of scoring. Steps to improve scoring included: review of a Roche MET training document, sharing pictures of cases with concordant scores (Figure 1), and provision of H&E images for the second round to facilitate identification of tumor areas. Figure 1



      Results:
      The overall average MET H-score for the 78 cases was 165.3 (H-score range: 42.5-279.7). The average H-score was <125 for 14 specimens, 125-175 for 35 specimens, and >175 for 29 specimens. The overall group ICC comparing the consistency of H-scores from all 7 pathologists improved from 0.50 (95% confidence interval: 0.37-0.64, “fair” correlation) for the first scoring round to 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.64-0.83, “good” correlation) for the second round. A comparison of the individual pathologist’s ICCs demonstrated improved individual scoring consistency for all seven pathologists between rounds with an average of 0.64 (“moderate” correlation, range 0.43-0.76) for the first round and 0.82 (“almost perfect” correlation, range 0.75-0.93) for the second round.

      Conclusion:
      Development of standardized, reproducible strategies for evaluation of complex biomarkers, such as MET, are critical to clinical trial design. The consistency of scoring for MET protein expression and other biomarkers may be improved by continuous training and communication between pathologists with easy access to H&E images and other visual aids.

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      ORAL37.08 - Discussant for ORAL37.04, ORAL37.05, ORAL37.06, ORAL37.07 (ID 3465)

      06:01 - 06:11 PM  |  Author(s): G.J. Weiss

      • Abstract
      • Presentation

      Abstract not provided

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Author of

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    JCHS - Joint IASLC - Chinese Society for Clinical Oncology - Chinese Alliance Against Lung Cancer Session (ID 239)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Joint Chinese/ English Session
    • Track: Other
    • Presentations: 1
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      JCHS.12 - Challenges of Tobacco Related Lung Cancer in China (ID 3460)

      10:05 - 10:15 AM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Abstract not provided

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    MINI 04 - Clinical Care of Lung Cancer (ID 102)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      MINI04.03 - Real-World Patterns of Access to Cancer Specialist Care Among Patients With Lung Cancer in the United States: A Claims Database Analysis (ID 1592)

      04:55 - 05:00 PM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Timely access to specialist care is an important first step in the care of patients with lung cancer (LC). This study describes real-world patterns of access to cancer specialist (CS) care in all LC patients and those with metastatic LC (mLC).

      Methods:
      Adult patients diagnosed with primary LC or mLC were identified in a US commercial claims database (01/01/2008 - 03/31/2014). Patients’ specialist visits were assessed before and after their first biopsy (index date). All patients had ≥3 months follow-up after index date. CS was defined as oncologists or hematologists. Patients were divided in four mutually exclusive groups based on the specialists seen in the 6 weeks pre-index period: patients seen by CS (± other specialists), pulmonologists (no CS, ± other specialists), internists or family physicians (no CS/pulmonologist, ± other specialists), and other. CS visits in the 8-weeks post-index were assessed for each group. Reversed Kaplan-Meier plots were used to describe time from index date to first CS visit.

      Results:
      The analysis included 75,163 LC and 25,191 mLC patients, with a median age of 67 [interquartile range (IQR): 59-76)] and 63 (IQR: 57-73) years and a median follow-up of 11 and 9 months, respectively. In the 8-week post-index period, over half of LC patients (54%) and nearly two-thirds of mLC patients (66%) had their first CS visit (Figure 1), while 38% of LC patients and 28% of mLC patients never saw a CS within 1-year of biopsy (Figure 1). In both samples, patients in the CS and pulmonologist pre-index groups were more likely to see a CS in follow-up (Figure 2; p<0.001 for all groups). Figure 1 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 2





      Conclusion:
      A substantial proportion of patients diagnosed with LC and mLC did not see any CS after biopsy, which may negatively affect access to optimal and timely treatment.

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    MINI 05 - EGFR Mutant Lung Cancer 1 (ID 103)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      MINI05.08 - Comparison of the Efficacy of Dacomitinib v Erlotinib for NSCLC Pts with Del 19/L858R (ID 775)

      05:25 - 05:30 PM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      To date there have been limited randomized comparisons of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in EGFR mutant NSCLC. Dacomitinib is a potent, irreversible EGFR inhibitor that demonstrated robust activity in a phase 2 study for patients with common activating EGFR mutations. Additionally, preclinical data suggests greater activity in patients with common EGFR activating mutations in exon 19 or 21. ARCHER 1009 (NCT01360554) and A7471028 (NCT00769067) each compared the clinical activity of dacomitinib (D) versus erlotinib (E) in advanced NSCLC including patients with common activating EGFR mutations; pooled results are presented.

      Methods:
      Patients (pts) with locally advanced/metastatic NSCLC were randomized following progression with 1 or 2 prior chemotherapy regimens to treatment with dacomitinib (D) (45 mg PO QD) or erlotinib (E) (150 mg PO QD). The Phase 2 study (A7471028) was open label while the Phase 3 ARCHER 1009 study was double-blind and double dummy. Archived tumor tissue, ECOG performance status (PS) of 0-2, adequate organ function and informed consent were required. Results of the two studies were previously reported individually. Analyses were performed by pooling patients with common EGFR activating mutations from both studies to compare efficacy of D versus E.

      Results:
      121 patients with any EGFR mutation were enrolled into the two studies with 1 patient randomized but not treated; 101 (53 on D) pts had activating mutations in exon 19 or 21. For patients with exon19/21 mutations, the median PFS was 14.6 months (95%CI 9.0–18.2) for D and 9.6 months (95%CI 7.4–12.7) for E and unstratified HR 0.717 (95%CI 0.458–1.124) with 1-sided p=0.073. The median OS was 26.6 months (95%CI 21.6–41.5) for D and 23.2 months (95%CI 16.0–31.8) for E and unstratified HR 0.737 (95%CI 0.431–1.259) with 1-sided p=0.132. The corresponding pooled analyses were conducted separately in exon 19 and exon 21. The adverse-event profile did not differ between the activating mutation subset and the overall population. Figure 1



      Conclusion:
      Dacomitinib may be associated with an improved PFS and OS compared to Erlotinib in patients with exon 19/21 EGFR mutations. A prospective P3 study comparing D to another EGFR TKI in 1L EGFR mutated NSCLC is ongoing to verify these observations (NCT01774721).

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    MINI 09 - Drug Resistance (ID 107)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 1
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      MINI09.06 - Oncogenic Drivers including RET and ROS1 plus PTEN Loss and MET by IHC in Patients with Lung Adenocarcinomas: Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium 2.0 (ID 2114)

      05:15 - 05:20 PM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium (LCMC) 1.0 demonstrated multiplexed genomic platforms can assay 10 oncogenic drivers in tumor specimens from patients with lung adenocarcinomas. 28% of the patients with oncogenic drivers could be effectively targeted. The survival of these 275 patients treated with targeted agents was longer than the patients who were not treated with a targeted agent (Kris and Johnson JAMA 2014). The efficiency of Next-Generation Sequencing enables more comprehensive testing of additional aberrations with less tumor tissue. LCMC 2.0 was initiated to test tumor specimens for 12 oncogenic drivers and to provide the results to clinicians for treatment decisions and research purposes.

      Methods:
      The 16 site LCMC 2.0 is testing tumors from 1000 patients with lung adenocarcinomas in CLIA laboratories for mutations in KRAS, EGFR, HER2, BRAF, PIK3CA, AKT1, and NRAS, MET DNA amplification, and rearrangements in ALK as done in LCMC 1.0. The new genes that were added because of emerging information about potential therapeutic targets include MAP2K1 mutations, RET and ROS1 rearrangements, PTEN (MAb 138G4) loss and MET (MAb SP44) overexpression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). All patients were diagnosed with stage IIIB/IV lung adenocarcinoma after May 2012, had a performance status 0-2, and available tumor tissue.

      Results:
      Of 1073 patients registered, data is now reported for 759. The median age of the patients is 65 (23-90). The population includes 369 (55%) women; 164 (24%) never smokers, 399 (59%) former smokers, and 73 (11%) current smokers; 26 (4%) Asians, 58 (9%) African American, 548 (81%) Caucasian, and 43 (6%) of other races. As of April 2015 information on genomic and immunohistochemical changes for 675 eligible patients were recorded in our database. Alterations in oncogenic drivers were found in 45% of samples as follows: 159 KRAS (24%), 88 EGFR (13%), 25 ALK (4%), 19 BRAF (3%), 17 PIK3CA (3%), 9 HER2 (1%), 4 NRAS (1%) 0 AKT1, 28 had ≥ 2 findings (4%) and 25 MET DNA amplification (4%). The new genes studied in LCMC 2.0 revealed 1 MAP2K1 mutation (<1%), 19 RET (3%) and 9 ROS (1%) rearrangements, 94 had PTEN loss (14%), and 362 with MET overexpression (54%). As expected, PIK3CA mutations and PTEN loss by IHC were mutually exclusive in 109 of 111 (98%) patients’ tumors. Seventeen of the 23 (74%) with MET DNA amplification studied thus far with IHC had MET overexpression. Next-Generation platforms were used at 13 of 16 LCMC 2.0 sites.

      Conclusion:
      Next-Generation Sequencing is rapidly becoming routine practice at LCMC 2.0 centers with use going from 0 to 81% of sites since 2012. LCMC 2.0 identified additional targets (RET and ROS1 rearrangements and PTEN loss). PIK3CA and PTEN were largely mutually exclusive and an actionable oncogenic driver has been identified in the 45% of initial lung adenocarcinoma specimens. Supported by Free to Breathe

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    MINI 16 - EGFR Mutant Lung Cancer 2 (ID 130)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 2
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      MINI16.06 - AZD9291 in Pre-Treated T790M Positive Advanced NSCLC: AURA Study Phase II Extension Cohort (ID 943)

      05:15 - 05:20 PM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      AZD9291 is an oral, potent, irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), selective for both EGFR-TKI-sensitizing (EGFRm) and T790M resistance mutations. The Phase I AURA study was a dose escalation/expansion study in patients with EGFRm positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had progressed after EGFR‑TKI treatment. The 80 mg once daily (qd) dose was chosen for further evaluation in a Phase II extension cohort of the AURA study, and in an additional Phase II study (AURA2). Here we report efficacy and safety of AZD9291 from the AURA study Phase II extension cohort (NCT01802632) in patients pre-treated with EGFR-TKI and with centrally confirmed T790M positive advanced NSCLC.

      Methods:
      Eligible patients had measurable disease, World Health Organization performance status (WHO PS) 0 or 1, and acceptable organ function; stable brain metastases were allowed. A mandatory tumor sample was taken after disease progression on the most recent line of therapy, for prospective confirmation of T790M positive status by central laboratory testing (cobas™ EGFR Mutation Test). Patients received AZD9291 at 80 mg qd until disease progression. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) according to RECIST 1.1 (assessed by independent central review, ICR). Secondary objectives included disease control rate (DCR), duration of response (DoR), progression-free survival (PFS), investigator-assessed ORR, and safety. Planned enrollment was 175 patients to give an estimate of the ORR with 95% CI within ±8%. Data cut-off was January 9, 2015 after all patients should have undergone the second tumor assessment.

      Results:
      201 patients were dosed in the extension cohort of the study; two patients without measurable disease at baseline by ICR were excluded from the evaluable-for-response set. By central testing, EGFR mutation subtypes were: T790M, 98%; Ex19del, 71%; L858R, 25%; other, 3%. Median age was 62 years; female, 66%; Asian, 57%; WHO PS 0/1/2, 34%/66%/1%; second/≥third-line, 30%/70%. At the data cut-off, median treatment exposure was 4.9 months and 168 patients remain on treatment. ORR by ICR was 58% (115/199; 95% CI 51, 65) and DCR was 92% (95% CI 87, 95). ORRs were similar across lines of therapy (second-line, 59.0% [36/61] vs ≥third-line, 57.2% [79/138]). Investigator-assessed ORR was 68% (137/201; 95% CI 61, 75). Median DoR and median PFS have not been reached (maturity 2% and 21%, respectively). The most common all-causality adverse events (AEs) were diarrhea, 41% (0.5% Gr≥3) and grouped rash terms 37% (0.5% Gr≥3); 42 (21%) patients experienced Gr≥3 AEs. Interstitial lung disease grouped terms were reported in five (2.5%) patients, one of which was fatal (0.5%) and considered possibly causally related to AZD9291 by the investigator. Eight patients (4%) discontinued treatment due to an AE. Updated results from a later data cut-off will be available for presentation.

      Conclusion:
      In the AURA study Phase II extension cohort, AZD9291 80 mg qd demonstrates clinical activity, manageable tolerability, and a low discontinuation rate in patients with centrally confirmed EGFR T790M positive advanced NSCLC that has progressed on or after EGFR‑TKI treatment. These data provide further validation of the results from the Phase I study cohorts.

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      MINI16.07 - AZD9291 in Treatment-Naïve EGFRm Advanced NSCLC: AURA First-Line Cohort (ID 1232)

      05:20 - 05:25 PM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      AZD9291 is an oral, potent, irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) selective for both EGFR-sensitizing (EGFRm) and T790M resistance mutations. It has shown anticancer activity and manageable tolerability in patients with EGFRm advanced NSCLC that had progressed after EGFR‑TKI treatment.

      Methods:
      In this first-line expansion cohort (AURA, NCT01802632), patients received AZD9291 at 80 or 160 mg/day, in sequential dose groups. EGFRm status was determined locally and/or by central testing using the cobas EGFR Mutation Test. Other inclusion criteria included measurable disease, World Health Organization performance status (WHO PS) 0 or 1, and acceptable organ function; stable brain metastases were allowed. Safety, tolerability, and anticancer activity were assessed in these cohorts, to evaluate AZD9291 in the first-line treatment setting. The data cut-off was December 2, 2014.

      Results:
      Sixty treatment-naïve patients were enrolled; 30 patients in each dose group (80 or 160 mg/day). By central testing, EGFR mutation subtypes were: L858R 40%; exon 19 deletion, 37%; other EGFR-sensitizing mutations, 3%; and T790M, 8%. Baseline median age was 63.5 years; 25% of patients were male; 57%/43% had WHO PS 0/1, respectively; 72% were Asian and 23% Caucasian. Median treatment exposure at the 80 and 160 mg dose levels was 260 and 171 days, respectively. Fifty-two out of 60 patients remained on treatment at the data cut-off. Anticancer activity of AZD9291 is shown in Table 1. One-third (33%) of patients experienced Grade ≥3 adverse events; two patients had Grade 3 diarrhea and one patient had Grade 3 skin rash. New data from a 2015 data cut of the AURA first-line expansion will be available for presentation.

      Table 1. Anticancer activity findings in AURA first-line expansion
      Endpoint Finding
      Objective response rate:
      Overall 70% (95% CI 57, 81)
      AZD9291 80 mg/160 mg 60%/80%
      Disease control rate:
      Overall 97% (95% CI 89, 100)
      AZD9291 80 mg/160 mg 93%/100%
      Progression-free survival:
      Median Not yet reached
      3-month/6-month 93%/87%
      Events to date 7/60 (12% mature)


      Conclusion:
      AZD9291 has a manageable tolerability profile and is associated with promising anticancer activity in treatment-naïve patients with EGFRm advanced NSCLC. A Phase III study (FLAURA, NCT02296125) has been initiated to assess the efficacy and safety of AZD9291 in comparison with a standard-of-care EGFR-TKI (gefitinib or erlotinib) in the first-line setting.

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    MINI 18 - Radiation Topics in Localized NSCLC (ID 139)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Treatment of Localized Disease - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      MINI18.01 - Stereotactic Body Radiation v. Observation for Early-Stage NSCLC in Elderly Patients (ID 137)

      04:45 - 04:50 PM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has demonstrated high rates of local control with low morbidity and has now emerged as the new standard of care for medically inoperable, early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the impact of lung SBRT on survival in the elderly population is less clear given competing co-morbid conditions. An analysis of the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) was undertaken to determine whether definitive SBRT in patients 70 and older improves survival relative to observation alone.

      Methods:
      The NCDB, a retrospective national database capturing up to 80% of all patients treated for cancer, was queried for patients ages 70 or higher with early stage (T1-T3N0M0) NSCLC from years 2003-2006. Overall survival was compared between patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy alone and patients receiving no treatment. Extended Cox proportional hazards model was applied to estimate the treatment effect of SBRT.

      Results:
      A total of 3,147 patients met the selection criteria for this analysis. SBRT was delivered to 258 patients (8.2%) and 2889 patients (91.8%) received no treatment. There was no significant difference in the distribution of Charlson/Deyo comorbidity index scores between the two groups (p=0.076). Multivariable analysis revealed improved overall survival with SBRT compared with observation for the entire cohort (HR 0.64, p<0.001), as well as for each age group as follows: 70-74, HR=0.72; 75-79, HR=0.66; 80-84, HR=0.59; 85 and above, HR=0.56.

      Conclusion:
      SBRT is associated with improved survival in elderly patients with early stage NSCLC with concurrent comorbid conditions compared to observation alone . The data support the use of SBRT for treatment of elderly patients with early stage NSCLC that have limiting co-morbid conditions.

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    MINI 29 - Meta Analyses and Trial Conduct (ID 156)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      MINI29.01 - Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Lung in the United States: Analysis of the National Cancer Database (NCDB) (ID 2747)

      06:30 - 06:35 PM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common histological sub type of lung cancer and accounts for about 30% of all non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). We analyzed the NCDB, an oncology outcomes database administered by the American College of Surgeons and the American Cancer Society, to study the epidemiology, patterns of care, outcomes and temporal changes in incidence of SCC.

      Methods:
      The NCDB was queried from 1998 to 2011 for SCC using ICD-O-3 codes. Temporal changes in incidence were estimated in intervals (1998-1999, 2000-2003, 2004-2007, 2008-2011). The univariate association with covariates between SCC and other subtypes of NSCLC was assessed using Chi-square test or ANOVA. The univariate (UV) and multivariable analysis (MV) with OS were conducted by Cox proportional hazards model and log-rank tests. All statistical analyses were conducted using SAS Version 9.3.

      Results:
      A total of 435,358 pts with SCC were included in the analysis and accounted for 28% of all NSCLC pts in NCDB. Pt characteristics: median age 70 (18-90 yrs); males 64%; whites 87%; academic centers 27%; metro locations 78%; government insured 72%; Charlson/Deyo comorbidity score (CDS) 0 in 55% and ≥2 in 15%, and stage III/IV- 34/31%. Chemotherapy was used in 39% of pts, radiation in 46% and surgery in 32%. Approximately 19% of the pts did not receive any of the three treatments. Incidence of SCC decreased over time (35%, 28%, 26%, 27%) vs. increasing trend in non-SCC (65%, 72%, 75%, 72%); p<0.001). The trend was similar across all races and sex. SCC was associated with a higher co-comorbidity burden than non-SCC across all stages (CDS 0: 55% vs. 62%; CDS 1: 31% vs. 27%; CDS ≥2: 15% vs. 11%; p<0.001). SCC was associated with inferior 5 yr survival vs. non-SCC in all stages (stage I- 30% vs. 41%, stage II- 16% vs. 21%, stage III- 8.5% vs.10%, stage IV- 1.9% vs. 2.5% respectively; p<0.0001). The 1 yr survival in stage IV SCC is 19.6% vs. 22.2% in non-SCC (p<0.0001). Males had worse survival (HR 1.11 (1.09-1.13; p<0.001). Pts at community centers had worse survival vs. academic centers (HR 1.27 (1.23-1.30; p<0.001). An increasing trend in chemotherapy use was observed (31% in 1998 to 43% in 2011) vs. a decreasing trend in use of radiation (52% in 1998 to 46% in 2011) and surgery (32% in 1998 to 27% in 2011). Chemotherapy was received by 48% of patients with stage IV SCC. Chemotherapy use across other stages: 0/I- 18%, II- 46%, III- 60%. Males were more likely to receive any treatment (OR 1.12 (1.08-1.15); p<0.001). Pts that received any treatment had significantly better 5 year survival than those who did not receive any (20.3% vs. 3.3%, p<0.0001)

      Conclusion:
      SCC accounted for 28% of all cases of NSCLC in the United States, was associated with higher comorbidities and a significantly worse survival compared to non-SCC of the lung. Chemotherapy was used in only 48% of pts with stage IV SCC.

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    MINI 30 - New Kinase Targets (ID 157)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 3
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      MINI30.02 - Phase II Study of Defactinib, VS-6063, a Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) Inhibitor, in Patients with KRAS Mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) (ID 2875)

      06:35 - 06:40 PM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      KRAS mutations, which occur in approximately 30% of lung adenocarcinoma cases, represent a major unmet clinical need in thoracic oncology. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that KRAS mutant NSCLC cell lines and xenografts with additional alterations in either p53 or INK4a/Arf (CDKN2A) are sensitive to FAK inhibition. Defactinib (VS-6063) is a selective oral inhibitor of FAK. This trial examined the effect of FAK inhibition in patients with KRAS mutant NSCLC and various permutations of p53 and CDKN2A alterations.

      Methods:
      This multi-center, non-randomized, open-label, multi-cohort trial enrolled patients with advanced KRAS mutant NSCLC who had received at least one prior (platinum-based chemotherapy doublet) line of therapy. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) at 12 weeks. Patients were enrolled into one of four cohorts defined by INK4a/Arf and p53 status. In all cohorts, patients received defactinib 400 mg orally BID until disease progression.

      Results:
      Fifty-three patients with KRAS mutant NSCLC were enrolled across 9 US sites as of the data cut-off date (13-Mar-2015). Forty-seven patients were enrolled to one of the four molecularly defined cohorts. The median age was 62 years (range 33-80); 48% were female. The median number of prior lines of therapy was 3 (range 1-8) 15 (28%) pts met the 12 week PFS endpoint, with one patient achieving a PR. Median PFS was 46 days (range 12-205 days). Eight patients remained on study as of the data cut-off date. Clinical efficacy did not correlate with secondary mutation status across this KRAS mutant population. Adverse events considered at least possibly related to defactinib were experienced by 35 pts (76%). The majority of these were grade 1 or 2. 11 patients (24%) experienced at least possibly related grade 3-5 events, including 2 grade 5 respiratory failure events. Underlying disease was a confounding factor in many pts. The most commonly reported treatment emergent adverse events of any grade were fatigue (24%) and increased bilirubin (24%).

      Conclusion:
      In pretreated pts with KRAS mutant NSCLC defactinib demonstrates promising clinical activity with disease control rates comparable to other molecularly targeted agents for this pt population. Defactinib was generally well tolerated. Further development is warranted. Clinical trial: NCT01778803.

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      MINI30.03 - Smoking Predicts Sensitivity to PARP Inhibitor, Veliparib, in Advanced NSCLC Patients (ID 1279)

      06:40 - 06:45 PM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Tobacco-related non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with reduced survival and greater genomic instability. Veliparib (V) is a PARP inhibitor that augments platinum-induced DNA damage in preclinical studies, and a recent Phase 2 trial of advanced NSCLC trended to improved survival (HR 0.80; CI 0.54–1.18) when V was added to carboplatin (C) and paclitaxel (P). Here we report outcomes based on smoking status from this randomized Phase 2 study of CP with either V or placebo in advanced NSCLC.

      Methods:
      Patients with previously untreated advanced/metastatic NSCLC were randomized 2:1 to CP with either V at 120mg BID or placebo (randomization stratified by histology and smoking history). Cotinine was measured in patients’ plasma samples as an index of recent tobacco use.

      Results:
      Of 158 patients, 68% were male, and 49% had squamous NSCLC. At study entry, 60% pts were self-reported current smokers, 27% former smokers, and 13% never smoked. There were no significant differences in veliparib pharmacokinetic parameters between cotinine-high and low. Grade 3/4 AEs were elevated in current-smokers treated with VCP vs CP (66% vs. 40%, p=0.026); all-grade AEs and SAEs were similar between the two groups. The most common AEs in current-smokers were neutropenia (41% VCP; 27% CP), alopecia (36%; 33%), and anemia (31%; 40%). Figure 1 A sensitivity analysis of heavy vs light-smokers (≥ vs <39 pack-years, current or former smokers) showed advantage of veliparib in heavy-smokers: median PFS [HR(95% CI)] for VCP/CP was 7.0 vs 3.5 [0.43(0.20–0.94)] for heavy-smokers and 4.4 vs 4.2 [0.97(0.49–1.92)] for light-smokers; median OS was 12.6 vs 8.8 [0.52 (0.27–1.02)] for heavy-smokers and 9.9 vs 8.8 [0.92(0.53–1.61)] for light-smokers. A cotinine sensitivity analysis found that outcomes in cotinine-high were similar to current-smokers: PFS, cotinine-high HR was 0.38 (0.19–0.73) and cotinine-low was 0.97 (0.51–1.87); OS, cotinine-high HR was 0.52 (0.29–0.92) and cotinine-low was 1.07 (0.63–1.81). In univariate analyses assessing the influence of baseline characteristics and treatment on outcomes, smoking status and treatment had a significant interaction (p=0.0301 PFS, p=0.0118 OS). Additionally, multivariate analysis including all factors also identified current smoking as predictive of improved outcomes with VCP.



      Conclusion:
      Smoking status was a strong predictor of efficacy for veliparib-chemotherapy combination in advanced NSCLC. No differences in pharmacokinetics of V were seen based on plasma cotinine; toxicity of VCP was acceptable regardless of smoking history. A Phase 3 study has been initiated in patients with smoking history (M14-359).

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      MINI30.04 - A Randomized Phase 2 Trial of Cabozantinib, Erlotinib or the Combination as 2nd or 3rd Line Therapy in EGFR Wild-Type NSCLC: ECOG-ACRIN E1512 (ID 404)

      06:45 - 06:50 PM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Cabozantinib (C) is a small molecule inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, including MET, VEGFR2 & RET. MET is involved in tumor differentiation & VEGFR2 is a mediator of angiogenesis. Erlotinib (E) is FDA approved for the treatment of NSCLC.

      Methods:
      The primary objective of this randomized phase 2 study was to compare progression-free survival (PFS) of pts treated with E vs. C, & E vs E+C; each comparison had 91% power to detect a PFS hazard ratio (HR) of 0.5 with a 1-sided 0.10-level test stratified on prior number of therapies & ECOG PS. Secondary objectives included overall survival (OS), RECIST 1.1 response & CTCAE v4 toxicity. Pts were selected with previously treated (1-2 regimens) metastatic non-squamous EGFR wt NSCLC. Submission of archival tissue for central MET IHC testing was required. Oral daily dosing was: E-150 mg; C-60 mg; E+C-150 mg E, 40 mg C. Imaging was performed every 8 weeks. Pts optionally crossed over to E+C following progression on E or C.

      Results:
      125 pts were enrolled, of which 115 were eligible & treated (E, n=39; C, n=39; E+C, n=37). Pt characteristics were balanced between arms except for lower rate of brain mets history on E (p=0.02). Median follow up is 8.5 m. Compared with E (median 1.9 m), PFS was significantly improved on C (3.9 m, HR 0.33, p=0.0002, 80% CI 0.22-0.49) & E+C (4.1 m, HR 0.31, p=0.0002, 80% CI 0.21-0.46). Similarly, compared with E (median 4.0 m), OS was significantly improved on C (HR 0.52, p=0.02) & E+C arm HR 0.50, p=0.02). Grade 3-4 treatment-related hypertension & mucositis were higher on C and grade 3-4 diarrhea was higher on E+C. Overall worst grade toxicities were also significantly higher on C and E+C. MET IHC results were available on 88 patients from the primary analysis & 85% were positive (1-3+ membrane or cytoplasm staining with MET4 antibody). There was no correlation between MET status and PFS.

      Conclusion:
      C & C+E significantly improved PFS over E alone in pts with EGFR wt NSCLC. Cabozantinib-based regimens are promising for further investigation in this patient population. Funded by ECOG-ACRIN and NCI Contract No. HHSN261200800001E.

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    MS 03 - Is Tumor Angiogenesis Still a Viable Target in Advanced NSCLC? (ID 21)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Symposium
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      MS03.02 - Anti-Angiogenic Therapy: Current and Future Agents (ID 1857)

      02:40 - 03:00 PM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Abstract:
      Neo-angiogenesis, critical for sustenance and growth of cancers, is regulated by a number of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important mediator of angiogenesis and has therefore been pursued as a target for cancer therapy. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against VEGF, was the first anti-angiogenic agent to be approved for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It provides modest improvements in overall survival when given in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel for patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC (12.3 m vs. 10.3 m).[1] A second phase 3 study of bevacizumab in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine improved progression-free survival (PFS), but survival was not prolonged.[2] Bevacizumab can also be safely combined with the combination of carboplatin and pemetrexed, though there was no survival benefit for this combination when compared to carboplatin-paclitaxel-bevacizumab. [3] In all of these studies, bevacizumab was also given as maintenance therapy following 4-6 cycles of combination therapy for patients that achieved stable disease or an objective response. An ongoing phase III study (E5508) compares the role of bevacizumab, pemetrexed or both as maintenance therapy following initial therapy with carboplatin-paclitaxel-bevacizumab for 4 cycles. Based on its therapeutic utility in advanced stage NSCLC, bevacizumab was studied in earlier stages of the disease. However, administration of bevacizumab with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of stage III NSCLC was deemed unsafe by a study conducted by SWOG. The results of a phase III study that evaluated bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy in the adjuvant setting for early stage NSCLC (E1505) will be reported at the 16[th] World Conference on Lung Cancer. In another encouraging development, the combination of bevacizumab and erlotinib was associated with improved progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations compared to erlotinib alone in a phase II study conducted in Japan.[4] The median PFS was approximately 16 months for the combination compared to 9.7 months with erlotinib. This is the first study to show incremental efficacy over that of an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor in this patient population. An ongoing study in the Western population will verify the results of the Japanese trial. Taken together, bevacizumab has proven to be a valuable addition to the therapeutic armamentarium against NSCLC. The use of bevacizumab is not recommended for patients with squamous cell histology due to the higher risk of hemoptysis. A number of small molecule VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors were studied in patients with advanced NSCLC. Though many of these agents including sunitinib, sorafenib and axitinib were active as monotherapy, combination studies with chemotherapy or other targeted therapy failed to demonstrate survival benefit. Consequently, the development of nearly all of these agents has been discontinued in NSCLC. Recently, nintedanib, a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of VEGFR, fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor, has been approved in Europe for the treatment of advanced lung adenocarcinoma in combination with docetaxel. Nintedanib has demonstrated single agent activity in advanced NSCLC and was subsequently studied in combination with docetaxel as salvage therapy in a large phase III study.[5] There was a statistically significant improvement in overall survival for patients with adenocarcinoma histology that received the combination of docetaxel and nintedanib compared to docetaxel alone (12.6 m vs. 10.3 m, HR 0.83). A second confirmatory study is presently ongoing in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Ramucirumab is a monoclonal antibody against the VEGF-R2 receptor. It has recently been approved for the treatment of advanced NSCLC in the salvage therapy setting in combination with docetaxel. This was prompted by the REVEL study that compared docetaxel given with ramucirumab or placebo in patients with advanced NSCLC following progression with a prior platinum-based regimen.[6] There was an improvement in overall survival with the addition of ramucirumab to docetaxel (10.5 m vs. 9.1 m, HR 0.86). The median PFS was also improved for the combination (4.5 m vs. 3.0 m, HR 0.76). The incidence of grades 3/4 febrile neutropenia (16% vs. 10%), fatigue (14% vs. 10%) and hypertension (6% vs. 2%) were higher in the ramucirumab group. The overall results are noteworthy since this is the first study to demonstrate improvement in overall survival for a combination regimen in salvage therapy of advanced NSCLC. In summary, though the role of novel anti-angiogenic agents in NSCLC has been well established, their impact has been relatively modest in improving patient outcomes. The lack of predictive biomarkers has proven to be a major hurdle to identify patients that are likely to gain robust benefits. Efforts to identify combination strategies to improve the efficacy of anti-angiogenic agents have also been unsuccessful to date. Activation of alternate pathways that regulate angiogenesis could be an important reason for the limited success of anti-angiogenic therapy. The recent data on the combination of VEGF inhibition and EGFR inhibition in patients with an activating EGFR mutation warrant further evaluation, particularly to understand the mechanistic basis for the interaction. If confirmed, this approach is likely to be studied in patients with other ‘driver’ oncogenic events.References 1. Sandler A, Gray R, Perry MC, et al. Paclitaxel-carboplatin alone or with bevacizumab for non-small-cell lung cancer. The New England journal of medicine 2006; 355(24): 2542-50. 2. Reck M, von Pawel J, Zatloukal P, et al. Overall survival with cisplatin-gemcitabine and bevacizumab or placebo as first-line therapy for nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer: results from a randomised phase III trial (AVAiL). Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO 2010; 21(9): 1804-9. 3. Patel JD, Socinski MA, Garon EB, et al. PointBreak: a randomized phase III study of pemetrexed plus carboplatin and bevacizumab followed by maintenance pemetrexed and bevacizumab versus paclitaxel plus carboplatin and bevacizumab followed by maintenance bevacizumab in patients with stage IIIB or IV nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2013; 31(34): 4349-57. 4. Seto T, Kato T, Nishio M, et al. Erlotinib alone or with bevacizumab as first-line therapy in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer harbouring EGFR mutations (JO25567): an open-label, randomised, multicentre, phase 2 study. The lancet oncology 2014; 15(11): 1236-44. 5. Reck M, Kaiser R, Mellemgaard A, et al. Docetaxel plus nintedanib versus docetaxel plus placebo in patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (LUME-Lung 1): a phase 3, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. The lancet oncology 2014; 15(2): 143-55. 6. Garon EB, Ciuleanu TE, Arrieta O, et al. Ramucirumab plus docetaxel versus placebo plus docetaxel for second-line treatment of stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer after disease progression on platinum-based therapy (REVEL): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet 2014; 384(9944): 665-73.

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    ORAL 02 - PD1 Axis Immunotherapy 2 (ID 87)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      ORAL02.03 - Longer-Term Follow-Up of a Phase 2 Study (CheckMate 063) of Nivolumab in Patients with Advanced, Refractory Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (ID 828)

      11:07 - 11:18 AM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Patients with advanced, refractory squamous (SQ) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have historically poor outcomes and limited treatment options. Nivolumab (NIVO), a fully human IgG4 programmed death-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, has activity across NSCLC histologies and is FDA-approved for treatment of metastatic SQ NSCLC with progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy. We report efficacy, safety, and biomarker analyses from a phase 2, single-arm study of NIVO in patients with SQ NSCLC who progressed during/after prior platinum-based doublet chemotherapy and ≥1 additional systemic regimen.

      Methods:
      Patients (N=117) received NIVO 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks until progressive disease (PD)/unacceptable toxicity; treatment beyond PD was permitted per protocol. The primary endpoint was independent radiology review committee (IRC)-assessed objective response rate (ORR), per RECIST v1.1. Additional objectives included investigator-assessed ORR, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), safety, ORR by patient subgroups, efficacy by tumor PD-L1 expression (PD-L1[+]: ≥5% tumor cells expressing PD-L1), and blood-based biomarker analyses (measurement of circulating microRNA and cytokines).

      Results:
      IRC-assessed ORR was 15% (95% CI: 9, 22), with a minimum of 11 months follow-up. Median duration of response was not reached (range, 2+–12+ months); 76% (13/17) of patients had ongoing responses. Objective responses were observed across patient subgroups and regardless of PD-L1 expression (Table). Four of 22 patients treated beyond PD demonstrated a non-conventional pattern of benefit (ie, persistent reduction in target lesions in the presence of new lesions, regression following initial progression, or no further progression for ≥2 tumor assessments); OS for these patients was 6.6, 11.6+, 12.9+, and 13.5+ months. The 1-year OS rate was 41% (95% CI: 32, 50) and median OS was 8.2 months (95% CI: 6.1, 10.9). The 1-year PFS rate was 20% (95% CI: 13, 29); median PFS was 1.9 months (95% CI: 1.8, 3.2). Peripheral increases in serum IFN-γ-stimulated cytokines, including CXCL9 and CXCL10, were observed, and preliminary microRNA analyses identified altered gene expression following NIVO treatment. Grade 3–4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 17% of patients, including fatigue (4%), diarrhea (3%), and pneumonitis (3%). Pneumonitis was manageable with corticosteroids; median time to resolution was 3.4 weeks (range, 0.7–13.4). Two treatment-related deaths (1 hypoxic pneumonia, 1 ischemic stroke) occurred in patients with multiple comorbidities and concurrent PD. Figure 1



      Conclusion:
      NIVO demonstrated clinically meaningful efficacy and an acceptable safety profile in patients with advanced, refractory SQ NSCLC. Updated 18-month OS, safety, and biomarker analyses will be presented.

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    ORAL 05 - Surgery (ID 97)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Treatment of Locoregional Disease – NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      ORAL05.05 - Trimodality Therapy in the Treatment of Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): A National Cancer Database Analysis (ID 2962)

      11:48 - 11:59 AM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Significant controversy remains regarding the care of patients (pts) with clinical stage IIIA NSCLC. While multi-modality therapy is an acceptable strategy in selected pts, the optimal approach is not firmly established. We analyzed outcomes and predictors associated with trimodality therapy (TT) in the National Cancer Database (NCDB), an oncology outcomes database administered by the American College of Surgeons and the American Cancer Society.

      Methods:
      The NCDB was queried from 2003-2011 for NSCLC pts diagnosed with stage IIIA-N2 disease and treated with chemotherapy and radiation (CRT). Data was extracted on patient demographics, tumor pathology, treatments and outcomes. Three cohorts of pts were studied - CRT only/no surgery (NS), CRT + lobectomy (L) and CRT + pneumonectomy(P). The univariate and multivariable analyses (MV) were conducted using Cox proportional hazards model and log rank tests. All analyses were performed using SAS Version 9.3.

      Results:
      A total of 29,584 pts were included in this analysis: NS-91.7%, L-7%, and P-1.5%. Pt characteristics: median age 66 years (yrs); males 56%; whites 86%; academic centers 27%; metro locations 78%; government insured 63%; Charlson/Deyo comorbidity score 0 in 66%. Pts < 60 yrs were more likely to receive TT- L (47%), P (60%) vs. NS (29%); p<0.001. Pts in academic centers were more likely to get TT than NS (42% vs. 25%). On MV analysis, L and P had significantly better survival vs. NS: HR 0.43 (0.38-0.48) and HR 0.57 (0.46-0.71) respectively; p <0.001. The median survival of L, P and NS were 44.5 m vs. 25.6 m vs. 15.7 m (p<0.001) and 5- year survival rates (SR) were 44% vs. 33% vs. 14% respectively. 30-day mortality was higher in P vs. L [7% vs. 2.6%; OR 0.26(0.16-0.45); p<0.001]. Pts with <2 lymph nodes (LN) had better survival than pts with >2 LNs in L (50% vs. 37%; 60m vs. 38.8m) but worse in NS (13.8% vs.16.4%; 15.3m vs.18.5m). On MV analysis of LNs, L had better survival than NS: HR 0.4 (0.35-0.46) in <2 LN pts and HR 0.56 (0.46-0.69) in ≥2 LN pts; p<0.001. In pts with <2 LN, L had better survival than P (60m vs. 25.5m; p<0.0001). L and P had better SR than NS in all ages: 48% vs.37% vs. 19% in ≤60 yrs; 42% vs. 30% vs.14% in 61-70 yrs, 36% vs.19% vs. 10% in >70 yrs.

      Conclusion:
      TT was utilized in less than 10% of pts with stage IIIA-N2 disease, suggesting high degree of pt selection. In this selected group, TT was associated with favorable outcomes relative to CRT alone.

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    ORAL 20 - Chemoradiotherapy (ID 124)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Treatment of Locoregional Disease – NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      ORAL20.01 - A Systematic Review of Carboplatin-Paclitaxel versus Cisplatin-Etoposide Concurrent with Thoracic Radiation for Stage III NSCLC Patients (ID 600)

      10:45 - 10:56 AM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      The two most commonly used chemotherapy regimens deployed concurrently with thoracic radiation (RT) for patients with unresectable IIIA and IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are carboplatin/paclitaxel (CP) and cisplatin/etoposide (CE). Because there are no prospective comparisons of these two regimens in this setting, we conducted a systematic review of published trials to compare outcomes and toxicities between CE and CP.

      Methods:
      Studies which enrolled stage III patients receiving RT with CP or CE were identified using electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane library) and meeting abstracts. Trials were excluded if they were phase I, enrolled less than 10 pts, or included surgical resection. A systematic analysis of extracted data was performed using Comprehensive Meta Analysis (Version 2.2) software using random and fixed effect models. Clinical outcomes were compared using point estimates for weighted values of median overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS), response rate (RR) and toxicities. Two-tailed T-test with a significance level of 0.05 was used for all comparisons.

      Results:
      3194 patients were included from 32 studies in the CE arm, and 3789 patients from 51 studies in CP. Baseline characteristics of patients on the CE arm versus CP arm were: median age 61 vs. 63 years, male 67.6% vs. 78%, squamous histology 39% vs. 40%, and median radiation dose 62 Gy vs. 63 Gy. There was no significant difference in response rates between CE and CP (65% vs. 56%, p =0.6), respectively. There was no significant difference in median progression free survival (11.5m vs. 9.3m p =0.2), overall survival (19.8m vs. 18.4m, p=0.48), 1-year survival rate (66% vs. 65%, p=0.8), or 3-year survival rate (31% vs. 25%, p=0.4) for CE vs. CP. CE was associated with higher grade 3/4 hematological toxicities than CP, such as neutropenia (53% vs. 23% p<0.0001), thrombocytopenia (14% vs. 6% p=0.001), anemia (16% vs. 8% p=0.06), as well as grade 3/4 nausea/vomiting (20% vs. 9% p=0.018), while rates of grade 3/4 pneumonitis and esophagitis were similar.

      Conclusion:
      CE and CP regimens were associated with comparable efficacy when used with concurrent radiotherapy for stage III unresectable NSCLC pts. The toxicity profile favored the CP regimen.

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    ORAL 30 - Community Practice (ID 141)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Community Practice
    • Presentations: 1
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      ORAL30.03 - Access to Cancer Directed Therapies and Cancer Specialists in Patients with Metastatic Lung Cancer (ID 2899)

      05:07 - 05:18 PM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Access to cancer specialists and directed therapies is critical in the management of patients with metastatic lung cancer (mLC). This study aims to assess treatment patterns overall and stratified based on whether patients were seen or not by a cancer specialist in patients with de novo mLC.

      Methods:
      Adult patients diagnosed with de novo mLC between January 1, 2008 and March 31, 2014 were selected from a US commercial health claims database. All patients were followed for a minimum 3 months after the index date, defined as their first biopsy date. Patients who saw an oncologist/hematologist from 6 weeks before index date until the end of follow-up (end of data availability or health plan eligibility) were included in the cohort of patients who saw a cancer specialist. The remaining patients were included in the cohort of patients who did not see a cancer specialist. In both cohorts, the use of systemic antineoplastic therapy (Table 1) and radiation therapy was assessed following the index date.

      Results:
      The study sample consisted of 25,191 mLC patients, followed for a median of 9 months. Median age was 63 years (interquartile range: 57-73). 28.4% of the patients did not see a cancer specialist. Overall, 89.9% of the mLC patients received a cancer directed therapy during the follow-up (Table 1). The proportion of patients who received a cancer directed therapy during the follow-up was larger among patients seen by a cancer specialist (91.2% vs. 86.7%, p < .0001) (Table 1). Among patients who did not see a cancer specialist, 86.7% received antineoplastic therapy and/or radiotherapy during the follow-up, 2.6% were untreated and admitted to hospice, and 10.6% were untreated and were not admitted to hospice. The majority of patients who were not seen by a cancer specialist and received treatment were seen prior to the initiation of therapy by pulmonologists, internists, family physicians, and/or radiologists. Figure 1



      Conclusion:
      Approximately one in ten patients with de novo mLC did not receive any cancer directed therapy and a little more than one in four patients were not seen directly by a cancer specialist. Among patients not seen by a cancer specialist many received some form of cancer directed therapy. However, the access to cancer directed therapy of these patients remained significantly lower than that of mLC patients seen by a cancer specialist. Further research should be directed towards understanding and addressing disparities in access to appropriate cancer care.

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    ORAL 31 - PD1 Axis Inhibition (ID 143)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      ORAL31.02 - Pembrolizumab for NSCLC: Immune-Mediated Adverse Events and Corticosteroid Use (ID 3032)

      04:56 - 05:07 PM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Pembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against PD-1 that has demonstrated robust antitumor activity and a manageable safety profile in patients with advanced malignancies, including NSCLC. Similar to other immune checkpoint inhibitors, immune-mediated toxicities have been observed with pembrolizumab. We characterized the incidence of potentially immune-mediated adverse events (AEs) and the use of systemic corticosteroids for their management in patients with NSCLC treated with pembrolizumab in the phase 1 KEYNOTE-001 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01295827).

      Methods:
      550 patients with advanced NSCLC received pembrolizumab 2 or 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks (Q3W) or 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks (Q2W). Potentially immune-mediated AEs were derived from a prespecified list and considered regardless of attribution to study treatment by the investigator. High-dose corticosteroid use was defined as an initial dose of ≥40 mg/day prednisone or equivalent. Low-dose corticosteroid use was defined as an initial dose of <40 mg/day prednisone or equivalent.

      Results:
      71 (12.9%) patients experienced ≥1 immune-mediated AE, including 17 (3.1%) who experienced grade 3-4 events, 1 (0.2) who died because of an immune-mediated AE (pneumonitis), and 14 (2.5%) who discontinued pembrolizumab because of immune-mediated AEs. The median time to onset of the first immune-mediated AE was 104 days (range, 2-393 days). Immune-related AE incidence was similar in patients treated with pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg Q2W and Q3W. The most common immune-mediated AEs were hypothyroidism, pneumonitis, and infusion-related reactions (Table). Pneumonitis was the most common grade 3-4 toxicity. Excluding hypothyroidism, 74.2% of immune-mediated AEs had resolved at the time of data cutoff. Of the 71 patients who experienced immune-mediated AEs, 30 (42.2%) received corticosteroids: 20 received high dose, 10 low dose. The highest incidence of corticosteroid use was for pneumonitis (84.2%) and colitis (80.0%) (Table). The duration of initial steroid use ranged from 1 to 129 days. Analyses related to the impact of steroid use on pembrolizumab efficacy are ongoing and will be available for presentation. Figure 1



      Conclusion:
      Potentially immune-mediated AEs, particularly those of grade 3-5 severity, are relatively infrequent in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with pembrolizumab. As evidenced by the low rate of pembrolizumab discontinuation, most immune-mediated events were managed by temporary pembrolizumab interruption and corticosteroid use.

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    P1.08 - Poster Session/ Thymoma, Mesothelioma and Other Thoracic Malignancies (ID 224)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Poster
    • Track: Thymoma, Mesothelioma and Other Thoracic Malignancies
    • Presentations: 1
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      P1.08-020 - Survival Impact of Adjuvant Radiation and Chemotherapy in Patients with Typical and Atypical Pulmonary Carcinoids (ID 3054)

      09:30 - 09:30 AM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation is commonly employed after resection of primary pulmonary carcinoid especially for patients with advanced stage disease with expectation of survival benefit. The indication for adjuvant therapy is poorly defined and there are limited data in support of this clinical practice. We therefore evaluated predictors and potential benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation using the National Cancer Database (NCDB), an oncology outcomes database administered by the American College of Surgeons and the American Cancer Society

      Methods:
      The NCDB was queried for patients who had undergone surgical resection of pulmonary carcinoid tumors between 2003 and 2006. Patients younger than 18 years and those with incomplete survival data were excluded from this analysis. Overall survival was defined as time from date of definitive surgery to date of death or last follow-up. Univariate and multivariable models were employed to assess for association between patient survival and variables of interest. Gender, age, and race were fit in a multivariable Cox model with treatment, and backward selection criteria (alpha = 0.1) were used to determine whether education, urban/rural, tumor size, income, laterality, insurance, or comorbidity score were included in the model. The proportional hazards assumption was checked for all models.

      Results:
      We included 4984 eligible patients diagnosed between 2003 and 2006 in the analysis. Post resection adjuvant radiation was administered to 4.2% of the patients; 1.9% received chemotherapy while the remaining patients did not receive any adjuvant therapy. Patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation had worse survival at 2 years post surgery (75.7% and 70.8%% respectively) in comparison to patients managed with surgical resection only (94.2%). This survival difference was still significant in multivariable Cox models after adjusting for relevant patient and prognostic factors including gender, age, race, stage, lymph node involvement, tumor size, education level and co-morbidity score (HR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.43 - 3.85, p<0.001 and HR: 1.97, 95% CI:1.48 - 2.61, p<0.001 for adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation, respectively). Decreased survival persisted in analyses restricted to patients with lymph node involvement (HR 1.58, p 0.084 and 3.21, p<0.001 for chemotherapy and radiation, respectively), and with advanced stage cancer (HR 4.10, p <0.001 and 2.04, p=0.036 and for radiation and chemotherapy, respectively) . Results did not differ by histology

      Conclusion:
      We observed worse outcomes in patients with typical and atypical carcinoid treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation post surgery. The poor outcome associated with adjuvant therapy may be explained in part by the fact that patients considered for adjuvant therapy are more likely to have advanced stage disease and adverse tumor characteristics. However, contribution from potential toxicities of chemotherapy and radiation cannot be entirely excluded pending additional analysis in propensity-matched cohorts of patients.

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    P2.01 - Poster Session/ Treatment of Advanced Diseases – NSCLC (ID 207)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Poster
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 2
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      P2.01-011 - Relationship between EGFR Mutation Status and Response to Specific Chemotherapeutic Agents in Patients with Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (ID 2491)

      09:30 - 09:30 AM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      The purpose of this study was to investigate whether outcomes with various chemotherapy regimens were affected by the specific epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

      Methods:
      We retrospectively analyzed the association between the different EGFR mutations (exon 19 deletion, exon 21, and 18 mutations) and their response to chemotherapy. A total of 17 patients with stage IV NSCLC treated at Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University between January 2007 and February 2015 who received chemotherapy were investigated retrospectively, and their clinical date were assessed according to EFGR mutation.

      Results:
      14 (82.4%) females and 3 (17.6%) males were identified harboring EGFR mutations. Median age at the time of diagnosis was 66 years (SD 14.08). 12 patients (70.6%) were never smokers, and 5 (29.4%) were former or current smokers. EGFR exon 19 deletion was present in 7 patients (41.2%), exon 21 mutation in 8 (47.1%), and exon 18 in 2 (11.8%). 15 (88.2%) received chemotherapy, and 11 (64.7%) received pemetrexed-based treatment. Four patients had partial response (PR) as the best response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy, and all of them harbored exon 21 mutation. Among patients that received other types of chemotherapies (paclitaxel, gemcitabine, navelbine and platinum), 6 with exon 21 mutation, and 2 with exon 19 deletion experienced PR. Progression-free survival (PFS) was not significantly different among the groups of mutation (p=0.3645) that received paclitaxel, gemcitabine, navelbine and platinum as chemotherapies, and PFS was also not different for pemetrexed-based regimen (p=0.4569).

      Conclusion:
      We did not find differential sensitivity to various chemotherapy agents based on mutation type in advanced NSCLC patients harboring an EGFR mutation.

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      P2.01-068 - Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Associated with Improved Survival in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer: A SEER-MEDICARE Analysis (ID 2743)

      09:30 - 09:30 AM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Cancer of the prostate and lung are most commonly diagnosed in the elderly. Aberrant female sex hormone signaling has been well-described in NSCLC. The impact of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) outcome has, however, not been well studied.

      Methods:
      We employed the linked SEER-MEDICARE database to assess the potential impact of ADT on NSCLC. We analyzed data from patients diagnosed with NSCLC between 1985 and 2005 and registered in the SEER-MEDICARE database. Patients were categorized into three groups: prostate cancer diagnosis followed by NSCLC (PL), NSCLC followed by prostate cancer (LP) and NSCLC only (L). Demographic and survival outcomes were compared between these groups. The impact of sequence of cancer diagnosis and ADT on survival post NSCLC diagnosis was assessed within the PL group using logistic regression model. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to estimate the effect of ADT and stage of prostate cancer on survival with adjustment for significant prognostic factors.

      Results:
      A total of 417630 patients were included in this analysis; male/female (56.4%/43.6%); Race: White (84.0%), Black (9.0%), Asian (2.1%), Hispanic (1.0%), others (3.0%); Stage: I (17.4%), II (2.9%), III (33.6%) and IV (46.1%). The majority of the patients were in the L group (96.3%), followed by PL (2.9%) and LP (0.8%). Patients in the LP group had the best 12-month survival rates (84.5%), followed by L (44.4%) and PL (40.1%). Analysis within the PL group showed an inverse correlation between stage of prostate cancer diagnosis and interval of time to NSCLC diagnosis: 54.8, 54.1, 62.1 and 59.3 months for stage I, II, III and IV prostate cancer, respectively. Prostate cancer patients exposed to ADT had a shorter interval to lung cancer diagnosis (48.3 vs. 52.7 months; p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, patients exposed to ADT had a higher median survival (10 months vs. 9 months; p < 0.001) and reduced risk of death (HR:1.11; 95%CI:1.05-1.18), p <0.001).

      Conclusion:
      ADT therapy for prostate cancer was associated with improved survival for subsequent NSCLC diagnosis. Our result supports systematic exploration of ADT as a treatment strategy for NSCLC.

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    P3.01 - Poster Session/ Treatment of Advanced Diseases – NSCLC (ID 208)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Poster
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 2
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      P3.01-003 - Patterns of Disease Progression for Stage IV NSCLC While on PD-1 Directed Therapy as Compared to Standard Chemotherapy (ID 3052)

      09:30 - 09:30 AM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract

      Background:
      Programmed Cell Death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor therapy is now an established therapeutic modality in certain solid malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purpose of this study is to determine whether disease progression patterns are different between PD-1 inhibitor therapy or chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC.

      Methods:
      We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who received PD-1 targeted therapies and systemic chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC treated at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University. We reviewed demographic data and treatment history of these patients. RECIST criteria were used to evaluate the patients’ baseline tumor burden and their subsequent disease progression from imaging studies (CT, PET/CT, MRI).

      Results:
      The total cohort included 37 patients with a mean age of 67 years. The PD-1 therapy group included 19 patients (14 males, 5 females), with 9 on MK-3475, 3 on MDPL3280A, and 7 on nivolumab. This group included 3 African Americans and 16 Caucasians. The median number of lines of prior chemotherapy was 3. A comparator group of 18 patients on standard chemotherapy was identified (14 males, 4 females). This group included 8 African Americans and 10 Caucasians. In the PD-1 therapy group, 5 patients had no progression and 14 had disease progression. Of these, 5 progressed at their sites of known cancer (36%), 4 progressed at new sites (28.5%), and 5 progressed at both old and new sites (36%). In the chemotherapy group, 4 patients had no disease progression and 14 had progression. Of those 14, 2 were at old sites only (14%), 4 were at new sites only (29%), and 8 were at both old and new sites (57%). The median time to progression was 3.5 months with PD-1 targeted therapy (range 2-13 months) and 6 months with chemotherapy (range 2-21 months).

      Conclusion:
      Our data suggests no difference between the progression patterns between PD-1 inhibitor therapy and standard chemotherapy patients. Patients on PD-1 therapy appear to have a shorter time to progression than those on traditional chemotherapy.

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      P3.01-063 - Development of a Patient-Reported Outcome (pro) Assessment of Core Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Symptoms (ID 863)

      09:30 - 09:30 AM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Slides

      Background:
      Early stage lung cancer is largely asymptomatic; however, as the disease progresses, patients experience significant distress from their lung cancer symptoms. The assessment and monitoring of changes in NSCLC symptoms is increasingly important in clinical trials when making treatment comparisons between new therapies. The objective of this study was to capture the patient perspective on core symptoms of NSCLC in order to develop a new symptom measure for use in clinical trials.

      Methods:
      This was a non-interventional, cross-sectional qualitative study that consisted of conducting individual interviews with patients with a diagnosis of NSCLC who were either treatment-naïve or had already received surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, or targeted therapy. Patients aged ≥18 years with stage IIB-IV NSCLC took part in concept elicitation interviews to provide descriptions of NSCLC symptoms, including severity, frequency and development over time. Data were used to develop the items constituting the Symptoms in Lung Cancer (SILC) Questionnaire.

      Results:
      A total of 28 patients were recruited (17 treatment-naïve, 11 post-treatment) for concept elicitation interviews. In the treatment-naïve population, the most common spontaneously reported symptoms of NSCLC were cough (58.8%), shortness of breath (47.1%), chest pain (47.1%) and fatigue (29.4%). These symptoms were included in the initial 12-item version of the SILC. An additional 10 patients participated in cognitive interviews to ensure that the items were correctly interpreted, relevant, and disease-related (i.e., not treatment-related). Following cognitive interviews and analysis of data from treatment-naïve and post-treatment patients, the fatigue items were dropped after patients indicated that attributing a specific symptom to the underlying condition or treatment was challenging. The final draft of the 9-item SILC uses a 5-point verbal response scale (higher scores indicating greater severity/frequency), a 7-day recall period, and assesses 3 core symptom concepts: chest pain (severity and frequency), cough (severity and frequency), dyspnea (while lying down/sitting, standing, walking, carrying a light load and when walking up an incline).

      Conclusion:
      SILC is an easy-to-use and concise tool to assess the core symptoms of disease in NSCLC patients, and is in compliance with the FDA PRO Guidance (2009) document.

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    PLEN 04 - Presidential Symposium Including Top 4 Abstracts (ID 86)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Plenary
    • Track: Plenary
    • Presentations: 1
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      PLEN04.03 - Randomized Phase III Trial of Adjuvant Chemotherapy with or without Bevacizumab in Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): Results of E1505 (ID 1608)

      11:07 - 11:19 AM  |  Author(s): S.S. Ramalingam

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected early stage NSCLC provides modest survival benefit. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against vascular endothelial growth factor, improves outcomes when added to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced stage non-squamous NSCLC. We conducted a phase 3 study to evaluate the addition of bevacizumab to adjuvant chemotherapy in early stage resected NSCLC. The primary endpoint was overall survival and secondary endpoints included disease-free survival and toxicity assessment.

      Methods:
      Patients with resected stage IB (>4 centimeters) to IIIA (AJCC 6th edition) NSCLC were enrolled within 6-12 weeks of surgery and stratified by chemotherapy regimen, stage, histology and sex. All patients were to receive adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of a planned 4 cycles of every 3 week cisplatin at 75 mg/m[2] with either vinorelbine, docetaxel, gemcitabine or pemetrexed. Patients were randomized 1:1 to arm A (chemotherapy alone) or arm B, adding bevacizumab at 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks starting with cycle 1 of chemotherapy and continuing for 1 year. Post-operative radiation therapy was not allowed. The study had 85% power to detect a 21% reduction in the overall survival (OS) hazard rate with a one-sided 0.025-level test.

      Results:
      From July 2007 to September 2013, 1501 patients were enrolled. Patients were 49.8% male, predominantly white (87.9%) with a median age of 61 years. Patients enrolled had tumors that were 26.2% stage IB, 43.8% stage II and 30.0% stage IIIA and 28.2% of patients had squamous cell histology. Chemotherapy options were utilized with the following distribution: vinorelbine 25.0%, docetaxel 22.9%, gemcitabine 18.9% and pemetrexed 33.2%. At a planned interim analysis, with 412 of 676 overall survival events needed for full information (60.9%), though the pre-planned futility boundary was not crossed, the Data Safety Monitoring Committee recommended releasing the trial results based on the conditional power of the logrank test. At the time of interim analysis, with a median follow-up time of 41 months, the OS hazard ratio comparing the bevacizumab containing arm (Arm B) to chemotherapy alone (Arm A) was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81-1.21, p=0.93). The DFS hazard ratio was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.84-1.14, p=0.75). Completion of treatment per protocol was 80% on Arm A and 36% on Arm B. Statistically significantly increased grade 3-5 toxicities of note (all attributions) included: overall worst grade (67% versus 84%); hypertension (8% versus 30%), and neutropenia (33% versus 38%) on Arms A and B, respectively. There was no significant difference in grade 5 adverse events per arm with 16 (2%) on arm A and 19 (3%) on arm B.

      Conclusion:
      The addition of bevacizumab to adjuvant chemotherapy failed to improve survival for patients with surgically resected early stage NSCLC.

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