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J.-. Yang



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    JCHS - Joint IASLC - Chinese Society for Clinical Oncology - Chinese Alliance Against Lung Cancer Session (ID 239)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Joint Chinese/ English Session
    • Track: Other
    • Presentations: 1
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      JCHS.08 - Role of T790M Mutation in EGFR-TKI Rechallenge for Patients with EGFR-Mutant Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (ID 3525)

      09:25 - 09:35 AM  |  Author(s): J.-. Yang

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 T790M mutation may have a predictive role before EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) treatment and it also might have a prognostic role after acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs. However, its role in EGFR-TKI rechallenge after failure of initial EGFR-TKIs in EGFR-mutant advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unknown.

      Methods:
      We retrospectively evaluated the clinical course of 515 EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC patients who received first generation EGFR-TKIs (gefitinib or erlotinib) from December 2009 to November 2014 at Guangdong General Hospital. Of these 515 patients, 65 patients recieved same EGFR-TKI rechallenge, including 51 patients who underwent rebiopsy and secondary EGFR mutation detection after failure of initial EGFR-TKIs. EGFR detection was performed by Sanger sequencing or Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) methods. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were both calculated from commencement of EGFR-TKI rechallenge. Survival data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test.

      Results:
      EGFR activating mutations still existed in all the 51 patients who received rebiopsy and 18 patients were with T790M mutation while 33 patients were without T790M. The median PFS for the T790M+ and T790M- groups were 1.8 months (95%CI 1.180~2.420) and 2.0 months (95%CI 1.100~2.900), respectively (P=0.261). The median OS for the two groups were 7.7 months (95%CI 6.548~8.852) and 6.8 months (95%CI 4.730~8.870), respectively (P=0.565). No statistical difference was found in PFS or OS between two groups(Figure 1). Fig 1. Kaplan-Meier curves of patients in two groups. (A)Progression-free survival. (B) Overall survival.

      Conclusion:
      EGFR T790M mutation is neither a predictive nor a prognostic factor for first generation EGFR-TKI rechallenge in EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC patients, indicating that whether T790M occurs or not, same EGFR-TKI rechallenge could not be recommended as a good strategy to overcome the resistance to first generation EGFR-TKIs.

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    MINI 03 - PD1 Axis Inhibition and EGFR (ID 101)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      MINI03.09 - Role of T790M Mutation in EGFR-TKI Rechallenge for Patients with EGFR-Mutant Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (ID 1031)

      05:35 - 05:40 PM  |  Author(s): J.-. Yang

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 T790M mutation may have a predictive role before EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) treatment and it also might have a prognostic role after acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs. However, its role in EGFR-TKI rechallenge after failure of initial EGFR-TKIs in EGFR-mutant advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unknown.

      Methods:
      We retrospectively evaluated the clinical course of 515 EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC patients who received first generation EGFR-TKIs (gefitinib or erlotinib) from December 2009 to November 2014 at Guangdong General Hospital. Of these 515 patients, 65 patients recieved same EGFR-TKI rechallenge, including 51 patients who underwent rebiopsy and secondary EGFR mutation detection after failure of initial EGFR-TKIs. EGFR detection was performed by Sanger sequencing or Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) methods. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were both calculated from commencement of EGFR-TKI rechallenge. Survival data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test.

      Results:
      EGFR activating mutations still existed in all the 51 patients who received rebiopsy and 18 patients were with T790M mutation while 33 patients were without T790M. The median PFS for the T790M+ and T790M- groups were 1.8 months (95%CI 1.180~2.420) and 2.0 months (95%CI 1.100~2.900), respectively (P=0.261). The median OS for the two groups were 7.7 months (95%CI 6.548~8.852) and 6.8 months (95%CI 4.730~8.870), respectively (P=0.565). No statistical difference was found in PFS or OS between two groups(Figure 1). Figure 1 Fig 1. Kaplan-Meier curves of patients in two groups. (A)Progression-free survival. (B) Overall survival.



      Conclusion:
      EGFR T790M mutation is neither a predictive nor a prognostic factor for first generation EGFR-TKI rechallenge in EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC patients, indicating that whether T790M occurs or not, same EGFR-TKI rechallenge could not be recommended as a good strategy to overcome the resistance to first generation EGFR-TKIs.

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    MINI 08 - Prognostic/Predictive Biomarkers (ID 106)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 1
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      MINI08.06 - Prognostic Significance of FGFR1 Amplification in Patients with Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ID 814)

      05:20 - 05:25 PM  |  Author(s): J.-. Yang

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      The Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor(FGFR) pathway especially FGFR1 gene copy number gain have attracted continuous attention of researchers for several years. Whereas due to different test methods and distinguishing criteria whether FGFR1 amplification related to patients smoking status or prognosis is still controversial.

      Methods:
      We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect the gene copy number in paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 200 cases of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma patients who underwent surgery in Guangdong Lung Caner Institute(GLCL) from 2008 to 2013. All samples had been identified as primary squamous cell carcinoma by postoperative pathology and informed consent. A tumor is defined as FGFR1 amplification positive when FISH results meet one of the following criteria after reviewing at least 100 tumor cells: (1) FGFR1/CEP-8 ratio≥2; (2) mean number of FGFR1 signals≥6; or if (3) ≥10% tumor cell containing more than 15 FGFR1 signals or large clusters. Among them, sample accord with the 3rd standard was defined as focal amplification.

      Results:
      Figure 1 We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect the gene copy number in paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 200 cases of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma patients who underwent surgery in Guangdong Lung Caner Institute(GLCL) from 2008 to 2013. All samples had been identified as primary squamous cell carcinoma by postoperative pathology and informed consent. A tumor is defined as FGFR1 amplification positive when FISH results meet one of the following criteria after reviewing at least 100 tumor cells: (1) FGFR1/CEP-8 ratio≥2; (2) mean number of FGFR1 signals≥6; or if (3) ≥10% tumor cell containing more than 15 FGFR1 signals or large clusters. Among them, sample accord with the 3rd standard was defined as focal amplification.



      Conclusion:
      Our results suggested that FGFR1 focal amplification might be an independent risk factor for patients overall survival. Patients with FGFR1 amplification were more likely to disease recurrence. Clinical characteristic including smoking status were not found in association with FGFR1 amplification, suggesting patients with FGFR1 amplification might not be fully enriched through only clinical factors.

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    MINI 26 - Circulating Tumor Markers (ID 148)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Mini Oral
    • Track: Biology, Pathology, and Molecular Testing
    • Presentations: 1
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      MINI26.13 - Serial ctDNA Assessment of Response and Resistance to EGFR-TKI for Patients with EGFR-L858R Mutant Lung Cancer from a Prospective Trial (ID 3107)

      05:50 - 05:55 PM  |  Author(s): J.-. Yang

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      Plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has been widely accepted as a form of liquid biopsy to detect EGFR mutations in NSCLC for its high concordance rate with tumor tissues. There are some retrospective studies about the ctDNA quantitative changes of EGFR mutations in EGFR-TKI treatment, but there is no report about serial ctDNA assessment of response and resistance to EGFR-TKI by detecting the dynamic changes of EGFR mutations during the whole course of EGFR-TKI treatment based on prospective clinical trial.

      Methods:
      Based on a randomized trial initiated to compare erlotinib with gefitinib in advanced NSCLC harboring EGFR exon 21 L858R mutation in tumor tissues (CTONG0901, NCT01024413), we prospectively collected serial plasma samples as preplanned schedule (baseline, one week after treatment, one month after treatment and then every 8 weeks until disease progression) and quantitatively detected EGFR L858R mutation in ctDNA by using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We made a serial ctDNA assessment of response and resistance to EGFR-TKI and its correlation with survival outcomes. Four patients’ serial plasma samples were selected to undergo next generation sequencing (NGS).

      Results:
      From 108 patients enrolled in the trial, serial plasma of 80 patients were collected as schedule and tested the quantity of L858R. As a whole, the quantity of L858R decreased to the lowest level when patients achieved best response to EGFR-TKI and increased to the highest level when disease progressed. Further analysis by Ward's Hierarchical Clustering Method showed that the dynamic changes of quantity of L858R could be categorized into two groups, Ascend Group and Stable Group (Figure 1A). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 11.1 months (95%CI=6.6-15.6) and 7.5 months (95%CI=1.4-13.6) in two groups, respectively (HR=0.57, 95%CI=0.34-0.97, P=0.035) (Figure 1B). Median overall survival was 20.1 months (95%CI=15.7~24.5) vs. 16.4 months (95%CI=13.3~19.6) (HR=0.73, 95% CI =0.38~1.38, P=0.322). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, changing group was independent predictive factor for PFS. In plasma samples of 4 patients underwent NGS, similar dynamic changing characteristics were confirmed and more genetic mutations were found. Detailed data will be presented on site.Figure 1



      Conclusion:
      This is the first report about serial ctDNA assessment of response and resistance to EGFR-TKI by detecting the dynamic changes of EGFR mutation based on a prospective clinical trial. The quantity of plasma L858R has different changing patterns during EGFR-TKI treatment and higher L858R mutation abundance on EGFR-TKI resistance is correlated with longer PFS.

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    ORAL 16 - Clinical Care of Lung Cancer and Advanced Biopsies (ID 115)

    • Event: WCLC 2015
    • Type: Oral Session
    • Track: Treatment of Advanced Diseases - NSCLC
    • Presentations: 1
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      ORAL16.05 - Retrospective Analysis of ctDNA EGFR Mutations in the Phase III, Randomized IMPRESS Study (ID 2106)

      11:28 - 11:39 AM  |  Author(s): J.-. Yang

      • Abstract
      • Presentation
      • Slides

      Background:
      The majority of patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer respond to first-line EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs, e.g. gefitinib) but nearly all eventually acquire resistance. The most common mechanism of acquired resistance is a second-site mutation in the EGFR kinase domain, T790M. The phase III, double-blind IMPRESS study evaluated the efficacy and safety of continuing gefitinib plus pemetrexed/cisplatin versus placebo plus pemetrexed/cisplatin in patients with acquired resistance to first-line gefitinib. Study results did not support the continuation of gefitinib after disease progression (by RECIST criteria) when platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is used as second-line therapy. Here we report the results of a retrospective biomarker analysis of plasma circulating free, tumor-derived DNA (ctDNA) from patients in IMPRESS, including T790M profiling, to help understand the IMPRESS clinical trial outcome.

      Methods:
      Plasma samples for ctDNA isolation were collected at baseline and discontinuation from 151 randomized, non-Chinese patients in IMPRESS (58% of overall IMPRESS population). ctDNA levels of T790M, L858R, and Exon19 deletions were detected using both a quantitative emulsion (BEAMing) digital PCR assay (Sysmex[®]) and a qualitative QIAGEN[®] Therascreen ARMS assay (baseline only). Local EGFR tumor tissue (diagnostic) results were available for 133/151 patients. Mutation concordance rates between tissue and baseline plasma results, and comparisons between the two plasma detection methods, were calculated.

      Results:
      Baseline ctDNA EGFR mutation results were obtained for >99% (150/151) of patients. Using BEAMing, sensitivity and specificity between baseline plasma EGFR sensitizing mutations and local EGFR tumor tests were 78% (69/89) and 98% (42/43), respectively, for Exon19 deletions, and 82% (31/38) and 97% (91/94) for L858R. The T790M detection rate in baseline plasma samples using BEAMing was 56% (84/150). The Therascreen ARMS assay demonstrated a significantly reduced T790M detection rate of 13% (20/150). Likewise, the sensitivity of the Therascreen ARMS assay with respect to tissue for EGFR sensitizing mutations was also reduced compared with BEAMing: Exon 19: 54% (48/89), L858R: 47% (18/38), though the specificity remained near 100%. In the 97 evaluable plasma samples collected at discontinuation, T790M was detected by BEAMing in 52% (50/97) of patients. When compared with matched baseline plasma, 11 patients had newly acquired T790M mutation at discontinuation while T790M reverted to undetectable in 14 patients. Full plasma profiling data from the complete IMPRESS clinical study population (including 108 patients from China) and correlative analyses of plasma EGFR mutation status with clinical outcome (progression-free survival, overall survival, objective response rate) will be presented.

      Conclusion:
      In IMPRESS, T790M was detectable with BEAMing digital PCR in the baseline ctDNA samples of 56% of evaluable patients, a rate comparable to similar mutation analyses in this same second-line, EGFR-TKI-failed setting. EGFR mutation detection in plasma using the Therascreen ARMS assay demonstrated comparable specificity to BEAMing but reduced sensitivity. The T790M detection rate afforded by the BEAMing technology will allow for a comprehensive assessment of correlations between clinical outcome in IMPRESS and EGFR mutational status.

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